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1.
Inquiry ; 58: 469580211059953, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598094

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: College students are vulnerable and may experience high stress due to COVID-19, especially girls. This study aims to identify posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related factors among the target population during the initial phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In the initial phase of COVID-19 epidemic (February 23 to March 5, 2020), 2205 female college students from six provinces in mainland China were enrolled in this study and completed the online survey about the cognitive status of COVID-19, including the Impact of Event Scale-6, the Multidimensional Perceived Social Support Scale and a self-developed 10-item Perceived threat scale. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed using SPSS software to explore the determinants of PTSD symptoms. RESULTS: PTSD symptoms were prevalent in female college students, and 34.20% met the cut-off for PTSD. Self-reported fair or poor health (AOR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.22-2.59), high concern about COVID-19 (AOR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.35-2.03), beliefs that "COVID-19 can cause a global outbreak" (AOR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.02-1.56), the perception of "risk of infection" (AOR = 2.46, 95% CI: 2.16-2.81), beliefs that "closed management" and "COVID-19 as a public health emergency of international concern" would have an impact, and the fear of "impact on life planning" were all positively associated with PTSD (AOR = 1.37, 1.22, and 1.29, respectively); however, perceived social support from family (AOR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.70-0.93) was negatively associated with PTSD. Among the significant variables at the bivariate level, multivariate logistic regression revealed that the greatest protector for PTSD was the high knowledge score (AOR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.60-0.90), while had confirmed cases among relatives and friends (AOR = 7.70, 95% CI: 1.28-46.25) was the strongest predictor of PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, PTSD symptoms were prevalent among female college students in China during the COVID-19 epidemic. Targeting vulnerable populations to improve their knowledge about COVID-19 and create an atmosphere of social support would be beneficial. Moreover, the joint efforts from family, school administrators, and policymakers are essential to improve the mental health of the female students during the COVID-19 epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2248, 2021 Dec 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566519

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the outbreak started in 2019, COVID-19 pandemic has a significant global impact. Due to the highly infective nature of SARS-CoV-2, the COVID-19 close contacts are at significant risk of contracting COVID-19. China's experience in successfully controlling COVID-19 emphasized the importance of managing close contacts because this strategy helps to limit potential infection sources, prevent the unconscious spread of COVID-19 and thus control this pandemic. As a result, to understand and consider the management of close contacts may be beneficial to other countries. However, managing close contacts is challenging owing to the huge number of close contacts and a lack of appropriate management tools and literature references. METHODS: A new system called the COVID-19 Close Contact Information Management System was developed. Here we introduced the design, use, improvement and achievements of this system. RESULTS: This system was designed from the standpoint of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in charge of managing close contacts. Two main functions and eight modules/themes were ultimately formed after two development stages. The system introduces what information need to be collected in the close contact management. Since the system allows information flow across cities, the geographical distance and administrative regional boundaries are no longer obstacles for managing close contacts, which promotes the management of each close contact. Moreover, when this system is used in conjunction with other data tools, it provides data assistance for understanding the COVID-19 characteristics and formulating targeted COVID-19 control policies. To date, the system has been widely used in Guangdong Province for over 1 year and has recorded tens of thousands of pieces of data. There is sufficient practical experience to suggest that the system is capable of meeting the professional work requirements for close contact management. CONCLUSIONS: This system provides a new way to manage close contacts and restrict the spread of COVID-19 by combining information technology with disease prevention and control strategies in the realm of public health. We hope that this system will serve as an example and guide for those anticipating similar work in other countries in response to current and future public health incidents.

4.
Remote Sensing ; 13(20):4055, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1480936

ABSTRACT

Formaldehyde (HCHO) is one of the most important carcinogenic air contaminants in outdoor air. However, the lack of monitoring of the global surface concentration of HCHO is currently hindering research on outdoor HCHO pollution. Traditional methods are either restricted to small areas or, for research on a global scale, too data-demanding. To alleviate this issue, we adopted neural networks to estimate the 2019 global surface HCHO concentration with confidence intervals, utilizing HCHO vertical column density data from TROPOMI, and in-situ data from HAPs (harmful air pollutants) monitoring networks and the ATom mission. Our results show that the global surface HCHO average concentration is 2.30 μg/m3. Furthermore, in terms of regions, the concentrations in the Amazon Basin, Northern China, South-east Asia, the Bay of Bengal, and Central and Western Africa are among the highest. The results from our study provide the first dataset on global surface HCHO concentration. In addition, the derived confidence intervals of surface HCHO concentration add an extra layer of confidence to our results. As a pioneering work in adopting confidence interval estimation to AI-driven atmospheric pollutant research and the first global HCHO surface distribution dataset, our paper paves the way for rigorous study of global ambient HCHO health risk and economic loss, thus providing a basis for pollution control policies worldwide.

6.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1751-1759, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1393119

ABSTRACT

The effectiveness of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines against the Delta variant, which has been associated with greater transmissibility and virulence, remains unclear. We conducted a test-negative case-control study to explore the vaccine effectiveness (VE) in real-world settings. We recruited participants aged 18-59 years who consisted of SARS-CoV-2 test-positive cases (n = 74) and test-negative controls (n = 292) during the outbreak of the Delta variant in May 2021 in Guangzhou city, China. Vaccination status was compared to estimate The VE of SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccines. A single dose of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine yielded the VE of only 13.8%. After adjusting for age and sex, the overall VE for two-dose vaccination was 59.0% (95% confidence interval: 16.0% to 81.6%) against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and 70.2% (95% confidence interval: 29.6-89.3%) against moderate COVID-19 and 100% against severe COVID-19 which might be overestimated due to the small sample size. The VE of two-dose vaccination against COVID-19 reached 72.5% among participants aged 40-59 years, and was higher in females than in males against COVID-19 and moderate diseases. While single dose vaccination was not sufficiently protective, the two-dose dosing scheme of the inactivated vaccines was effective against the Delta variant infection in real-world settings, with the estimated efficacy exceeding the World Health Organization minimal threshold of 50%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , COVID-19/classification , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Case-Control Studies , China , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Genetic Variation , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/standards , Young Adult
7.
Virus Evol ; 6(2): veaa078, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1383237

ABSTRACT

To better understand the genetic diversity, host associations and evolution of coronaviruses (CoVs) in China we analyzed a total of 696 rodents encompassing 16 different species sampled from Zhejiang and Yunnan provinces. Based on reverse transcriptase PCR-based CoV screening of fecal samples and subsequent sequence analysis of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene, we identified CoVs in diverse rodent species, comprising Apodemus agrarius, Apodemus chevrieri, Apodemus latronum, Bandicota indica, Eothenomys cachinus, Eothenomys miletus, Rattus andamanensis, Rattus norvegicus, and Rattus tanezumi. CoVs were particularly commonplace in A. chevrieri, with a detection rate of 12.44 per cent (24/193). Genetic and phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of three groups of CoVs carried by a range of rodents that were closely related to the Lucheng Rn rat CoV (LRNV), China Rattus CoV HKU24 (ChRCoV_HKU24), and Longquan Rl rat CoV (LRLV) identified previously. One newly identified A. chevrieri-associated virus closely related to LRNV lacked an NS2 gene. This virus had a similar genetic organization to AcCoV-JC34, recently discovered in the same rodent species in Yunnan, suggesting that it represents a new viral subtype. Notably, additional variants of LRNV were identified that contained putative non-structural (NS)2b genes located downstream of the NS2 gene that were likely derived from the host genome. Recombination events were also identified in the open reading frame (ORF) 1a gene of Lijiang-71. In sum, these data reveal the substantial genetic diversity and genomic complexity of rodent-borne CoVs, and extend our knowledge of these major wildlife virus reservoirs.

8.
Pathogens ; 10(7)2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369782

ABSTRACT

Throughout history, infectious diseases have vastly impacted human civilization [...].

9.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(17): 2048-2053, 2021 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360369

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the ongoing worldwide coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, an increasing number of viral variants are being identified, which poses a challenge for nucleic acid-based diagnostic tests. Rapid tests, such as real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), play an important role in monitoring COVID-19 infection and controlling its spread. However, the changes in the genotypes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants may result in decreased sensitivity of the rRT-PCR assay and it is necessary to monitor the mutations in primers and probes of SARS-CoV-2 detection over time. METHODS: We developed two rRT-PCR assays to detect the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and nucleocapsid (N) genes of SARS-CoV-2. We evaluated these assays together with our previously published assays targeting the ORF1ab and N genes for the detection and confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants of concern (VOCs). In addition, we also developed two rRT-PCR assays (S484K and S501Y) targeting the spike gene, which when combined with the open reading frames (ORF)1ab assay, respectively, to form duplex rRT-PCR assays, were able to detect SARS-CoV-2 VOCs (lineages B.1.351 and B.1.1.7). RESULTS: Using a SARS-CoV-2 stock with predetermined genomic copies as a standard, the detection limit of both assays targeting RdRp and N was five copies/reaction. Furthermore, no cross-reactions with six others human CoVs (229E, OC43, NL63, HKU1, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus) were observed using these assays. In addition, the S484K and S501Y assays were combined with the ORF1ab assay, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Four rRT-PCR assays (RdRp, N, S484K, and S501Y) were used to detect SARS-CoV-2 variants, and these assays were shown to be effective in screening for multiple virus strains.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , Sensitivity and Specificity
10.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(11): 1289-1298, 2021 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343718

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The significant morbidity and mortality resulted from the infection of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) call for urgent development of effective and safe vaccines. We report the immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, KCONVAC, in healthy adults. METHODS: Phase 1 and phase 2 randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trials of KCONVAC were conducted in healthy Chinese adults aged 18 to 59 years. The participants in the phase 1 trial were randomized to receive two doses, one each on Days 0 and 14, of either KCONVAC (5 or 10 µg/dose) or placebo. The participants in the phase 2 trial were randomized to receive either KCONVAC (at 5 or 10 µg/dose) or placebo on Days 0 and 14 (0/14 regimen) or Days 0 and 28 (0/28 regimen). In the phase 1 trial, the primary safety endpoint was the proportion of participants experiencing adverse reactions/events within 28 days following the administration of each dose. In the phase 2 trial, the primary immunogenicity endpoints were neutralization antibody seroconversion and titer and anti-receptor-binding domain immunoglobulin G seroconversion at 28 days after the second dose. RESULTS: In the phase 1 trial, 60 participants were enrolled and received at least one dose of 5-µg vaccine (n = 24), 10-µg vaccine (n = 24), or placebo (n = 12). In the phase 2 trial, 500 participants were enrolled and received at least one dose of 5-µg vaccine (n = 100 for 0/14 or 0/28 regimens), 10-µg vaccine (n = 100 for each regimen), or placebo (n = 50 for each regimen). In the phase 1 trial, 13 (54%), 11 (46%), and seven (7/12) participants reported at least one adverse event (AE) after receiving 5-, 10-µg vaccine, or placebo, respectively. In the phase 2 trial, 16 (16%), 19 (19%), and nine (18%) 0/14-regimen participants reported at least one AE after receiving 5-, 10-µg vaccine, or placebo, respectively. Similar AE incidences were observed in the three 0/28-regimen treatment groups. No AEs with an intensity of grade 3+ were reported, expect for one vaccine-unrelated serious AE (foot fracture) reported in the phase 1 trial. KCONVAC induced significant antibody responses; 0/28 regimen showed a higher immune responses than that did 0/14 regimen after receiving two vaccine doses. CONCLUSIONS: Both doses of KCONVAC are well tolerated and able to induce robust immune responses in healthy adults. These results support testing 5-µg vaccine in the 0/28 regimen in an upcoming phase 3 efficacy trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: http://www.chictr.org.cn/index.aspx (No. ChiCTR2000038804, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=62350; No. ChiCTR2000039462, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=63353).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
11.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 1508-1510, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343639

ABSTRACT

The outbreak and pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 in 2019 has caused a severe public health burden and will challenge global health for the future. The discovery and mechanistic investigation of drugs against Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is in deadly demand. The paper published by Li and colleagues proposed the hypothesis that vitamin C combined with glycyrrhizic acid in treating COVID-19 and its mechanistic investigation was performed by a database-based network pharmacology. In this letter, we present critical comments on the limitations and insufficiencies involved, from both the perspective of network pharmacology and current evidence on COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Databases, Pharmaceutical , Drug Repositioning , Glycyrrhizic Acid/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , COVID-19/virology , Glycyrrhizic Acid/administration & dosage , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
12.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 14(8): 1133-1137, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1342055

ABSTRACT

AIM: To explore the ocular features of corona virus disease (COVID)-19 and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 detection in tears and conjunctival scrapes in non-severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This is a multicenter observational clinical study with no intervention conducted from Jan 25th to March 1st, 2020. Clinical data and samples of tears and conjunctival scraping were collected in consecutive laboratory-confirmed, non-severe COVID-19 patients from three hospitals. COVID-19 virus was analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) kits. RESULTS: Totally 255 laboratory-confirmed, non-severe COVID-19 patients were recruited for ocular manifestation investigation. Of them, 54.9% were females, with a mean age of 49.4y. None of the patients has evidence of uveitis; 11 patients (4.3%) complained of mild asthenopia; 2 (0.8%) had mild conjunctival congestion and serous secretion. Twenty-five of them had performed tears and conjunctival scrape for COVID-19 virus detection, with 4 yield possible positive results in the nucleoprotein gene. One of them were asymptomatic with normal chest CT and positive pharyngeal swab result. CONCLUSION: Ocular manifestations are neither common nor specific in non-severe COVID-19 patients. Meanwhile, COVID-19 virus nucleotides can be detected in the tears and conjunctival scrape samples, warranting further research on the transmissibility by the ocular route.

13.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(16)2021 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341707

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 has already generated a huge societal, economic and political losses worldwide. The present study aims to investigate the antiviral activity of Poly(hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride (PHMB) treated fabric against COVID-19 by using the surrogate Feline coronavirus. The antiviral analysis indicated that up to 94% of coronavirus was killed after contacting the CVC fabric treated with PHMB for 2 h, which suggests that PHMB treated fabric could be used for developing protective clothing and beddings with antiviral activity against coronavirus and can play a role in fighting the transmission of COVID-19 in the high-risk places.

14.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(6)2021 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288845

ABSTRACT

During the pandemic, quarantine hotel workers face a higher risk of infection while they host quarantine guests from overseas. This study's aim is to gain an understanding of the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of quarantine hotel workers in China. A total of 170 participants took part in a cross-sectional survey to assess the KAP of quarantine hotel workers in China, during the COVID-19 pandemic. The chi-square test, independent t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), descriptive analysis, and binary logistic regression were used to examine the sociodemographic factors associated with KAP levels during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results show that 62.41% have good knowledge, 94.7% have a positive attitude towards COVID-19, but only 78.2% have good practices. Most quarantine hotel workers (95.3%) are confident that COVID-19 will be successfully controlled and that China is handling the COVID-19 crisis well (98.8%). Most quarantine hotel workers are also taking personal precautions, such as avoiding crowds (80.6%) and wearing facemasks (97.6%). The results evidence that quarantine hotel workers in China have acquired the necessary knowledge, positive attitudes and proactive practices in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The results of this study can provide a reference for quarantine hotel workers and their targeted education and intervention.

15.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 213, 2021 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249203

ABSTRACT

Although inoculation of COVID-19 vaccines has rolled out globally, there is still a critical need for safe and effective vaccines to ensure fair and equitable supply for all countries. Here, we report on the development of a highly efficacious mRNA vaccine, SW0123 that is composed of sequence-modified mRNA encoding the full-length SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein packaged in core-shell structured lipopolyplex (LPP) nanoparticles. SW0123 is easy to produce using a large-scale microfluidics-based apparatus. The unique core-shell structured nanoparticle facilitates vaccine uptake and demonstrates a high colloidal stability, and a desirable biodistribution pattern with low liver targeting effect upon intramuscular administration. Extensive evaluations in mice and nonhuman primates revealed strong immunogenicity of SW0123, represented by induction of Th1-polarized T cell responses and high levels of antibodies that were capable of neutralizing not only the wild-type SARS-CoV-2, but also a panel of variants including D614G and N501Y variants. In addition, SW0123 conferred effective protection in both mice and non-human primates upon SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Taken together, SW0123 is a promising vaccine candidate that holds prospects for further evaluation in humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th1 Cells/virology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , Viral Vaccines/immunology
17.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 760-765, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196398

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 emerged in China in December 2019 and then rapidly spread worldwide. Why COVID-19 patients with the same clinical condition have different outcomes remains unclear. This study aimed to examine the differences in the phenotype and functions of major populations of immune cells between COVID-19 patients with same severity but different outcomes. Four common type adult inpatients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 from Beijing YouAn Hospital, Capital Medical University were included in this study. The patients were divided into two groups based on whether or not COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-negative conversion occurred within 3 weeks. Peripheral blood samples were collected to compare the differences in the phenotype and functions of major populations of immune cells between the two groups of patients. The result shows that the proportions of CD3+ CD8+ CD38+ HLA-DR+ CD27- effector T killer cells generally declined, whereas that of CD3+ CD4+ CD8+ double-positive T cells (DPTs) increased in the persistently PCR-positive patients. In summary, considering the imbalance between effector T killer cells/CD3+CD4+CD8+ DPTs was a possible key factor for PCR-negative conversion in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biological Variation, Individual , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Natural Killer T-Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Antigens, CD/genetics , Antigens, CD/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Gene Expression , HLA-DR Antigens/genetics , HLA-DR Antigens/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunophenotyping , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Natural Killer T-Cells/virology , Phenotype , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index
18.
Chin Med Sci J ; 36(1): 17-26, 2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187236

ABSTRACT

Objective This study aimed to determine the association of hyperlipidemia with clinical endpoints among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, especially those with pre-existing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes. Methods This multicenter retrospective cohort study included all patients who were hospitalized due to COVID-19 from 21 hospitals in Hubei province, China between December 31, 2019 and April 21, 2020. Patients who were aged < 18 or ≥ 85 years old, in pregnancy, with acute lethal organ injury (e.g., acute myocardial infarction, severe acute pancreatitis, acute stroke), hypothyroidism, malignant diseases, severe malnutrition, and those with normal lipid profile under lipid-lowering medicines (e.g., statin, niacin, fenofibrate, gemfibrozil, and ezetimibe) were excluded. Propensity score matching (PSM) analysis at 1:1 ratio was performed to minimize baseline differences between patient groups of hyperlipidemia and non-hyperlipidemia. PSM analyses with the same strategies were further conducted for the parameters of hyperlipidemia in patients with increased triglyceride (TG), increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Mixed-effect Cox model analysis was performed to investigate the associations of the 28-days all-cause deaths of COVID-19 patients with hyperlipidemia and the abnormalities of lipid parameters. The results were verified in male, female patients, and in patients with pre-existing CVDs and type 2 diabetes. Results Of 10 945 inpatients confirmed as COVID-19, there were 9822 inpatients included in the study, comprising 3513 (35.8%) cases without hyperlipidemia and 6309 (64.2%) cases with hyperlipidemia. Based on a mixed-effect Cox model after PSM at 1:1 ratio, hyperlipidemia was not associated with increased or decreased 28-day all-cause death [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.17 (95% CI, 0.95-1.44), P =0.151]. We found that the parameters of hyperlipidemia were not associated with the risk of 28-day all-cause mortality [adjusted HR, 1.23 (95% CI, 0.98-1.55), P = 0.075 in TG increase group; 0.78 (95% CI, 0.57-1.07), P = 0.123 in LDL-C increase group; and 1.12 (95% CI, 0.9-1.39), P = 0.299 in HDL-C decrease group, respectively]. Hyperlipidemia was also not significantly associated with the increased mortality of COVID-19 in patients accompanied with CVDs or type 2 diabetes, and in both male and female cohorts. Conclusion Our study support that the imbalanced lipid profile is not significantly associated with the 28-day all-cause mortality of COVID-19 patients, even in those accompanied with CVDs or diabetes. Similar results were also obtained in subgroup analyses of abnormal lipid parameters. Therefore, hyperlipidemia might be not a major causative factor for poor outcome of COVID-19, which provides guidance for the intervention of inpatients during the epidemic of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hyperlipidemias/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Case-Control Studies , Cause of Death , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
19.
Clin Chim Acta ; 519: 26-31, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1176557

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The reduced fucosylation in the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 and the IgG antibody has been observed in COVID-19. However, the clinical relevance of α-l-fucosidase, the enzyme for defucosylation has not been discovered. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 585 COVID-19 patients were included to analyze the correlations of α-l-fucosidase activity with the nucleic acid test, IgM/IgG, comorbidities, and disease progression. RESULTS: Among the COVID-19 patients, 5.75% were double-negative for nucleic acid and antibodies. All of them had increased α-l-fucosidase, while only one had abnormal serum amyloid A (SAA) and C-reactive protein (CRP). The abnormal rate of α-l-fucosidase was 81.82% before the presence of IgM, 100% in the presence of IgM, and 66.2% in the presence of IgG. 73.42% of patients with glucometabolic disorders had increased α-l-fucosidase activity and had the highest mortality of 6.33%. The increased α-l-fucosidase was observed in 55.8% of non-severe cases and 72.9% of severe cases, with an odds ratio of 2.118. The α-l-fucosidase mRNA was irrelevant to its serum activity. CONCLUSION: The change in α-l-fucosidase activity in COVID-19 preceded the IgM and SAA and showed a preferable relation with glucometabolic disorders, which may be conducive to virus invasion or invoke an immune response against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , alpha-L-Fucosidase
20.
Virol Sin ; 36(5): 879-889, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174014

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused more than 96 million infections and over 2 million deaths worldwide so far. However, there is no approved vaccine available for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the disease causative agent. Vaccine is the most effective approach to eradicate a pathogen. The tests of safety and efficacy in animals are pivotal for developing a vaccine and before the vaccine is applied to human populations. Here we evaluated the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of an inactivated vaccine based on the whole viral particles in human ACE2 transgenic mouse and in non-human primates. Our data showed that the inactivated vaccine successfully induced SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies in mice and non-human primates, and subsequently provided partial (in low dose) or full (in high dose) protection of challenge in the tested animals. In addition, passive serum transferred from vaccine-immunized mice could also provide full protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice. These results warranted positive outcomes in future clinical trials in humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Primates , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology
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