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1.
Knowledge-Based Systems ; : 108944, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1821402

ABSTRACT

Anomaly subgraph detection is an important problem that has been well researched in various applications, ranging from cyberattacks in computer networks to malicious activities in social networks. Most existing approaches detect anomaly subgraphs in attributed networks with sufficient features. However, multitudinous industry data with insufficient anomalous attributes are the main challenge for traditional anomaly subgraph detection algorithms. In particular, none of the literature focuses on connected anomaly subgraph detection with insufficient anomalous features. To address this problem, we propose Anomaly Alignment in Attributed Networks (AAAN), which first detects connected anomaly subgraphs by aligning anomalies in two attributed networks (one with insufficient anomalous features and the other with sufficient anomalous features). Extensive experiments on three real-world datasets (the Weibo, Baidu migration network, and COVID-19 pandemic datasets) show the effectiveness and efficiency of our algorithm. We can identify the crime hotspots in terms of city blocks from urban traffic networks, which are aligned with the criminal events reported on social networks. The results also demonstrate how AAAN outperforms competitive approaches in the COVID-19 outbreak anomaly subgraph detection and urban crime hotspot detection tasks.

2.
EBioMedicine ; 78: 103957, 2022 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757274

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) effector functions are impacted by the structure of fragment crystallizable (Fc) tail-linked N-glycans. Low fucosylation levels on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) protein-specific IgG1 has been described as a hallmark of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and may lead to activation of macrophages via immune complexes thereby promoting inflammatory responses, altogether suggesting involvement of IgG1 Fc glycosylation modulated immune mechanisms in COVID-19. METHODS: In this prospective, observational single center cohort study, IgG1 Fc glycosylation was analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry following affinity capturing from serial plasma samples of 159 SARS-CoV-2 infected hospitalized patients. FINDINGS: At baseline close to disease onset, anti-S IgG1 glycosylation was highly skewed when compared to total plasma IgG1. A rapid, general reduction in glycosylation skewing was observed during the disease course. Low anti-S IgG1 galactosylation and sialylation as well as high bisection were early hallmarks of disease severity, whilst high galactosylation and sialylation and low bisection were found in patients with low disease severity. In line with these observations, anti-S IgG1 glycosylation correlated with various inflammatory markers. INTERPRETATION: Association of low galactosylation, sialylation as well as high bisection with disease severity and inflammatory markers suggests that further studies are needed to understand how anti-S IgG1 glycosylation may contribute to disease mechanism and to evaluate its biomarker potential. FUNDING: This project received funding from the European Commission's Horizon2020 research and innovation program for H2020-MSCA-ITN IMforFUTURE, under grant agreement number 721815, and supported by Crowdfunding Wake Up To Corona, organized by the Leiden University Fund.

3.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 44(1): 30-39, 2022 Feb.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753709

ABSTRACT

Objective To measure the prevalence of mental health symptoms and identify the associated factors among college students at the beginning of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19)outbreak in China. Methods We carried out a multi-center cross-sectional study via snowball sampling and convenience sampling of the college students in different areas of China.The rates of self-reported depression,anxiety,and stress and post-traumatic stress disorder(PTSD)were assessed via the 21-item Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scale(DASS-21)and the 6-item Impact of Event Scale-Revised(IES-6),respectively.Covariates included sociodemographic characteristics,health-related data,and information of the social environment.Data pertaining to mental health service seeking were also collected.Multivariate Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the risk factors. Results A total of 3641 valid questionnaires were collected from college students.At the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak,535(14.69%)students had negative emotions,among which 402(11.04%),381(10.49%),and 171(4.90%)students had the symptoms of depression,anxiety,and stress,respectively.Meanwhile,1245(34.19%)college students had PTSD.Among the risk factors identified,male gender was associated with a lower likelihood of reporting depression symptoms(AOR=0.755,P=0.037],and medical students were at higher risk of depression and stress symptoms than liberal arts students(AOR=1.497,P=0.003;AOR=1.494,P=0.045).Family support was associated with lower risks of negative emotions and PTSD in college students(AOR=0.918,P<0.001;AOR=0.913,P<0.001;AOR=0.899,P<0.001;AOR=0.971,P=0.021). Conclusions College students were more sensitive to public health emergencies,and the incidence of negative emotions and PTSD was significantly higher than that before the outbreak of COVID-19.More attention should be paid to female college students who were more likely to develop negative emotions.We should strengthen positive and proper propaganda via mass media and help college students understand the situation and impact of COVID-19.Furthermore,we should enhance family support for college students.The government and relevant agencies need to provide appropriate mental health services to the students under similar circumstances to avoid the deterioration of their mental well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Status , Humans , Male , Students/psychology , Universities
4.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327674

ABSTRACT

The onset of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by the presence of afucosylated IgG1 responses against the viral spike (S) protein, which can trigger exacerbated inflammatory responses. Here, we studied IgG glycosylation after BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination to explore whether vaccine-induced S protein expression on host cells also generates afucosylated IgG1 responses. SARS-CoV-2 naive individuals initially showed a transient afucosylated anti-S IgG1 response after the first dose, albeit to a lower extent than severely ill COVID-19 patients. In contrast, previously infected, antigen-experienced individuals had low afucosylation levels, which slightly increased after immunization. Afucosylation levels after the first dose correlated with low fucosyltransferase 8 (FUT8) expression levels in a defined plasma cell subset. Remarkably, IgG afucosylation levels after primary vaccination correlated significantly with IgG levels after the second dose. Further studies are needed to assess efficacy, inflammatory potential, and protective capacity of afucosylated IgG responses. One sentence summary A transient afucosylated IgG response to the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine was observed in naive but not in antigen-experienced individuals, which predicted antibody titers upon the second dose.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324298

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019(COVID-19) caused psychological stress in Chinese adults population. But we are unaware of whether the pandemic causes psychological stress on children. Methods: : We used the Children’s Impact of Event Scale questionnaire (CRIES-13) to investigate the degree of Post-traumatic Stress (PTSD) symptoms caused by the pandemic in students selected from schools in Sichuan, Jiangsu, Henan, Yunnan, and Chongqing provinces of China. Results: : A total of 7769 students(3692 male and 4077 female), aged 8-18 years, were enrolled in the study, comprising 1214 in primary schools, 2799 in junior high schools and 3756 in senior high schools. A total of 1639 students (21.1%) had severe psychological stress reactions. A large proportion of senior high school students (23.3%) experienced severe psychological stress, and they had the highest median total CRIES-13 score. Female students were more likely to experience severe psychological stress and had higher median CRIES-13 total scores than males. Conclusion: COVID-19 has placed psychological stresses on primary and secondary school students in China. These stresses are more likely to reach severe levels among female students and senior high school students.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323705

ABSTRACT

Background: To investigate the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) administration to hypertension patients with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) induced pneumonia. Methods: : We recorded the recovery status of 67 inpatients with hypertension and COVID-19 induced pneumonia in the Raytheon Mountain Hospital in Wuhan during February 12, 2020 and March 30, 2020. Patients treated with ACEI or ARBs were categorized in group A (n = 22), while patients who were not administered either ACEI or ARBs were categorized into group B (n = 45). We did a comparative analysis of various parameters such as the pneumonia progression, length-of-stay in the hospital, and the level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum creatinine (Cr), and creatine kinase (CK) between the day when these patients were admitted to the hospital and the day when the treatment ended. Results: : These 67 hypertension cases counted for 33.17% of the total COVID-19 patients. There was no significant difference in the usage of drug treatment of COVID-19 between groups A and B (p > 0.05). During the treatment, 1 case in group A and 3 cases in group B progressed from mild pneumonia into severe pneumonia. Eventually, all patients were cured and discharged after treatment, and no recurrence of COVID-2019 induced pneumonia occurred after the discharge. The length of stays was shorter in group A as compared with group B, but there was no significant difference (p > 0.05). There was also no significant difference in other general parameters between the patients of the groups A and B on the day of admission to the hospital (p > 0.05). The ALT, CK, and Cr levels did not significantly differ between groups A and B on the day of admission and the day of discharge (p > 0.05). Conclusions: : To treat the hypertension patients with COVID-19 caused pneumonia, anti-hypertensive drugs (ACEs and ARBs) may be used according to the relative guidelines. The treatment regimen with these drugs does not need to be altered for the COVID-19 patients.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321484

ABSTRACT

Background: College students are a uniquely vulnerable group and may experience high stress levels due to COVID-19. This study aims to identify the the psychological state and related factors on Chinese college students during the initial phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: From February 23 to March 5, 2020, a cross-sectional online survey was conducted among 3606 college students from seven provinces in China using standard questionnaires measuring adverse psychological outcomes and related factors including Impact of Event Scale-6 (IES-6), Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS) and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were used to determine underlying constructs of the perceived threat items. Multivariate regression was used to explore the determinants of adverse psychological impact. Results: Posttraumatic stress (PTS) were prevalent in this sample of college students, and 34.22% met the cut-off for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The proportion of having mild to extremely severe symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress were 15.70%, 13.31% and 7.10%, respectively. The impact of closed-off management on life, perceived threat and passive coping strategies were positively correlated to PTS and DASS scores, while knowledge score, perceived social support and active coping strategies were negatively correlated to DASS scores. Conclusions: In summary, adverse psychological symptoms were prevalent among college students in China during the COVID-19 epidemic. Identifying vulnerable populations and formulating correspondingly psychological interventions would be beneficial to improve the mental health during the COVID-19 epidemic.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321483

ABSTRACT

Background: College students are a uniquely vulnerable group and may experience high stress levels due to COVID-19, especially for girls. This study aims to identify the post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and related factors among the target population during the initial phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted during the initial phases of the COVID-19 pandemic in China. A total of 2205 college female students from six provinces enrolled in this study and completed the questions about cognitive status of COVID-19, the Impact of Event Scale-6 (IES-6), the Multidimensional Perceived Social Support Scale (MPSSS) and a self-developed 10-item Perceived threat scale. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed by SPSS software to explore the determinants of PTSD symptoms. Results: PTSD symptoms were prevalent in this sample of college female students, and 34.20% met the cut-off for PTSD. Self-reported fair or poor health (AOR=1.78, 95%CI: 1.22-2.59), high concern about COVID-19 (AOR=1.66, 95%CI: 1.35-2.03), beliefs that 'COVID-19 can cause a global outbreak' (AOR=1.26, 95%CI: 1.02-1.56), the perception of ‘risk of infection’ (AOR=2.46, 95%CI: 2.16-2.81), beliefs that ‘closed management’ and ‘COVID-19 as a public health emergency of international concern’ would have an impact, and the fear of ‘impact on life planning’ were all positively associated with PTSD (AOR=1.37, 1.22 and 1.29, respectively), whereas perceived social support from family (AOR=0.81, 95%CI: 0.70-0.93) was negatively associated with PTSD. Among the significant variables at the bivariate level, multivariate logistic regression revealed that the greatest protector for PTSD was the high knowledge score (AOR=0.73, 95%CI: 0.60-0.90), while had confirmed cases among relatives and friends (AOR=7.70, 95%CI: 1.28-46.25) was the strongest predictor of PTSD. Conclusions: In summary, PTSD symptoms were prevalent among college female students in China during the COVID-19 epidemic. Targeting vulnerable populations to improve their knowledge of COVID-19 and create an atmosphere of social support would be beneficial to improve the mental health of the female students during the COVID-19 epidemic.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313395

ABSTRACT

Background: The progression of coagulation in COVID-19 patients with confirmed discharge status and the combination of autopsy with complete hemostasis parameters have not been well studied. Objective: To clarify the thrombotic phenomena and hemostasis state in COVID-19 patients based on epidemiological statistics combining autopsy and statistical analysis. Methods: : Using autopsy results from 9 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and the medical records of 407 patients, including 39 deceased patients whose discharge status was certain, time-sequential changes in 11 relevant indices within mild, severe and critical infection throughout hospitalization according to the Chinese National Health Commission (NHC) guidelines were evaluated. Statistical tools were applied to calculate the importance of 11 indices and the correlation between those indices and the severity of COVID-19. Results: : At the beginning of hospitalization, platelet (PLT) counts were significantly reduced in critically ill patients compared with severely or mildly ill patients. Blood glucose (GLU), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and D-dimer levels in critical patients were increased compared with mild and severe patients during the entire admission period. The International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) score was also high in critical patients. In the relatively late stage of nonsurvivors, the temporal changes in PLT count, PT, and D-dimer levels were significantly different from those in survivors. A random forest model indicated that the most important feature was PT followed by D-dimer, indicating their positive associations with disease severity. Autopsy of deceased patients fulfilling diagnostic criteria for DIC revealed microthromboses in multiple organs. Conclusions: Combining autopsy data, time-sequential changes and statistical methods to explore hemostasis-relevant indices among the different severities of the disease helps guide therapy and detect prognosis in COVID-19 infection.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312746

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 vaccine has been available in China since the beginning of the 2021, however, certain numbers of people are reluctant for some reasons to vaccinate. The high vaccine coverage is crucial for controlling disease transmission. Meanwhile, the vaccine hesitancy might be a barrier to the establishment of sufficient herd immunization. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of vaccine hesitancy towards the COVID-19 vaccine among different population groups, and explores the characteristics of different groups about vaccine hesitancy and common barriers and facilitators to vaccination decisions. Methods: : The current survey was performed among students, public health professionals, medical workers and general population from January to March 2021 among Chinese from seven cities located in seven geographical territories of China. The questionnaire contained sociodemographic information, concerns about COVID-19 epidemic, general vaccination behavior and attitudes, the General Vaccine Hesitancy Scale, the COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy Scale and other potential factors of vaccine hesitancy. Univariate analysis was conducted by chi-squared test, and variables were significant at P < 0.10 were then included in a multivariable regression model. Results: : The prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was 64.1% in our study, and a higher prevalence (73.7%) was in public health professionals compared to students (58.3%), medical workers (64.9%) and general population (61.1%). The results of multivariate analysis indicated that public health professionals were more likely to be hesitant against COVID-19 vaccine than general population (OR: 1.469, 95% CI: 1.069-2.019. And participants who needed transparent information about COVID-19 vaccine development, efficacy and safety (OR: 1.609, 95% CI: 1.343-1.928) and who have received negative information of COVID-19 vaccine (OR: 1.300, 95% CI: 1.130-1.496) were more likely to have vaccine hesitancy. Conclusions: : Appropriate training in knowledge and communication skills about vaccines are necessary for public health professionals to help themselves and the public to increase their willingness of vaccination. Reducing the spread of misinformation and disseminating facts in a timely and accurate way will likely reduce vaccine hesitancy. Also, to establish suitable communication strategies between the government and the public and a warning system on infodemic would be helpful to improve public’s confidence in vaccination.

11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 153, 2022 Feb 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686007

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccine has been available in China since the beginning of the 2021, however, certain numbers of people are reluctant for some reasons to vaccinate. The high vaccine coverage is crucial for controlling disease transmission, however, the vaccine hesitancy might be a barrier to the establishment of sufficient herd immunization. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of the COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among different population groups, and explore common barriers and facilitators to vaccination decisions. METHODS: The current survey was performed among Chinese students, public health professionals, medical workers and general population from January to March 2021 from seven cities in China. The questionnaire contained sociodemographic information, concerns about infection with COVID-19, general vaccination behaviors and attitudes, the General Vaccine Hesitancy Scale, the COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy Scale and other potential factors. Univariate analysis was conducted by chi-squared test, and variables significant at P < 0.10 were then included in a multivariable regression model. RESULTS: The prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was 15.6% in our study, and 23.9% of students, 21.2% of the general population, 13.1% of medical workers, and 10.4% of public health professionals had vaccine hesitancy. The results of multivariate analysis indicated that participants who had received negative information of COVID-19 vaccine (OR: 1.563, 95% CI: 1.229-1.986) and who had doubts about the information source (OR: 2.157, 95% CI: 1.697-2.742) were more likely to have vaccine hesitancy. While those who needed transparent information about COVID-19 vaccine (OR: 0.722, 95% CI: 0.535-0.973) and who would get COVID-19 vaccine if doctors recommended (OR: 0.176, 95% CI: 0.132-0.234) were less likely to have COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. CONCLUSIONS: Given recommendations from medical workers about vaccination can motivate people to accept COVID-19 vaccination, appropriate training in knowledge about vaccines and communication skills are necessary for them to increase public's willingness of vaccination. Reducing the spread of misinformation and disseminating facts in a timely and accurate way will likely reduce vaccine hesitancy. Moreover, to establish suitable communication strategies and information exchange platforms between the government and the public and a warning system on infodemic would be helpful to improve public's confidence in vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Population Groups , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
12.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 530, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An increasing number of undergraduate students in China have been reported to have psychological problems. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, a series of preventive and control measures were implemented, which undoubtedly worsened their psychological health. Coping style and social support were probably important factors that affected the psychological well-being of undergraduate students during the pandemic. This study aimed to explore the effects of coping style and perceived social support on the psychological well-being of college students and relevant risk factors. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed in February and March of 2020 by distributing an online questionnaire among undergraduate students from seven geographical regions across China. The questionnaire included sociodemographic information; the 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21); the Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS); and the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ). For the analyses, t-tests, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), the Kruskal-Wallis test and multiple linear regression were utilized. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: Among 3113 college students, the rates of anxiety, depression and stress symptoms were 13.3, 15.4 and 6.8%, respectively. Increased rates of current smoking and drinking (5.5 and 25.2%, respectively) among undergraduates were identified. The results indicated that the PSSS subscales and SCSQ subscales were significantly associated with DASS-21 scores (P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that active coping style and family support were protective factors while passive coping style could aggravate psychological problems among participants (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A remarkable number of college students adopted passive coping strategies to cope with negative feelings, such as smoking and drinking, which were detrimental to their mental health. In contrast, active coping strategies helped improve their psychological well-being. Moreover, family support was particularly important for maintaining their mental health and ameliorating mental health challenges in this major health crisis. Consequently, suitable psychointervention, routine screening for risk behaviors, and provision of further social support are needed for undergraduate students in the COVID-19 pandemic or other emergency public health events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Inquiry ; 58: 469580211059953, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598094

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: College students are vulnerable and may experience high stress due to COVID-19, especially girls. This study aims to identify posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related factors among the target population during the initial phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In the initial phase of COVID-19 epidemic (February 23 to March 5, 2020), 2205 female college students from six provinces in mainland China were enrolled in this study and completed the online survey about the cognitive status of COVID-19, including the Impact of Event Scale-6, the Multidimensional Perceived Social Support Scale and a self-developed 10-item Perceived threat scale. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed using SPSS software to explore the determinants of PTSD symptoms. RESULTS: PTSD symptoms were prevalent in female college students, and 34.20% met the cut-off for PTSD. Self-reported fair or poor health (AOR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.22-2.59), high concern about COVID-19 (AOR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.35-2.03), beliefs that "COVID-19 can cause a global outbreak" (AOR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.02-1.56), the perception of "risk of infection" (AOR = 2.46, 95% CI: 2.16-2.81), beliefs that "closed management" and "COVID-19 as a public health emergency of international concern" would have an impact, and the fear of "impact on life planning" were all positively associated with PTSD (AOR = 1.37, 1.22, and 1.29, respectively); however, perceived social support from family (AOR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.70-0.93) was negatively associated with PTSD. Among the significant variables at the bivariate level, multivariate logistic regression revealed that the greatest protector for PTSD was the high knowledge score (AOR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.60-0.90), while had confirmed cases among relatives and friends (AOR = 7.70, 95% CI: 1.28-46.25) was the strongest predictor of PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, PTSD symptoms were prevalent among female college students in China during the COVID-19 epidemic. Targeting vulnerable populations to improve their knowledge about COVID-19 and create an atmosphere of social support would be beneficial. Moreover, the joint efforts from family, school administrators, and policymakers are essential to improve the mental health of the female students during the COVID-19 epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 5027-5038, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581543

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To compare food safety knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported practices among medical staff in China before, during, and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients and Methods: The questionnaire was anonymous. All respondents were Chinese medical personnel. A Chi-square contingency table was used to compare the knowledge and attitudes of Chinese medical staff before, during and after COVID-19. R statistical software (v4.0.0) was used for analysis. Results: A total of 1431 valid responses (57.3% from female respondents) were included in our analysis. Medical professionals were geographically distributed as follows: eastern China, 55.5%; central China, 19.7%; western China, 24.1%; Hong Kong, Macau, or Taiwan, 0.05%. Medical professionals reported that they paid greater attention to food safety after the COVID-19 pandemic compared with before the epidemic. Self-reported knowledge of and attitudes toward food safety among medical staff were significantly different before, during, and after the COVID-19 pandemic (both P<0.001). Conclusion: After the COVID-19 pandemic, medical professionals paid increasing attention to food safety, which is a clinically important change. Because medical professionals can influence public understanding of food safety, their increased attention to this subject may enable them to promote food safety knowledge more actively in their work. This may in turn promote a better understanding of food safety and protect the health of the general public.

15.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 791476, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581361

ABSTRACT

Background: We aimed to understand how glycaemic levels among COVID-19 patients impact their disease progression and clinical complications. Methods: We enrolled 2,366 COVID-19 patients from Huoshenshan hospital in Wuhan. We stratified the COVID-19 patients into four subgroups by current fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels and their awareness of prior diabetic status, including patients with FBG<6.1mmol/L with no history of diabetes (group 1), patients with FBG<6.1mmol/L with a history of diabetes diagnosed (group 2), patients with FBG≥6.1mmol/L with no history of diabetes (group 3) and patients with FBG≥6.1mmol/L with a history of diabetes diagnosed (group 4). A multivariate cause-specific Cox proportional hazard model was used to assess the associations between FBG levels or prior diabetic status and clinical adversities in COVID-19 patients. Results: COVID-19 patients with higher FBG and unknown diabetes in the past (group 3) are more likely to progress to the severe or critical stage than patients in other groups (severe: 38.46% vs 23.46%-30.70%; critical 7.69% vs 0.61%-3.96%). These patients also have the highest abnormal level of inflammatory parameters, complications, and clinical adversities among all four groups (all p<0.05). On day 21 of hospitalisation, group 3 had a significantly higher risk of ICU admission [14.1% (9.6%-18.6%)] than group 4 [7.0% (3.7%-10.3%)], group 2 [4.0% (0.2%-7.8%)] and group 1 [2.1% (1.4%-2.8%)], (P<0.001). Compared with group 1 who had low FBG, group 3 demonstrated 5 times higher risk of ICU admission events during hospitalisation (HR=5.38, 3.46-8.35, P<0.001), while group 4, where the patients had high FBG and prior diabetes diagnosed, also showed a significantly higher risk (HR=1.99, 1.12-3.52, P=0.019), but to a much lesser extent than in group 3. Conclusion: Our study shows that COVID-19 patients with current high FBG levels but unaware of pre-existing diabetes, or possibly new onset diabetes as a result of COVID-19 infection, have a higher risk of more severe adverse outcomes than those aware of prior diagnosis of diabetes and those with low current FBG levels.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Fasting/blood , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
16.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293079

ABSTRACT

Background: Immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) effector functions are impacted by the structure of fragment crystallizable (Fc) tail-linked N-glycans. Low fucosylation levels on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein specific (anti-S) IgG1 has been described as a hallmark of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and may lead to activation of macrophages via immune complexes thereby promoting inflammatory responses, altogether suggesting involvement of IgG1 Fc glycosylation modulated immune mechanisms in COVID-19. Methods In this prospective, observational single center cohort study, IgG1 Fc glycosylation was analyzed by liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry following affinity capturing from serial plasma samples of 159 SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Findings At baseline close to disease onset, anti-S IgG1 glycosylation was highly skewed when compared to total plasma IgG1. A rapid, general reduction in glycosylation skewing was observed during the disease course. Low anti-S IgG1 galactosylation and sialylation as well as high bisection were early hallmarks of disease severity, whilst high galactosylation and sialylation and low bisection were found in patients with low disease severity. In line with these observations, anti-S IgG1 glycosylation correlated with various inflammatory markers. Interpretation Association of low galactosylation, sialylation as well as high bisection with disease severity suggests that Fc-glycan modulated interactions contribute to disease mechanism. Further studies are needed to understand how anti-S IgG1 glycosylation may contributes to disease mechanism and to evaluate its biomarker potential. Funding This project received funding from the European Commission's Horizon2020 research and innovation program for H2020-MSCA-ITN IMforFUTURE, under grant agreement number 721815.

17.
Bioinformatics ; 2021 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522121

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: DeepKG is an end-to-end deep learning-based workflow that helps researchers automatically mine valuable knowledge in biomedical literature. Users can utilize it to establish customized knowledge graphs in specified domains, thus facilitating in-depth understanding on disease mechanisms and applications on drug repurposing and clinical research, etc. To improve the performance of DeepKG, a cascaded hybrid information extraction framework (CHIEF) is developed for training model of 3-tuple extraction, and a novel AutoML-based knowledge representation algorithm (AutoTransX) is proposed for knowledge representation and inference. The system has been deployed in dozens of hospitals and extensive experiments strongly evidence the effectiveness. In the context of 144,900 COVID-19 scholarly full-text literature, DeepKG generates a high-quality knowledge graph with 7,980 entities and 43,760 3-tuples, a candidate drug list, and relevant animal experimental studies are being carried out. To accelerate more studies, we make DeepKG publicly available and provide an online tool including the data of 3-tuples, potential drug list, question answering system, visualization platform. AVAILABILITY: Free to all users: http://covidkg.ai/. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

18.
Sci China Life Sci ; 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460457

ABSTRACT

Triage management plays important roles in hospitalized patients for disease severity stratification and medical burden analysis. Although progression risks have been extensively researched for numbers of diseases, other crucial indicators that reflect patients' economic and time costs have not been systematically studied. To address the problems, we developed an automatic deep learning based Auto Triage Management (ATM) Framework capable of accurately modelling patients' disease progression risk and health economic evaluation. Based on them, we can first discover the relationship between disease progression and medical system cost, find potential features that can more precisely aid patient triage in resource allocation, and allow treatment plan searching that has cured patients. Applying ATM in COVID-19, we built a joint model to predict patients' risk, the total length of stay (LoS) and cost when at-admission, and remaining LoS and cost at a given hospitalized time point, with C-index 0.930 and 0.869 for risk prediction, mean absolute error (MAE) of 5.61 and 5.90 days for total LoS prediction in internal and external validation data.

19.
J BioX Res ; 4(2): 53-59, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307580

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Emetine, an isoquinoline alkaloid that is enriched at high concentrations in the lung, has shown potent in vitro activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The aim of this study was to better understand the effectiveness of low-dose emetine for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: In this real-world study, 63 patients with mild or common COVID-19 were recruited from Wuhan Fangcang Shelter Hospital and five COVID-19-designated hospitals in Anhui Province, China from February to March 2020. Thirty-nine patients from Wuhan Fangcang Shelter Hospital were assigned to a pragmatic randomized controlled clinical trial, and 24 patients from the 5 COVID-19-designated hospitals in Anhui Province underwent a real-world study. The medication course of emetine was less than 10 days. The main symptoms and adverse reactions of all patients were observed and recorded. The primary outcome measure was the time required for a negative SARS-CoV-2 RNA result or the negative result rate on day 10. Secondary outcomes included axillary temperature, transcutaneous oxygen saturation, and respiratory frequency recovery. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University on February 20, 2019 (approval No. PJ2020-03-19) and was registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry on February 20, 2019 (registration number: ChiCTR2000030022). RESULTS: The oxygen saturation values were higher in the treatment group than in the control group on the first day after enrollment for patients treated at Fangcang Shelter Hospital. The axillary body temperature, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation among patients in Fangcang Shelter Hospital were related to the time effect but not to the intervention measures. The respiratory rate and oxygen saturation of patients in the Anhui designated hospitals were related to the intervention measures but not to the time effect. The axillary body temperature of patients in Anhui designated hospitals was related to the time effect but not to the intervention measures. CONCLUSION: Our preliminary study shows that low-dose emetine combined with basic conventional antiviral drugs improves clinical symptoms in patients with mild and common COVID-19 without apparent adverse effects, suggesting that moderately increased doses of emetine may have good potential for treatment and prevention of COVID-19.

20.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 330, 2021 07 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295451

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019(COVID-19) caused psychological stress in Chinese adults population. But we are unaware of whether the pandemic causes psychological stress on children. METHODS: We used the Children's Impact of Event Scale questionnaire (CRIES-13) to investigate the degree of Post-traumatic Stress (PTSD) symptoms caused by the pandemic in students selected from schools in Sichuan, Jiangsu, Henan, Yunnan, and Chongqing provinces of China. RESULTS: A total of 7769 students(3692 male and 4077 female), aged 8-18 years, were enrolled in the study, comprising 1214 in primary schools, 2799 in junior high schools and 3756 in senior high schools. A total of 1639 students (21.1%) had severe psychological stress reactions. A large proportion of senior high school students (23.3%) experienced severe psychological stress, and they had the highest median total CRIES-13 score. Female students were more likely to experience severe psychological stress and had higher median CRIES-13 total scores than males. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 has placed psychological stresses on primary and secondary school students in China. These stresses are more likely to reach severe levels among female students and senior high school students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , Child , China/epidemiology , Depression , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
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