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1.
Autophagy ; : 1-19, 2022 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878703

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is closely related to various cellular aspects associated with autophagy. However, how SARS-CoV-2 mediates the subversion of the macroautophagy/autophagy pathway remains largely unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that overexpression of the SARS-CoV-2 ORF7a protein activates LC3-II and leads to the accumulation of autophagosomes in multiple cell lines, while knockdown of the viral ORF7a gene via shRNAs targeting ORF7a sgRNA during SARS-CoV-2 infection decreased autophagy levels. Mechanistically, the ORF7a protein initiates autophagy via the AKT-MTOR-ULK1-mediated pathway, but ORF7a limits the progression of autophagic flux by activating CASP3 (caspase 3) to cleave the SNAP29 protein at aspartic acid residue 30 (D30), ultimately impairing complete autophagy. Importantly, SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced accumulated autophagosomes promote progeny virus production, whereby ORF7a downregulates SNAP29, ultimately resulting in failure of autophagosome fusion with lysosomes to promote viral replication. Taken together, our study reveals a mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 utilizes the autophagic machinery to facilitate its own propagation via ORF7a.

2.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 19(1): 67-78, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541184

ABSTRACT

The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused severe morbidity and mortality in humans. It is urgent to understand the function of viral genes. However, the function of open reading frame 10 (ORF10), which is uniquely expressed by SARS-CoV-2, remains unclear. In this study, we showed that overexpression of ORF10 markedly suppressed the expression of type I interferon (IFN-I) genes and IFN-stimulated genes. Then, mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) was identified as the target via which ORF10 suppresses the IFN-I signaling pathway, and MAVS was found to be degraded through the ORF10-induced autophagy pathway. Furthermore, overexpression of ORF10 promoted the accumulation of LC3 in mitochondria and induced mitophagy. Mechanistically, ORF10 was translocated to mitochondria by interacting with the mitophagy receptor Nip3-like protein X (NIX) and induced mitophagy through its interaction with both NIX and LC3B. Moreover, knockdown of NIX expression blocked mitophagy activation, MAVS degradation, and IFN-I signaling pathway inhibition by ORF10. Consistent with our observations, in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection, ORF10 inhibited MAVS expression and facilitated viral replication. In brief, our results reveal a novel mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 inhibits the innate immune response; that is, ORF10 induces mitophagy-mediated MAVS degradation by binding to NIX.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Open Reading Frames , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Signal Transduction , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Autophagy/immunology , Gene Silencing , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Mitochondria/metabolism , Mitophagy , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Ubiquitination , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication
3.
Sens Actuators B Chem ; 345: 130372, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294238

ABSTRACT

Rapid and accurate diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza A virus (FluA) antigens in the early stages of virus infection is the key to control the epidemic spread. Here, we developed a two-channel fluorescent immunochromatographic assay (ICA) for ultrasensitive and simultaneous qualification of the two viruses in biological samples. A high-performance quantum dot nanobead (QB) was fabricated by adsorption of multilayers of dense quantum dots (QDs) onto the SiO2 surface and used as the highly luminescent label of the ICA system to ensure the high-sensitivity and stability of the assay. The combination of monodispersed SiO2 core (∼180 nm) and numerous carboxylated QDs formed a hierarchical shell, which ensured that the QBs possessed excellent stability, superior fluorescence signal, and convenient surface functionalization. The developed ICA biosensor achieved simultaneous detection of SARS-CoV-2 and FluA in one test within 15 min, with detection limits reaching 5 pg/mL for SARS-CoV-2 antigen and 50 pfu/mL for FluA H1N1. Moreover, our method showed high accuracy and specificity in throat swab samples with two orders of magnitude improvement in sensitivity compared with traditional AuNP-based ICA method. Hence, the proposed method is a promising and convenient tool for detection of respiratory viruses.

4.
J Virol ; 95(18): e0060021, 2021 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262381

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses are commonly characterized by a unique discontinuous RNA transcriptional synthesis strategy guided by transcription-regulating sequences (TRSs). However, the details of RNA synthesis in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have not been fully elucidated. Here, we present a time-scaled, gene-comparable transcriptome of SARS-CoV-2, demonstrating that ACGAAC functions as a core TRS guiding the discontinuous RNA synthesis of SARS-CoV-2 from a holistic perspective. During infection, viral transcription, rather than genome replication, dominates all viral RNA synthesis activities. The most highly expressed viral gene is the nucleocapsid gene, followed by ORF7 and ORF3 genes, while the envelope gene shows the lowest expression. Host transcription dysregulation keeps exacerbating after viral RNA synthesis reaches a maximum. The most enriched host pathways are metabolism related. Two of them (cholesterol and valine metabolism) affect viral replication in reverse. Furthermore, the activation of numerous cytokines emerges before large-scale viral RNA synthesis. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for the current severe global health emergency that began at the end of 2019. Although the universal transcriptional strategies of coronaviruses are preliminarily understood, the details of RNA synthesis, especially the time-matched transcription level of each SARS-CoV-2 gene and the principles of subgenomic mRNA synthesis, are not clear. The coterminal subgenomic mRNAs of SARS-CoV-2 present obstacles in identifying the expression of most genes by PCR-based methods, which are exacerbated by the lack of related antibodies. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2-related metabolic imbalance and cytokine storm are receiving increasing attention from both clinical and mechanistic perspectives. Our transcriptomic research provides information on both viral RNA synthesis and host responses, in which the transcription-regulating sequences and transcription levels of viral genes are demonstrated, and the metabolic dysregulation and cytokine levels identified at the host cellular level support the development of novel medical treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Transcriptome , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Lung/virology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virus Replication
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