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1.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1919345

ABSTRACT

Spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant, which led to increased global hospitalizations for coronavirus disease 2019, generated concern about immune evasion and the duration of protection from vaccines, and undermined humanity's confidence in ending the epidemic. The sudden mutation and origin of Omicron is even more of a mystery. The article highlights the virological characteristics and possible origins of Omicron and the global threats and challenges it poses, as well as strategies to deal with it.

2.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 336, 2022 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846812

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a major public health crisis, harms individuals' mental health. This 3-wave repeated survey aimed to examine the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation at different stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in a large sample of college students in China. METHODS: Using a repeated cross-sectional survey design, we conducted 3 online surveys of college students during the COVID-19 pandemic at 22 universities in Guandong, China. The 3 surveys were conducted during the outbreak period (T1: 3 February to 10 February 2020, N = 164,101), remission period (T2: 24 March to 3 April 2020, N = 148,384), and normalized prevention and control period (T3: 1 June to 15 June 2020, N = 159,187). Suicidal ideation was measured by the ninth item of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. A range of suicide-related factors was assessed, including sociodemographic characteristics, depression, anxiety, insomnia, pre-existing mental health problems, and COVID-19-related factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 8.5%, 11.0% and 12.6% at T1, T2, and T3, respectively. Male sex (aOR: 1.35-1.44, Ps < 0.001), poor self-perceived mental health (aOR: 2.25-2.81, Ps < 0.001), mental diseases (aOR: 1.52-2.09, P < 0.001), prior psychological counseling (aOR: 1.23-1.37, Ps < 0.01), negative perception of the risk of the COVID-19 epidemic (aOR: 1.14-1.36, Ps < 0.001), depressive symptoms (aOR: 2.51-303, Ps < 0.001) and anxiety symptoms (aOR: 1.62-101.11, Ps < 0.001) were associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation. CONCLUSION: Suicidal ideation appeared to increase during the COVID-19 pandemic remission period among college students in China. Multiple factors, especially mental health problems, are associated with suicidal ideation. Psychosocial interventions should be implemented during and after the COVID-19 pandemic to reduce suicide risk among college students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Students/psychology , Suicidal Ideation
3.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 16: 17534666221087847, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759662

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic raging around the world, the effectiveness of respiratory support treatment has dominated people's field of vision. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness and value of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) for COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A comprehensive systematic review via PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, Scopus, WHO database, China Biology Medicine Disc (SINOMED), and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases was conducted, followed by meta-analysis. RevMan 5.4 was used to analyze the results and risk of bias. The primary outcome is the number of deaths at day 28. The secondary outcomes are the occurrence of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), the number of deaths (no time-limited), length of intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay, ventilator-free days, and oxygenation index [partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2)/fraction of inhaled oxygen (FiO2)] at 24 h. RESULTS: In total, nine studies [one randomized controlled trial (RCT), seven retrospective studies, and one prospective study] totaling 1582 patients were enrolled in the meta-analysis. The results showed that the incidence of IMV, number of deaths (no time-limited), and length of ICU stay were not statistically significant in the HFNC group compared with the NIV group (ps = 0.71, 0.31, and 0.33, respectively). Whereas the HFNC group performed significant advantages in terms of the number of deaths at day 28, length of hospital stay and oxygenation index (p < 0.05). Only in the ventilator-free days did NIV show advantages over the HFNC group (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: For COVID-19 patients, the use of HFNC therapy is associated with the reduction of the number of deaths at day 28 and length of hospital stay, and can significantly improve oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2) at 24 h. However, there was no favorable between the HFNC and NIV groups in the occurrence of IMV. NIV group was superior only in terms of ventilator-free days.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/therapy , Cannula , Humans , Noninvasive Ventilation/adverse effects , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/adverse effects , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy
4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325373

ABSTRACT

Background: The global outbreak of COVID-19 has caused worrying concern amongst the public and health authorities. The first and foremost problem that many countries face is a shortage of medical resources. The experience of Wuhan, China, in fighting against COVID-19 provides a model for other countries to learn from. Methods: We formulated a piecewise smooth model to describe the limitation of hospital beds, based on the transmission progression of COVID-19, and the strengthening prevention and control strategies implemented in Wuhan, China. We used data of the cumulative numbers of confirmed cases, cured cases and deaths in Wuhan city from 10 January to 20 March, 2020 to estimate unknown parameters and the effective reproduction number. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate the impact of a shortage of hospital beds on the COVID-19 outbreak. Results: Even with strong prevention and control measures in Wuhan, slowing down of the supply rate, reducing the maximum capacity and delaying the intervention time of supplementing hospital beds aggravated the outbreak severity by magnifying the cumulative numbers of confirmed cases and deaths, prolonging the period of the outbreak in Wuhan, enlarging the value of the effective reproduction number during the outbreak and postponing the time when the threshold value is reduced to 1. Conclusions: The quick establishment of the Huoshenshan and Leishenshan Hospitals in a short time and the deployment of mobile cabin hospitals played important roles in containing the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, providing a model for other countries to provide more hospital beds for COVID-19 patients faster and earlier.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325325

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been described to partially overlap with Kawasaki disease (KD) with regard to clinical symptoms, but they are unlikely to share the same disease entity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to characterize the laboratory parameters of MIS-C compared with those of KD and Kawasaki disease shock syndrome (KDSS). Databases were searched for studies on laboratory parameters of MIS-C (hematology, inflammatory markers, cardiac markers and biochemistry) through May 31, 2021. Twelve studies with 3073 participants yielded 969 MIS-C patients. In terms of hematology, MIS-C patients had lower levels of leukocytes, absolute lymphocyte count and platelet count (PLT) than KD patients and had similar absolute neutrophil count (ANC) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels. In terms of inflammatory markers, MIS-C patients had higher levels of C-reactive protein, D-dimer and ferritin than KD patients and had similar levels of procalcitonin and ESR. In terms of cardiac markers, MIS-C patients had higher CPK levels than KD patients. The levels of NT-proBNP, troponin and AST were not significantly different between MIS-C and KD patients. In terms of biochemistry, MIS-C patients had lower levels of albumin, sodium and ALT and higher levels of creatinine than KD patients. In addition, MIS-C patients had lower levels of PLT, Hb and ESR and higher levels of ANC than KDSS patients. Measurement of laboratory parameters might assist clinicians with accurate evaluation of MIS-C and further mechanistic research.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324492

ABSTRACT

Could pregnant women infected with COVID-19 cause adverse consequences for their newborns? 2. Mothers infected with COVID-19 did not cause serious adverse reactions during term labor, but premature infants were prone to gastrointestinal complications. 3. It is necessary to strengthen the protective measures of nosocomial infection in NICU. Although the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 has a serious impact on human health, the impact on newborns seems to be relatively moderate

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323731

ABSTRACT

At present, there are still many ambiguous reports about the perinatal infection of infants born to mothers infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) 1-3 . The dynamic characteristics of infantile serum antibodies born to mother with SARS-CoV-2 has not been well described 4-6 . In this study, we analyzed the seroconversion of 27 newborns born to 26 pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2. The SARS-CoV-2 IgG positive rate of parturients was 80.8%, and half of their infants obtained maternal IgG. IgG transfer rates were 18.8% and 81.8% in those infants whose mother infected less and more than 2 weeks before delivery respectively. In the first two months of life, the IgG level of infants dropped sharply to one tenth of that at birth. The IgM was confirmed positive in 53.8% of mothers and negative in all infants. These results suggest that maternal IgG has limited protection for infants, which may help us to improve vaccination strategies in future.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323717

ABSTRACT

Background: At the beginning of the outbreak of coronavirus infected disease 2019 (COVID-19), children in Wuhan were experiencing an extremely strong influenza A epidemic. This study is aimed to explore the epidemic dynamics characteristics of children with influenza A and its correlation with the early stage spread of COVID-19 in Wuhan. Methods: : This is a retrospective single-center clinical study.From November 28, 2019 to January 23, 2020, a total of 7904 outpatient children with signs of respiratory tract infection were admitted, and a total of 10102 throat swabs were collected. All the detection were performed to the throat swabs of patients, which include the epidemic statues, detection rate, duration of Flu A and B persistence in airway, and the positive rate of COVID-19 nucleic acid. Results: : A total of 10102 throat swabs were obtained from children with respiratory symptoms, including 5450 (53.9%) male and 4652 (46.1%) female. 2899 (28.7%) cases were positive for Influenza A. There were 617 (6.1% ) cases of Influenza B . In group of Influenza A , the lowest positive rate was in the infants less than 1 year old (18.4%), and the highest in the group 12 year old (32.1%). During the period of high prevalence of influenza A, there was a low level of infection of influenza B. The detection rate of each age group fluctuated from 3% to 10%. 73.7% of children's influenza A and B virus turned negative within 7 days, and very few children's respiratory influenza virus can last even more than 1 month. Among 35 throat swabs detected with qRT-PCR, 11 (31.4%) were positive for Flu A, and all children were negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Conclusions: : In the early stage of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, children in Wuhan were experiencing a high intensity of influenza A pandemic, and there was no the mixed infection of SARS-CoV-2 with influenza A. COVID-19 spread caught up the tail of influenza A pandemic.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322627

ABSTRACT

Background: There have been inconsistent reports regarding the unique manifestations of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurring in China. This study analyzed the clinical manifestation of 13 severe COVID-19 cases at a single institution and compared the data to previously reported characteristics of severe COVID-19 in China. Methods: : This retrospective case study included patients with severe COVID-19 who were admitted to the isolation ward of the Shandong Chest Hospital from January 2020 to February 2020. The clinical signs and symptoms, laboratory examination results, imaging features, treatment strategies, and patient prognoses were summarized. A database search was then conducted for studies published through December 2020 documenting characteristics of severe COVID-19 cases in China. The pooled results for severe COVID-19 patients in China were calculated by using the random-effects model. Results: : A total of 4 severe and 9 critical patients were included from Shandong Chest Hospital. The average patient age was 55.3 (range 23-88) years, and 61.5% of patients were male. Chest computed tomography for all patients showed multiple lesions as ground-glass shadows in both lungs. All patients presented bacterial infection and various degrees of liver and myocardial injury. The treatment strategies for patients included antibiotics, immunoglobulin, and glucocorticoids, and mechanical ventilation was used in all patients for respiratory failure. Two patients died, and 11 recovered. In the pooled data for severe COVID-19 patients, the most common comorbidities were hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and coronary heart disease. The common signs in these patients were fever, cough, fatigue, chest tightness, and a leukocyte count > 10. Conclusions: : Older males with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and coronary heart disease may be at higher risk of developing severe COVID-19. Patients should be assessed for concomitant bacterial infections. Cardiac and liver enzymes, fever, cough, fatigue, chest tightness, and leukocytosis should be monitored for signs of disease progression.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316206

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe the anxiety and depression experienced by patients with suspected and confirmed COVID-19 during hospitalization and isolation. Methods: : A cross-sectional survey was performed with 66 patients with suspected and confirmed COVID-19 who were admitted to the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from February 9, 2020, to February 22, 2020. The data collected including sex, age, education level, and nucleic acid test results. Anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders were evaluated using the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Scale (PSQI), respectively. Statistical analysis: SPSS 23.0 software was used for data processing, and multifactor logistic regression analysis was used to identify the independent risk factors. Spearman correlation analysis was used to study the correlations among the observed indicators;P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: : The incidences of anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders in the suspected case group were 18.2%, 18.2%, and 39.4%;the incidences of anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders in the diagnosed group were 42.4%, 57.6%, and 69.7%. The incidence of sleep disorders was higher than the domestic norm, and the difference was statistically significant ( P <0.05). Logistic regression analysis adjusted for multiple factors showed that the main factor affecting anxiety was age;the main factors affecting depression were age and a positive nucleic acid test;and the main factor affecting sleep disorders was age. The anxiety, depression and sleep disorder scores were significantly positively correlated ( P <0.05). Conclusion: Patients with suspected and confirmed COVID-19, especially people aged 50 years and over, have significant anxiety, depression and sleep disorders. Anxiety, depression and sleep disorders in patients with confirmed cases are more serious than those in patients with suspected cases. It is necessary to focus on the psychological state of such patients, actively conduct psychological counseling, and reduce their anxiety and depression.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313361

ABSTRACT

Background: To analyze the clinical outcomes of COVID-2019 cases and the influencing factors of severe cases in Qingdao City and provide theoretical reference basis for optimizing medical treatment and the strategies of epidemic prevention and control. MethodsThe demographical, epidemiological, clinical data of 81 confirmed COVID-2019 cases in Qingdao City were collected via epidemiological investigation and clinical process tracking. The status of cure, discharge, clinical outcome and influencing factors were analyzed in our study. ResultsAmong the 81 cases,12(14.81%) and 55(67.90%) were mild and ordinary, 9(11.11%) and 4(4.94%) were severe and critical, and 1 critical cases (1.23%) developed into fatal, with the fatality rate 1.23%. The median time from onset of symptoms to hospital admission were 3.67 days (IQR, 1.75 to 6.71). The median duration of illness were 21.00 days (IQR, 16.00 to 26.00) and the median length of hospitalization were 15.63 days (IQR, 11.60 to 20.50). The median time for progression to severe cases was 6.00 days after onset (IQR, 5.00-10.00). The median duration of severe cases was 8.00 days (IQR, 6.25-14.00). Age older than 40 years old (OR=5.797, 95% CI : 1.064~31.568) and first chest CT abnormal (OR=0.1140, 95% CI : 0.014~0.923) were the influencing factors of COVID-2019 severe cases. ConclusionsOlder age and first chest CT normal would be more prone to develop to severe cases of COVID-2019. During the epidemic period, it was necessary to classify and manage cases according to the needs of prevention and control in order to ensure the rational allocation of medical resources.

12.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 746731, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686491

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to spread across the world. Specimens of blood, body fluids and excreta received in the department of pathology undoubtedly increased the risk of infection, especially in some hospitals that are short of professional protection capability. Here we provided a new simple way for the sputum cytology test during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Sputum samples from 30 patients with lung cancer were collected and divided into two groups, including the control group and the experimental group. Samples of the control group were processed in the biological safety cabinet, while the experimental group was put into the sealed specimen bag directly and pretreated with 75% medical alcohol. Then the cell morphology and tumor cell identification were analyzed by cell smears and liquid-based cell staining. The expression of cell antigens was determined by immunohistochemical staining. RESULT: Our result showed that both sputum samples in two groups exhibited complete cell structure and clear morphology according to the cell smear and liquid-based cell staining. In addition, the immunohistochemical result showed that cell antigens, including cytokeratin (CK), leukocyte common antigen (LCA), and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF1), were specifically expressed in the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus, respectively. The tumor cells were distributed diffusely, and cell antigens were located accurately after pretreatment with 75% medical alcohol and were consistent with that of the control group. CONCLUSION: Using 75% medical alcohol to pretreat sputum specimens has no obvious impact on cell morphology and antigens expression. Our study provided a new method for the sputum cytology test with no direct contact so as to protect medical staff against the virus during COVID-19 outbreak.

13.
ISA Trans ; 124: 164-175, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683206

ABSTRACT

We conducted a comparative study of the COVID-19 epidemic in three different settings: mainland China, the Guangdong province of China and South Korea, by formulating two disease transmission dynamics models which incorporate epidemic characteristics and setting-specific interventions, and fitting the models to multi-source data to identify initial and effective reproduction numbers and evaluate effectiveness of interventions. We estimated the initial basic reproduction number for South Korea, the Guangdong province and mainland China as 2.6 (95% confidence interval (CI): (2.5, 2.7)), 3.0 (95%CI: (2.6, 3.3)) and 3.8 (95%CI: (3.5,4.2)), respectively, given a serial interval with mean of 5 days with standard deviation of 3 days. We found that the effective reproduction number for the Guangdong province and mainland China has fallen below the threshold 1 since February 8th and 18th respectively, while the effective reproduction number for South Korea remains high until March 2nd Moreover our model-based analysis shows that the COVID-19 epidemics in South Korean is almost under control with the cumulative confirmed cases tending to be stable as of April 14th. Through sensitivity analysis, we show that a coherent and integrated approach with stringent public health interventions is the key to the success of containing the epidemic in China and especially its provinces outside its epicenter. In comparison, we find that the extremely high detection rate is the key factor determining the success in controlling the COVID-19 epidemics in South Korea. The experience of outbreak control in mainland China and South Korea should be a guiding reference for the rest of the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Epidemics/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Emerg Nurs ; 48(2): 159-166, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670722

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Establishing intravenous access is essential but may be difficult to achieve for patients requiring isolation for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of an infrared vein visualizer on peripheral intravenous catheter therapy in patients with coronavirus disease 2019. METHODS: A nonrandomized clinical trial was performed. In total, 122 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 who required peripheral intravenous cannulation were divided into 2 groups with 60 in the control group and 62 in the intervention group. A conventional venipuncture method was applied to the control group, whereas an infrared vein imaging device was applied in the intervention group. The first attempt success rate, total procedure time, and patients' satisfaction score were compared between the 2 groups using chi-square, t test, and z test (also known as Mann-Whitney U test) statistics. RESULTS: The first attempt success rate in the intervention group was significantly higher than that of control group (91.94% vs 76.67%, ꭓ2 = 5.41, P = .02). The procedure time was shorter in the intervention group (mean [SD], 211.44 [68.58] seconds vs 388.27 [88.97] seconds, t = 12.27, P < .001). Patients from the intervention group experienced a higher degree of satisfaction (7.5 vs 6, z = -3.31, P < .001). DISCUSSION: Peripheral intravenous catheter insertion assisted by an infrared vein visualizer could improve the first attempt success rate of venipuncture, shorten the procedure time, and increase patients' satisfaction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Catheterization, Peripheral , Catheterization, Peripheral/methods , Catheters , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Veins
15.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 47: 96-105, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520793

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Advice to drink plenty of fluid is common in respiratory infections. We assessed whether low fluid intake (dehydration) altered outcomes in adults with pneumonia. METHODS: We systematically reviewed trials increasing fluid intake and well-adjusted, well-powered observational studies assessing associations between markers of low-intake dehydration (fluid intake, serum osmolality, urea or blood urea nitrogen, urinary output, signs of dehydration) and mortality in adult pneumonia patients (with any type of pneumonia, including community acquired, health-care acquired, aspiration, COVID-19 and mixed types). Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, references of reviews and included studies were searched to 30/10/2020. Studies were assessed for inclusion, risk of bias and data extracted independently in duplicate. We employed random-effects meta-analysis, sensitivity analyses, subgrouping and GRADE assessment. Prospero registration: CRD42020182599. RESULTS: We identified one trial, 20 well-adjusted cohort studies and one case-control study. None suggested that more fluid (hydration) was associated with harm. Ten of 13 well-powered observational studies found statistically significant positive associations in adjusted analyses between dehydration and medium-term mortality. The other three studies found no significant effect. Meta-analysis suggested doubled odds of medium-term mortality in dehydrated (compared to hydrated) pneumonia patients (GRADE moderate-quality evidence, OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.8 to 2.8, 8619 deaths in 128,319 participants). Heterogeneity was explained by a dose effect (greater dehydration increased risk of mortality further), and the effect was consistent across types of pneumonia (including community-acquired, hospital-acquired, aspiration, nursing and health-care associated, and mixed pneumonia), age and setting (community or hospital). The single trial found that educating pneumonia patients to drink ≥1.5 L fluid/d alongside lifestyle advice increased fluid intake and reduced subsequent healthcare use. No studies in COVID-19 pneumonia met the inclusion criteria, but 70% of those hospitalised with COVID-19 have pneumonia. Smaller COVID-19 studies suggested that hydration is as important in COVID-19 pneumonia mortality as in other pneumonias. CONCLUSIONS: We found consistent moderate-quality evidence mainly from observational studies that improving hydration reduces the risk of medium-term mortality in all types of pneumonia. It is remarkable that while many studies included dehydration as a potential confounder, and major pneumonia risk scores include measures of hydration, optimal fluid volume and the effect of supporting hydration have not been assessed in randomised controlled trials of people with pneumonia. Such trials, are needed as potential benefits may be large, rapid and implemented at low cost. Supporting hydration and reversing dehydration has the potential to have rapid positive impacts on pneumonia outcomes, and perhaps also COVID-19 pneumonia outcomes, in older adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Aged , Case-Control Studies , Drinking , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 413(29): 7195-7204, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482198

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused severe harm to the health of people all around the world. Molecular detection of the pathogen, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), played a crucial role in the control of the disease. Reverse transcription digital PCR (RT-dPCR) has been developed and used in the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA as an absolute quantification method. Here, an interlaboratory assessment of quantification of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was organized by the National Institute of Metrology, China (NIMC), using in vitro transcribed RNA samples, among ten laboratories on six different dPCR platforms. Copy number concentrations of three genes of SARS-CoV-2 were measured by all participants. Consistent results were obtained with dispersion within 2.2-fold and CV% below 23% among different dPCR platforms and laboratories, and Z' scores of all the reported results being satisfactory. Possible reasons for the dispersion included PCR assays, partition volume, and reverse transcription conditions. This study demonstrated the comparability and applicability of RT-dPCR method for quantification of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and showed the capability of the participating laboratories at SARS-CoV-2 test by RT-dPCR platform.


Subject(s)
Laboratories/organization & administration , RNA, Viral/analysis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Limit of Detection
17.
Epidemiologic Methods ; (s1)2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1477585

ABSTRACT

The non-linear progression of new infection numbers in a pandemic poses challenges to the evaluation of its management. The tools of complex systems research may aid in attaining information that would be difficult to extract with other means.To study the COVID-19 pandemic, we utilize the reported new cases per day for the globe, nine countries and six US states through October 2020. Fourier and univariate wavelet analyses inform on periodicity and extent of change.Evaluating time-lagged data sets of various lag lengths, we find that the autocorrelation function, average mutual information and box counting dimension represent good quantitative readouts for the progression of new infections. Bivariate wavelet analysis and return plots give indications of containment vs. exacerbation. Homogeneity or heterogeneity in the population response, uptick vs. suppression, and worsening or improving trends are discernible, in part by plotting various time lags in three dimensions.The analysis of epidemic or pandemic progression with the techniques available for observed (noisy) complex data can extract important characteristics and aid decision making in the public health response.

18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): e2086-e2094, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455253

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe the epidemiological, virological, and serological features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; PLWH). METHODS: This population-based cohort study identified all COVID-19 cases among all PLWH in Wuhan, China, by 16 April 2020. The epidemiological, virological, and serological features were analyzed based on the demographic data, temporal profile of nucleic acid test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during the disease, and SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobin (Ig) M and G after recovery. RESULTS: From 1 January to 16 April 2020, 35 of 6001 PLWH experienced COVID-19, with a cumulative incidence of COVID-19 of 0.58% (95% confidence interval [CI], .42-.81%). Among the COVID-19 cases, 15 (42.86) had severe illness, with 2 deaths. The incidence, case-severity, and case-fatality rates of COVID-19 in PLWH were comparable to those in the entire population in Wuhan. There were 197 PLWH who had discontinued combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), 4 of whom experienced COVID-19. Risk factors for COVID-19 were age ≥50 years old and cART discontinuation. The median duration of SARS-CoV-2 viral shedding among confirmed COVID-19 cases in PLWH was 30 days (interquartile range, 20-46). Cases with high HIV viral loads (≥20 copies/mL) had lower IgM and IgG levels than those with low HIV viral loads (<20 copies/ml; median signal value divided by the cutoff value [S/CO] for IgM, 0.03 vs 0.11, respectively [P < .001]; median S/CO for IgG, 10.16 vs 17.04, respectively [P = .069]). CONCLUSIONS: Efforts are needed to maintain the persistent supply of antiretroviral treatment to elderly PLWH aged 50 years or above during the COVID-19 epidemic. The coinfection of HIV and SARS-CoV-2 might change the progression and prognosis of COVID-19 patients in PLWH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Aged , Cohort Studies , HIV , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 56(12): 3688-3698, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439708

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been described to partially overlap with Kawasaki disease (KD) with regard to clinical symptoms, but they are unlikely to share the same disease entity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to characterize the laboratory parameters of MIS-C compared with those of KD and Kawasaki disease shock syndrome (KDSS). Databases were searched for studies on laboratory parameters of MIS-C (hematology, inflammatory markers, cardiac markers, and biochemistry) through May 31, 2021. Twelve studies with 3073 participants yielded 969 MIS-C patients. In terms of hematology, MIS-C patients had lower levels of leukocytes, absolute lymphocyte count and platelet count (PLT) than KD patients and had similar absolute neutrophil count (ANC) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels. In terms of inflammatory markers, MIS-C patients had higher levels of C-reactive protein, D-dimer and ferritin than KD patients and had similar levels of procalcitonin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). In terms of cardiac markers, MIS-C patients had higher CPK levels than KD patients. The levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, troponin and aspartate aminotransferase were not significantly different between MIS-C and KD patients. In terms of biochemistry, MIS-C patients had lower levels of albumin, sodium and alanine aminotransferase and higher levels of creatinine than KD patients. In addition, MIS-C patients had lower levels of PLT, Hb and ESR and higher levels of ANC than KDSS patients. Measurement of laboratory parameters might assist clinicians with accurate evaluation of MIS-C and further mechanistic research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Laboratories , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
20.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 95:231-240, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1409640

ABSTRACT

In this study, an epidemic model was developed to simulate and predict the disease variations of Guangdong province which was focused on the period from Jan 27 to Feb 20, 2020. To explore the impacts of the input population and quarantine strategies on the disease variations at different scenarios, four time points were assumed as Feb 6, Feb 16, Feb 24 and Mar 5 2020. The major results suggest that our model can well capture the disease variations with high accuracy. The simulated peak value of the confirmed cases is 1002 at Feb 10, 2020 which is mostly close to the reported number of 1007 at Feb 9, 2020. The disease will become extinction with peak value of 1397 at May 11, 2020. Moreover, the increased numbers of the input population can mainly shorten the disease extinction days and the increased percentages of the exposed individuals of the input population increase the number of cumulative confirmed cases at a small percentage. Increasing the input population and decreasing the quarantine strategy together around the time point of the peak value of the confirmed cases, may lead to the second outbreak.

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