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2.
J Clean Prod ; 352: 131528, 2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773450

ABSTRACT

In response to the global outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19), a staggering amount of personal protective equipment, such as disposable face masks, has been used, leading to the urgent environmental issue. This study evaluates the feasibility of mask chips for the soil reinforcement, through triaxial tests on samples mixed with complete decomposed granite (CDG) and mask chips (0%, 0.3%, 0.5%, 1%, 5% by volume). The experimental results show that adding a moderate volumetric amount of mask chips (0.3%-1%) improves the soil strength, especially under high confining pressure. The optimum volumetric content of mask chips obtained by this study is 0.5%, raising the peak shear strength up to 22.3% under the confining stress of 120 kPa. When the volumetric content of mask chips exceeds the optimum value, the peak shear strength decreases accordingly. A limited amount of mask chips also increases the elastic modulus and makes the volumetric response more dilative. By contrast, excessive mask chips create additional voids and shift the strong soil-mask contacts to weak mask-mask contacts. The laser scanning microscope (LSM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images on the typical samples demonstrate the microstructure of mask fibers interlocking with soil particles, highly supporting the macro-scale mechanical behavior.

3.
J Virol ; 96(4): e0157821, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759290

ABSTRACT

The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic poses a severe global threat to public health, as do influenza viruses and other coronaviruses. Here, we present chimpanzee adenovirus 68 (AdC68)-based vaccines designed to universally target coronaviruses and influenza. Our design is centered on an immunogen generated by fusing the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) to the conserved stalk of H7N9 hemagglutinin (HA). Remarkably, the constructed vaccine effectively induced both SARS-CoV-2-targeting antibodies and anti-influenza antibodies in mice, consequently affording protection from lethal SARS-CoV-2 and H7N9 challenges as well as effective H3N2 control. We propose our AdC68-vectored coronavirus-influenza vaccine as a universal approach toward curbing respiratory virus-causing pandemics. IMPORTANCE The COVID-19 pandemic exemplifies the severe public health threats of respiratory virus infection and influenza A viruses. The currently envisioned strategy for the prevention of respiratory virus-causing diseases requires the comprehensive administration of vaccines tailored for individual viruses. Here, we present an alternative strategy by designing chimpanzee adenovirus 68-based vaccines which target both the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding-domain and the conserved stalk of influenza hemagglutinin. When tested in mice, this strategy attained potent neutralizing antibodies against wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and its emerging variants, enabling an effective protection against lethal SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Notably, it also provided complete protection from lethal H7N9 challenge and efficient control of H3N2-induced morbidity. Our study opens a new avenue to universally curb respiratory virus infection by vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/immunology , Influenza Vaccines , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , /immunology , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred ICR , Mice, Transgenic , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
4.
Journal of Hydrology ; : 127613, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1693270

ABSTRACT

Lake eutrophication has become a critical environmental issue due to the global effects of anthropogenic activities and climate change, and has been comprehensively studied for many years. A series of models and indicators have been proposed to assess the trophic state of lakes. The trophic state index (TSI) is a synthetic index that integrates chlorophyll-a, water clarity, and total phosphorus and is widely used to evaluate the trophic state of aquatic environments. In this study, we collected in situ lake samples (N=431) from typical lakes to match Sentinel-2 MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI) imagery data using the Case 2 Regional Coast Color processor. Then we developed a new empirical model, TSI = –34.04 × (band 4/band 5) – 1.114 × (band 1/band 4) + 97.376). This model is valid for all of China, with good performance and few errors (RMSE=7.36;MAE=6.25) for the validation dataset. Recognizing that over 94% of the Chinese population located along eastern watersheds and large lakes have competing water uses, and given the TSI model on the seasonal scales, we further estimated the mean TSI and trophic state in eastern Chinese lakes (> 100 km2) from 2019 to 2020. The results revealed that more lakes were eutrophic in autumn (94.28%) than in spring (> 77.14%), indicating a serious eutrophication of eastern lakes. Although the eastern lakes have been studied in more detail, this study found that eutrophication still has markedly negative impacts on lake ecosystems. In addition, no significant improvement was observed in spring, most likely due to the months of curfew/lockdown from January 2020 onwards due to COVID-19. This may be due to the enrichment of nutrients deposited in sediment or watershed soil, which can be characterized as “autochthonous sources” of lake eutrophication, over decades with high rates of economic development. This study demonstrates the applicability of Sentinel-2 MSI data to monitor lake eutrophication as well as the feasibility of blue/red and red/red edge combinations. The framework and TSI model used bands available on MSI sensors to develop a novel approach for generating historical eutrophication data for large-scale evaluation of and decision-making related aquatic environmental changes, even in poorly studied areas.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324538

ABSTRACT

Background: During the current ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, studies had reported that patients with asthma would experience increased asthma-associated morbidity because of the respiratory virus SARS-CoV-2 infection, based on experience with other respiratory viral infections. However, some studies suggested that there was no apparent increase in asthma related morbidity in children with asthma, it is even possible that due to reduced exposures due to confinement, such children may have improved outcomes. In order to understand the impact of Covid-19 on asthma control in children, we performed this systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library to find literature from December 2019 to June 2021 related to Covid-19 and children’s asthma control, among which results such as abstracts, comments, letters, reviews and case reports were excluded. The level of asthma control during the COVID-19 pandemic was synthesized and discussed. Results: A total of 20456 subjects were included in 7 studies. Random effect model is used to account for the data. Compared to the same period before the COVID-19 pandemic, asthma exacerbation, asthma admission, emergency room visit reduced a lot. The outcome of use of inhaled corticosteroids and Beta-2 agonists shows no significant difference. Conclusion: Compared to the same period before the COVID-19 pandemic and the measures in response to it, the level of asthma control has been significantly improved. We need to understand the exact factors leading to these improvements and find methods to sustain it.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324292

ABSTRACT

Recently emerging SARS-CoV-2 virus has caused a global pandemic, with millions of infections and over 200, 000 deaths1. However, development of effective anti-coronavirus treatments has lagged behind. Competitive co-evolution between microbes and viruses has led to the diversification of microbe’s CRISPR/Cas defense systems against infectious viruses2,3. Among class-2 single effector systems, Cas13 is effective in combating RNA phages4. Previous studies have discovered novel Cas9 and Cas12 systems from metagenomic sequence of natural microbes5-7. Here we report the identification of two additional compact Cas13 families from natural microbes that are effective in degrading RNA viruses in mammalian cells. Using metagenomic terabase data sets, we searched for previously uncharacterized Cas13 genes proximal to the CRISPR array with a customized computational pipeline, and identified two most compact families (775 to 803 amino acids) of CRISPR-Cas ribonucleases, named hereafter as CRISPR/Cas type VI-E and VI-F. Out of seven Cas13 proteins, we found that Cas13e.1 was the smallest and could be engineered for efficient RNA interference and base editing in cultured mammalian cell lines. Moreover, Cas13e.1 has a high activity for degrading SARS-CoV-2 sequences and the genome of live influenza A virus (IAV). Together with a minimal pool of 10 crRNAs, Cas13e.1 could target over 99% of all known 3,137 coronavirus genomes for achieving antiviral defense. Overall, our results demonstrated there exist untapped bacterial defense systems in natural microbes that can function efficiently in mammalian cells, thus potentially useful for preventing viral infection in humans such as COVID-19.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324235

ABSTRACT

Background: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a world-wide health crisis. Limited information is available regarding which patients will experience more severe disease symptoms. We evaluated hospitalized patients who were initially diagnosed with moderate COVID-19 for clinical parameters and radiological feature that showed an association with progression to severe/critical symptoms. Methods: : This study, a retrospective single-center study at the Central Hospital of Wuhan, enrolled 243 patients with confirmed COVID­19 pneumonia. Forty of these patients progressed from moderate to severe/critical symptoms during follow up. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and radiological data were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between moderate- and severe/critical-type symptoms. Univariable and multivariable logistic regressions were used to identify the risk factors associated with symptom progression. Results: : Patients with severe/critical symptoms were older (p<0.001) and more often male (p=0.046). A combination of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and high maximum chest computed tomography (CT) score was associated with disease progression. Maximum CT score (>11) had the greatest predictive value for disease progression. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.861 ( 95% confidence interval: 0.811-0.902). Conclusions: : Maximum CT score and COPD were associated with patient deterioration. Maximum CT score (>11) was associated with severe illness.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315613

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we propose a two-group SIR epidemic model to simulate the outcome of stay-at-home policy and wearing face masks during the first COVID-19 epidemic wave in the United States. Based on our proposed model, we further use the optimal control approach (with the objective of minimizing total deaths) to find the optimal dynamical distribution of face masks between the healthcare workers and the general public. It is not surprising that all the face masks should be solely reserved for the healthcare workers if the supply is short. However, when the supply is indeed sufficient, our numerical study indicates that the general public should share a large portion of face masks at the beginning of an epidemic wave to dramatically reduce the death toll. This interesting result partially contradicts with the guideline advised by the US Surgeon General and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in March 2020. The optimality of this sounding CDC guideline highly depends on the supply level of face masks that changes frequently, and hence it should be adjusted according to the supply of face masks.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314532

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has a variable clinical presentation that ranges from asymptomatic, to severe disease with cytokine storm. The mortality rates also differ across the globe, ranging from 0.5-13%. This variation is likely due to both pathogen and host factors. Host factors may include genetic differences in the immune response genes as well as variation in HLA and KIR allotypes. To better understand what impact these genetic variants in immune response genes may have in the differences observed in the immune response to SARS-CoV-2, a quantitative analysis of a dynamical systems model that considers both, the magnitude of viral growth, and the subsequent innate and adaptive response required to achieve control of infection is considered. Based on this broad quantitative framework it may be posited that the spectrum of symptomatic to severely symptomatic presentations of COVID19 represents the balance between innate and adaptive immune responses. In asymptomatic patients, prompt and adequate adaptive immune response quells infection, whereas in those with severe symptoms a slower inadequate adaptive response leads to a runaway cytokine cascade fueled by ongoing viral replication. Polymorphisms in the various components of the innate and adaptive immune response may cause altered immune response kinetics that would result in variable severity of illness. Understanding how this genetic variation may alter the response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is critical to develop successful treatment strategies.

10.
J Control Release ; 342: 241-279, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639249

ABSTRACT

RNA-based therapy is a promising and potential strategy for disease treatment by introducing exogenous nucleic acids such as messenger RNA (mRNA), small interfering RNA (siRNA), microRNA (miRNA) or antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) to modulate gene expression in specific cells. It is exciting that mRNA encoding the spike protein of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) delivered by lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) exhibits the efficient protection of lungs infection against the virus. In this review, we introduce the biological barriers to RNA delivery in vivo and discuss recent advances in non-viral delivery systems, such as lipid-based nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles, N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-siRNA conjugate, and biomimetic nanovectors, which can protect RNAs against degradation by ribonucleases, accumulate in specific tissue, facilitate cell internalization, and allow for the controlled release of the encapsulated therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Humans , Liposomes , RNA, Small Interfering , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Journal of Cleaner Production ; : 129838, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1531542

ABSTRACT

The stock of disposable face masks has climbed steadily due to COVID-19, which results in an urgent worldwide environmental problem. This investigation aims to assess the potential of using waste mask chips (MC) as reinforcement in granular soil. To evaluate the mechanical properties of the mask chips - granular soil mixture (MSM), a series of monotonic and cyclic triaxial tests with different confining pressures and MC contents are conducted. Then, the shear behavior of MSM is quantified from both static (strength, stiffness, dilatancy) and dynamic (energy absorption capacity, resilient modulus, deformation) perspectives. Furthermore, based on the static and dynamic indexes, the effects of adding MC into granular soil are comprehensively analyzed. All experimental results indicate that the MSMs exbibit an increase of shear strength and a reduction of shear-induced volumetric dilation, but a decrease in stiffness. The addition of MC also leads to an increase in energy absorption but will not affect the cumulative strain of MSMs. Thus, MC has great potential to be used in the embankment construction of road and railway, backfill or reclamation construction, and so on. In addition, the influence of mask chip content on mechanical behaviors of MSM can be considered in current constitutive models for further engineering calculation and design relating to of MSMs. This experimental study provides a new perspective and thought on the recycling of waste face masks in civil engineering.

12.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 57(1): 20-25, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, many experts expected that asthma-associated morbidity because of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection would dramatically increase. However, some studies suggested that there was no apparent increasing in asthma-related morbidity in children with asthma, it is even possible children may have improved outcomes. To understand the relationship between the COVID-19 pandemic and asthma outcomes, we performed this article. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library to find literature from December 2019 to June 2021 related to COVID-19 and children's asthma control, among which results such as abstracts, comments, letters, reviews, and case reports were excluded. The level of asthma control during the COVID-19 pandemic was synthesized and discussed by outcomes of asthma exacerbation, emergency room visit, asthma admission, and childhood asthma control test (c-ACT). RESULTS: A total of 22,159 subjects were included in 10 studies. Random effect model was used to account for the data. Compared with the same period before the COVID-19 pandemic, asthma exacerbation reduced (odds ratio [OR] = 0.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.14-0.48], Z = 4.32, p < 0.0001), the odds of emergency room visit decreased as well (OR = 0.11, 95% CI = [0.04-0.26], Z = 4.98, p < 0.00001). The outcome of asthma admission showed no significant difference (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = [0.32-2.20], Z = 0.36, p = 0.72). The outcome of c-ACT scores were not analyzed because of the different manifestations used. Overall, c-ACT scores reduced during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Compared to the same period before the COVID-19 pandemic, the level of asthma control has been significantly improved. We need to understand the exact factors leading to these improvements and find methods to sustain it.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/prevention & control , Child , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-13, 2021 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429073

ABSTRACT

Being a nurse was demonstrated to be a risk factor for post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTS) and insomnia among frontline staff during COVID-19 pandemic. The unidirectional relationship between insomnia and PTS highly suggested that insomnia could mediate the increasing risk of PTS among frontline nurses. However, no study had tried to clarify this mediation effect of insomnia during COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to investigate prevalence of insomnia and PTS among frontline doctors and nurses and to clarify the relationship between career (doctor/nurses), insomnia and PTS. A total of 211 frontline doctors and nurses completed the investigation. Insomnia was measured using a self-drafted questionnaire and PTS was assessed using primary care post-traumatic stress disorder screen (PC-PTSD). Three logistics regression models and one mediation model were performed to explore relationships between career, insomnia and PTS. The prevalence of PTS (PC-PTSD≥2) and insomnia (with 1 item in self-drafted insomnia questionnaire≥2) was 24.17% and 36.97%, respectively. Being a nurse was a shared risk factor of insomnia (OR = 4.16, 95%CI: 1.30 ~ 5.77, P = 0.023) and PTS (OR = 7.51, 95%CI: 1.89 ~ 40.50, P = 0.008). Compared to doctors, nurses had significantly higher prevalence of insomnia (46.32% vs. 20%, χ2 = 13.27, P < 0.001) and PTS (30.14% vs. 13.33%, χ2 = 6.57, P = 0.011). Insomnia was a significant partial mediator (B = 0.101, P = 0.026), which explained 32.53% proportions of relationship between being a nurse and PTS. PTS and insomnia were common symptoms, which should be considered in psychological aids among frontline medical staff. Insomnia might be a possible target of PTS intervention.

14.
Clin Chim Acta ; 511: 177-180, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385202

ABSTRACT

To clarify the effect of different respiratory sample types on SARS-CoV-2 detection, we collected throat swabs, nasal swabs and hock-a-loogie saliva or sputum, and compared their detection rates and viral loads. The detection rates of sputum (95.65%, 22/23) and hock-a-loogie saliva (88.09%, 37/42) were significantly higher than those in throat swabs (41.54%, 27/65) and nasal swabs (72.31%, 47/65) (P < 0.001). The Ct Values of sputum, hock-a-loogie saliva and nasal swabs were significantly higher than that in throat swabs, whereas no significant difference was observed between sputum and saliva samples. Hock-a-loogie saliva are reliable sample types that can be used to detect SARS-CoV-2, and worthy of clinical promotion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva/virology , Specimen Handling/standards , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling/methods , Sputum/virology , Viral Load/methods , Viral Load/standards
15.
Exp Ther Med ; 21(6): 641, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222242

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to investigate the diagnostic efficiency of the absolute number of lymphocytes (LYM) and creatine kinase (CK) levels in the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). For this, the clinical data from 84 patients with COVID-19 admitted to Tianjin Haihe Hospital (Tianjin, China) between January and February 2020 were collected. The patients were divided into the following groups: The common COVID-19 group (n=61) and severe COVID-19 group (n=23). In addition, 30 healthy subjects were included as a control group. The results demonstrated that the percentage of neutrophils (NEU%) was significantly increased, while the absolute number of white blood cells, LYM and the percentage of lymphocytes (LYM%) were significantly decreased in patients with COVID-19. Furthermore, in the severe group, the absolute number of red blood cells in female patients, the NEU%, the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the serum levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) were markedly elevated, while those of LYM and LYM% were significantly decreased (all P<0.05). In addition, in the receiver operating characteristics curve analysis for the combination of LYM + CK, the area under the curve values were 0.96 and 1.00, with a sensitivity of 95.08 and 100%, specificity of 86.67 and 100% and cut-off values of 0.42 and 0.50 for the common and severe COVID-19 group, respectively. The results indicated that the diagnostic efficiency of LYM + CK was higher than that of each single factor. Finally, a moderate correlation of lactate dehydrogenase with CRP and NLR (r=0.492 and 0.433, respectively; both P<0.05) was obtained. Overall, the results of the present study indicated that the values of LYM and CK were associated with the progression of COVID-19, suggesting that the combination of both factors may be of clinical diagnostic value for COVID-19.

16.
Nat Methods ; 18(5): 499-506, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220210

ABSTRACT

Competitive coevolution between microbes and viruses has led to the diversification of CRISPR-Cas defense systems against infectious agents. By analyzing metagenomic terabase datasets, we identified two compact families (775 to 803 amino acids (aa)) of CRISPR-Cas ribonucleases from hypersaline samples, named Cas13X and Cas13Y. We engineered Cas13X.1 (775 aa) for RNA interference experiments in mammalian cell lines. We found Cas13X.1 could tolerate single-nucleotide mismatches in RNA recognition, facilitating prophylactic RNA virus inhibition. Moreover, a minimal RNA base editor, composed of engineered deaminase (385 aa) and truncated Cas13X.1 (445 aa), exhibited robust editing efficiency and high specificity to induce RNA base conversions. Our results suggest that there exist untapped bacterial defense systems in natural microbes that can function efficiently in mammalian cells, and thus potentially are useful for RNA-editing-based research.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems , RNA Editing , RNA, Bacterial , Animals , Bacterial Proteins , Cell Line , Cloning, Molecular , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Dogs , Humans , Mice , RNA Interference
17.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 150(1): 58-63, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187994

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study chest CT images and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnant patients to examine any correlation. METHODS: Between December 31, 2019 and March 7, 2020, 23 hospitalized pregnant patients with confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled in the study. Clinical presentations were collected retrospectively from records, including laboratory testing, chest CT imaging, and symptoms. Descriptive analysis and correlation of patients' clinical and CT characteristics were performed. Laboratory results from time of first admission and CT absorption (defined as reduction in lesion area, decrease in density, and absorption of some solid components) were compared between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. RESULTS: Fifteen (65.2%) patients were asymptomatic with patchy ground-glass opacity in a single lung lobe. Eight (34.8%) patients were symptomatic with multiple patchy ground-glass shadows, consolidation, and fibrous stripes. Differences in lymphocyte percentage and neutrophil granulocyte rate between first admission and CT absorption were significant (P<0.001). Median absorption time was shorter in the asymptomatic group compared with the symptomatic group (5 vs 10 days; P<0.001). Median hospitalization time between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients was 14 vs 25.5 days; P>0.001. Median absorption time and length of hospitalization for all patients was 6 days (IQR 5-8) and 17 days (IQR 13-25), respectively. CONCLUSION: Radiological findings and clinical characteristics in pregnant women with COVID-19 were similar to those of non-pregnant women with COVID-19. Median absorption time and length of hospitalization in asymptomatic patients were significantly shorter than in symptomatic patients. Lymphocyte percentage and neutrophil granulocyte rate may be used as laboratory indicators of CT absorption.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/virology , Lymphocytes , Neutrophils , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging ; 2(2): e200067, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155971
19.
Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging ; 2(1): e200031, 2020 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155966
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(16): 2109-2113, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153167

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) at the frontline are facing a substantial risk of infection during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. METHODS: We acquired information and data on general information on and infection and death status of HCWs in Wuhan during the COVID-19 outbreak and completed statistical analyses. RESULTS: We obtained the data on 2457 infected cases among HCWs in Wuhan, China. More than half of the infected individuals were nurses (52.06%), whereas 33.62% of infected cases were doctors and 14.33% of cases were medical staff. In particular, the case infection rate of nurses (2.22%) was remarkably higher than that of doctors (1.92%). Most infected cases among HCWs were female (72.28%). A majority of the infected HCWs (89.26%) came from general hospitals, followed by specialized hospitals (5.70%) and community hospitals (5.05%). The case infection rate of HCWs (2.10%) was dramatically higher than that of non-HCWs (0.43%). The case fatality rate of HCWs (0.69%) was significantly lower than that of non-HCWs (5.30%). CONCLUSIONS: The infection risk of HCWs is clearly higher than that of non-HCWs. HCWs play an essential role in fighting the pandemic. The analysis of the infection status of HCWs is essential to attract enough attention from the public, provide effective suggestions for government agencies, and improve protective measures for HCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Pandemics
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