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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329024

ABSTRACT

Background: Adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is an emerging global public health concern as nicotine addiction may be established among this vulnerable population. Its study has generated a burgeoning body of research charactering a wide spectrum. However, the development and current status of research on this alarming issue have been inadequately examined in an objective, systematic and visualized way. This bibliometric analysis aims to fill this gap by providing a comprehensive overview of scientific literature in relation to adolescent e-cigarette use. Methods A total of 943 eligible papers published from 2011 to 2021 were retrieved from Web of Science Core Collection. Performance analysis was used with various bibliometric indicators to examine the publication trend, most prolific countries, institutions, authors, journals, and highly cited articles. Science mapping based on VOSviewer was employed to visualize the collaboration networks between countries and authors, research hotspots, and their evolutions. Results Publications on adolescent e-cigarette use has increased significantly during the past decade. The USA dominated this field in all aspects and the University of Southern California was the most productive institution. There were clear collaborative author groupings, but their transnational collaborations were generally weak. Major research themes were identified in the extant literature, including epidemiology and KABs;risk factors;health implications;gateway effect;and prevention interventions. The keywords such as ‘vapor’, ‘flavor’, ‘advertising’, ‘dual use’ reflected research emphases in early studies while ‘bullying’, ‘COVID-19’, ‘social norms’ , and ‘heated tobacco products’ were the emerging research trends. Conclusion This study is presumed to provide an overall picture of research on adolescent e-cigarette use, which may help scholars and public health practitioners stay abreast of the research developments and serve as a reference and entry point for further investigation into this multifaceted phenomenon.

2.
J Control Release ; 342: 241-279, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639249

ABSTRACT

RNA-based therapy is a promising and potential strategy for disease treatment by introducing exogenous nucleic acids such as messenger RNA (mRNA), small interfering RNA (siRNA), microRNA (miRNA) or antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) to modulate gene expression in specific cells. It is exciting that mRNA encoding the spike protein of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) delivered by lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) exhibits the efficient protection of lungs infection against the virus. In this review, we introduce the biological barriers to RNA delivery in vivo and discuss recent advances in non-viral delivery systems, such as lipid-based nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles, N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-siRNA conjugate, and biomimetic nanovectors, which can protect RNAs against degradation by ribonucleases, accumulate in specific tissue, facilitate cell internalization, and allow for the controlled release of the encapsulated therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Humans , Liposomes , RNA, Small Interfering , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Assoc Inf Sci Technol ; 2021 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437029

ABSTRACT

The spread of misinformation on social media has become a major societal issue during recent years. In this work, we used the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic as a case study to systematically investigate factors associated with the spread of multi-topic misinformation related to one event on social media based on the heuristic-systematic model. Among factors related to systematic processing of information, we discovered that the topics of a misinformation story matter, with conspiracy theories being the most likely to be retweeted. As for factors related to heuristic processing of information, such as when citizens look up to their leaders during such a crisis, our results demonstrated that behaviors of a political leader, former US President Donald J. Trump, may have nudged people's sharing of COVID-19 misinformation. Outcomes of this study help social media platform and users better understand and prevent the spread of misinformation on social media.

4.
Neurol Res ; 42(10): 811-817, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-627855

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic poses a substantial threat to the health of healthcare personnel on the front line of caring for COVID-19 patients. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services previously announced that all non-essential planned surgeries and procedures should be postponed until further notice and only urgent procedures should proceed. METHODS: We share our experiences with safely performing neurosurgical procedures on confirmed and suspected COVID-19 patients, to aide other neurosurgical teams in preparing for these high-risk cases, especially for neurosurgical interventions which are essential at saving a life or preserving functioning of the central nervous system that cannot be delayed. Perioperative and intraoperative strategies, considerations, as well as challenges arisen under the specific circumstance have been discussed: the hospital should be equipped with negative pressure areas and multiple areas to quarantine positive patients; the operating rooms should be negative pressure or have HEPA-filtration systems in place; all healthcare personnel who immediately participate in neurosurgical interventions for confirmed and suspected COVID-19 patients should take airborne precautions and wear enhanced personal protective equipment. RESULTS: Successful management of neurosurgical emergencies without healthcare personnel infection has been achieved during this pandemic crisis. CONCLUSION: Following the proposed guidance, urgent neurosurgical surgeries and procedures can be safely performed for the benefit of critical patients with or suspected for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Neurosurgery , Neurosurgical Procedures , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Occupational Health , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
5.
World Neurosurg ; 138: e955-e960, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-274866

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses a substantial threat to the health of health care personnel on the front line of caring for patients with COVID-19. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services have announced that all nonessential planned surgeries and procedures should be postponed until further notice and only urgent procedures should proceed. Neurologic surgeries and procedures should not be delayed under the circumstance in which it is essential at saving a life or preserving functioning of the central nervous system. METHODS: With the intent to advise the neurosurgery team on how to adequately prepare and safely perform neurosurgical procedures on confirmed and suspected patients with COVID-19, we discuss considerations and recommendations based on the lessons and experience shared by neurosurgeons in China. RESULTS: Perioperative and intraoperative strategies, considerations, as well as challenges arisen under the specific circumstance have been discussed. In addition, a case of a ruptured aneurysm in a suspected patient with COVID-19 is reported. It is advised that all health care personnel who immediately participate in neurosurgical surgeries and procedures for confirmed and suspected patients with COVID-19 should take airborne precautions and wear enhanced personal protective equipment. CONCLUSIONS: Following the proposed guidance, urgent neurosurgical surgeries and procedures can be safely performed for the benefit of critical patients with or suspected for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm, Ruptured/surgery , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Intracranial Aneurysm/surgery , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/surgery , Air Filters , Aneurysm, Ruptured/complications , Aneurysm, Ruptured/diagnostic imaging , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Computed Tomography Angiography , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Craniotomy/methods , Drainage , Emergencies , Hematoma/complications , Hematoma/diagnostic imaging , Hematoma/surgery , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm/complications , Intracranial Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Pressure , Intraoperative Care , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Monitoring, Physiologic , Operating Rooms , Pandemics , Perioperative Care , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , United States
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