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1.
Chin Med ; 17(1): 27, 2022 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702656

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tea trees originated in southwest China 60 million or 70 million years ago. Written records show that Chinese ancestors had begun drinking tea over 3000 years ago. Nowadays, with the aging of populations worldwide and more people suffering from non-communicable diseases or poor health, tea beverages have become an inexpensive and fine complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapy. At present, there are 3 billion people who like to drink tea in the world, but few of them actually understand tea, especially on its development process and the spiritual and cultural connotations. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, CNKI, and other relevant platforms with the key word "tea", and reviewed and analyzed tea-related literatures and pictures in the past 40 years about tea's history, culture, customs, experimental studies, and markets. RESULTS: China is the hometown of tea, tea trees, tea drinking, and tea culture. China has the oldest wild and planted tea trees in the world, fossil of a tea leaf from 35,400,000 years ago, and abundant tea-related literatures and art works. Moreover, tea may be the first Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) used by Chinese people in ancient times. Tea drinking has many benefits to our physical health via its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immuno-regulatory, anticancer, cardiovascular-protective, anti-diabetic, and anti-obesity activities. At the moment, COVID-19 is wreaking havoc across the globe and causing severe damages to people's health and lives. Tea has anti-COVID-19 functions via the enhancement of the innate immune response and inhibition of viral growth. Besides, drinking tea can allow people to acquire a peaceful, relaxed, refreshed and cheerful enjoyment, and even longevity. According to the meridian theory of traditional Chinese medicine, different kinds of tea can activate different meridian systems in the human body. At present, black tea (fermented tea) and green tea (non-fermented tea) are the most popular in the world. Black tea accounts for over 90% of all teas sold in western countries. The world's top-grade black teas include Qi Men black in China, Darjeeling and Assam black tea in India, and Uva black tea in Sri Lanka. However, all top ten famous green teas in the world are produced in China, and Xi Hu Long Jing tea is the most famous among all green teas. More than 700 different kinds of components and 27 mineral elements can be found in tea. Tea polyphenols and theaflavin/thearubigins are considered to be the major bioactive components of black tea and green tea, respectively. Overly strong or overheated tea liquid should be avoided when drinking tea. CONCLUSIONS: Today, CAM provides an array of treatment modalities for the health promotion in both developed and developing countries all over the world. Tea drinking, a simple herb-based CAM therapy, has become a popular man-made non-alcoholic beverage widely consumed worldwide, and it can improve the growth of economy as well. Tea can improve our physical and mental health and promote the harmonious development of society through its chemical and cultural elements.

2.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 33(12): 893-905, 2020 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060079

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Several COVID-19 patients have overlapping comorbidities. The independent role of each component contributing to the risk of COVID-19 is unknown, and how some non-cardiometabolic comorbidities affect the risk of COVID-19 remains unclear. METHODS: A retrospective follow-up design was adopted. A total of 1,160 laboratory-confirmed patients were enrolled from nine provinces in China. Data on comorbidities were obtained from the patients' medical records. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio ( OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of the associations between comorbidities (cardiometabolic or non-cardiometabolic diseases), clinical severity, and treatment outcomes of COVID-19. RESULTS: Overall, 158 (13.6%) patients were diagnosed with severe illness and 32 (2.7%) had unfavorable outcomes. Hypertension (2.87, 1.30-6.32), type 2 diabetes (T2DM) (3.57, 2.32-5.49), cardiovascular disease (CVD) (3.78, 1.81-7.89), fatty liver disease (7.53, 1.96-28.96), hyperlipidemia (2.15, 1.26-3.67), other lung diseases (6.00, 3.01-11.96), and electrolyte imbalance (10.40, 3.00-26.10) were independently linked to increased odds of being severely ill. T2DM (6.07, 2.89-12.75), CVD (8.47, 6.03-11.89), and electrolyte imbalance (19.44, 11.47-32.96) were also strong predictors of unfavorable outcomes. Women with comorbidities were more likely to have severe disease on admission (5.46, 3.25-9.19), while men with comorbidities were more likely to have unfavorable treatment outcomes (6.58, 1.46-29.64) within two weeks. CONCLUSION: Besides hypertension, diabetes, and CVD, fatty liver disease, hyperlipidemia, other lung diseases, and electrolyte imbalance were independent risk factors for COVID-19 severity and poor treatment outcome. Women with comorbidities were more likely to have severe disease, while men with comorbidities were more likely to have unfavorable treatment outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
3.
Clin Biochem ; 90: 1-7, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1036929

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is diagnosed by molecular-based detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Serologic testing detects antibodies specific to SARS-CoV-2 and IgM specifically may serve as an adjunct test to PCR early in disease. We evaluated the Abbott anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG assays along with DiaSorin anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and Roche anti-SARS-CoV-2 Total. METHODS: Specimens from 175 PCR-positive patients and 107 control specimens were analyzed using Abbott IgM and IgG, DiaSorin IgG, and Roche Total (IgA, IgG, IgM) assays. Sensitivity, specificity, cross-reactivity, concordance between assays, trends over time, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were determined. RESULTS: Abbott IgM sensitivity was 63.6% at 0 days post-PCR positivity, 76.5% at 1-5d, 76.3% at 6-14d, 85.2% at 15-30d, and 63.6% at > 30d. All assays exhibited highest sensitivity 15-30d post-PCR positivity (83.3-85.2%). Combining Abbott IgM and IgG improved sensitivity by 22.7% compared to IgG alone when tested 0d post-PCR positivity. All assays had a specificity of 100% and only Abbott IgG exhibited cross-reactivity (anti-dsDNA). Cohen's kappa varied between 0.86 and 0.93. Time to seroconversion from PCR positivity was lowest for Abbott IgM and highest for Abbott IgG. NPV was highest for Abbott IgM < 14 days post-PCR positivity and Abbott IgG ≥ 14 days. CONCLUSION: The Abbott IgM assay exhibited the earliest response and greatest signal in most patients evaluated for serial sampling and had the highest NPV < 14 days post-PCR positivity, suggesting its potential utility as an adjunct test to PCR early in disease course.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cross Reactions , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin G , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Predictive Value of Tests , RNA, Viral , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(18): 3934-3941, 2020 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-819324

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has so far caused hundreds of mortalities worldwide. Although respiratory symptoms are the main complication in COVID-19 patients, the disease is also associated with gastrointestinal problems, with diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting being primary COVID-19 symptoms. Thus, cancer and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) management, stool viral tests, and virus exposure are major concerns in the context of COVID-19 epidemic. In patients with colorectal cancer and IBD, the colonic mucosa exhibits elevated angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor levels, enhancing COVID-19 susceptibility. In some cases, positive viral stool tests may be the only indicator of infection at admission or after leaving quarantine. Without supplemental stool tests, the risk of undetected COVID-19 transmission is high. Moreover, viral exposure during the regular or emergency endoscopic examination should be avoided. We carefully discuss key gastrointestinal concerns with regard to COVID-19 and call for more attention to such problems.

5.
Math Biosci Eng ; 17(4): 3052-3061, 2020 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-806451

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection broke out in December 2019 in Wuhan, and rapidly overspread 31 provinces in mainland China on 31 January 2020. In the face of the increasing number of daily confirmed infected cases, it has become a common concern and worthy of pondering when the infection will appear the turning points, what is the final size and when the infection would be ultimately controlled. Based on the current control measures, we proposed a dynamical transmission model with contact trace and quarantine and predicted the peak time and final size for daily confirmed infected cases by employing Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm. We estimate the basic reproductive number of COVID-19 is 5.78 (95%CI: 5.71-5.89). Under the current intervention before 31 January, the number of daily confirmed infected cases is expected to peak on around 11 February 2020 with the size of 4066 (95%CI: 3898-4472). The infection of COVID-19 might be controlled approximately after 18 May 2020. Reducing contact and increasing trace about the risk population are likely to be the present effective measures.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Models, Biological , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Algorithms , Basic Reproduction Number/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Computer Simulation , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Epidemics/prevention & control , Epidemics/statistics & numerical data , Geographic Mapping , Humans , Markov Chains , Mathematical Concepts , Monte Carlo Method , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(7): 1075-1083, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-459522

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Elevated liver enzyme levels are observed in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, these features have not been characterized. METHODS: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Zhejiang Province, China, from January 17 to February 12, 2020, were enrolled. Liver enzyme level elevation was defined as alanine aminotransferase level >35 U/L for men and 25 U/L for women at admission. Patients with normal alanine aminotransferase levels were included in the control group. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and patients symptomatic with SARS-CoV-2 infection were defined as patients with COVID-19. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, treatment, and outcome data were collected and compared. RESULTS: Of 788 patients with COVID-19, 222 (28.2%) patients had elevated liver enzyme levels (median [interquartile range {IQR}] age, 47.0 [35.0-55.0] years; 40.5% women). Being male, overweight, and smoking increased the risk of liver enzyme level elevation. The liver enzyme level elevation group had lesser pharyngalgia and more diarrhea than the control group. The median time from illness onset to admission was 3 days for liver enzyme level elevation groups (IQR, 2-6), whereas the median hospitalization time for 86 (38.7%) discharged patients was 13 days (IQR, 11-16). No differences in disease severity and clinical outcomes were noted between the groups. DISCUSSION: We found that 28.2% of patients with COVID-19 presented with elevated liver enzyme levels on admission, which could partially be related to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Male patients had a higher risk of liver enzyme level elevation. With early medical intervention, liver enzyme level elevation did not worsen the outcomes of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/enzymology , Liver Function Tests , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/virology , Humans , Liver Diseases/enzymology , Liver Diseases/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Microbes Infect ; 22(4-5): 212-217, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-197499

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) is continuously and rapidly circulating at present. Asymptomatic patients have been proven to be contagious and thus pose a significant infection control challenge. Here we describe the characteristics of asymptomatic patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Jinan, Shandong province, China. A total of 47 patients with confirmed COVID-19 were recruited. Among them, 11 patients were categorized as asymptomatic cases. We found that the asymptomatic patients in Jinan were relatively young and were mainly clustered cases. The laboratory indicators and lung lesion on chest CT were mild. No special factors were found accounting for the presence or absence of symptoms. The presence of asymptomatic patients increased the difficulty of screening. It is necessary to strengthen the identification of such patients in the future.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
8.
Gut ; 69(6): 1002-1009, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-18560

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The SARS-CoV-2-infected disease (COVID-19) outbreak is a major threat to human beings. Previous studies mainly focused on Wuhan and typical symptoms. We analysed 74 confirmed COVID-19 cases with GI symptoms in the Zhejiang province to determine epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristics. DESIGN: COVID-19 hospital patients were admitted in the Zhejiang province from 17 January 2020 to 8 February 2020. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, management and outcome data of patients with GI symptoms were analysed using multivariate analysis for risk of severe/critical type. Bioinformatics were used to analyse features of SARS-CoV-2 from Zhejiang province. RESULTS: Among enrolled 651 patients, 74 (11.4%) presented with at least one GI symptom (nausea, vomiting or diarrhoea), average age of 46.14 years, 4-day incubation period and 10.8% had pre-existing liver disease. Of patients with COVID-19 with GI symptoms, 17 (22.97%) and 23 (31.08%) had severe/critical types and family clustering, respectively, significantly higher than those without GI symptoms, 47 (8.14%) and 118 (20.45%). Of patients with COVID-19 with GI symptoms, 29 (39.19%), 23 (31.08%), 8 (10.81%) and 16 (21.62%) had significantly higher rates of fever >38.5°C, fatigue, shortness of breath and headache, respectively. Low-dose glucocorticoids and antibiotics were administered to 14.86% and 41.89% of patients, respectively. Sputum production and increased lactate dehydrogenase/glucose levels were risk factors for severe/critical type. Bioinformatics showed sequence mutation of SARS-CoV-2 with m6A methylation and changed binding capacity with ACE2. CONCLUSION: We report COVID-19 cases with GI symptoms with novel features outside Wuhan. Attention to patients with COVID-19 with non-classic symptoms should increase to protect health providers.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections , Gastrointestinal Tract , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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