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1.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 8(1): 218, 2023 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238999

ABSTRACT

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common breathing disorder in sleep in which the airways narrow or collapse during sleep, causing obstructive sleep apnea. The prevalence of OSAS continues to rise worldwide, particularly in middle-aged and elderly individuals. The mechanism of upper airway collapse is incompletely understood but is associated with several factors, including obesity, craniofacial changes, altered muscle function in the upper airway, pharyngeal neuropathy, and fluid shifts to the neck. The main characteristics of OSAS are recurrent pauses in respiration, which lead to intermittent hypoxia (IH) and hypercapnia, accompanied by blood oxygen desaturation and arousal during sleep, which sharply increases the risk of several diseases. This paper first briefly describes the epidemiology, incidence, and pathophysiological mechanisms of OSAS. Next, the alterations in relevant signaling pathways induced by IH are systematically reviewed and discussed. For example, IH can induce gut microbiota (GM) dysbiosis, impair the intestinal barrier, and alter intestinal metabolites. These mechanisms ultimately lead to secondary oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and sympathetic activation. We then summarize the effects of IH on disease pathogenesis, including cardiocerebrovascular disorders, neurological disorders, metabolic diseases, cancer, reproductive disorders, and COVID-19. Finally, different therapeutic strategies for OSAS caused by different causes are proposed. Multidisciplinary approaches and shared decision-making are necessary for the successful treatment of OSAS in the future, but more randomized controlled trials are needed for further evaluation to define what treatments are best for specific OSAS patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Aged , Middle Aged , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/genetics , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy , Hypoxia , Obesity , Pharynx
2.
Int J Gen Med ; 16: 2305-2312, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244496

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to analyze the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of measles in Jinan, Shandong, China, over a 32-year stage to facilitate measles prevention in the future. Methods: Data on measles cases from 1991 to 2022 were obtained from the public health department and medical records of patients at Shandong Public Health Clinical Center. Retrospective analysis was conducted on the distribution of measles cases in different years, months, and age groups, and observation of the differences in clinical manifestations and complications among different age groups. Results: From January 1991 to December 2022, 7531 measles cases were recorded at Shandong Public Health Clinical Center. During the 32-year period, there were two outbreaks of measles in 2008 and 2016, respectively. During the COVID-19 pandemic period from 2020 to 2022, the number of cases reached the lowest point in the past 30 years. The number and percentage of cases in the 0-1y groups was significantly higher than in other age groups, and 97.75% patients in this group did not receive measles vaccine. Complications such as pneumonia and myocarditis appeared more frequent in patients under 12 years of age, but liver function damage is more common in adult patients. Conclusion: Although the measles epidemic has been greatly controlled since the use of measles vaccine, intermittent outbreaks still exist, so there is still a long way to go to eliminate measles. The proportion of infants under the age of 1 without measles vaccine and adults over 24 years old accounts for nearly 80% of the total. This group of people should be of concern, and feasible measures should be designated to protect these susceptible populations.

3.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243806

ABSTRACT

Scientific advances have led to the development and production of numerous vaccines and antiviral drugs, but viruses, including re-emerging and emerging viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2, remain a major threat to human health. Many antiviral agents are rarely used in clinical treatment, however, because of their inefficacy and resistance. The toxicity of natural products may be lower, and some natural products have multiple targets, which means less resistance. Therefore, natural products may be an effective means to solve virus infection in the future. New techniques and ideas are currently being developed for the design and screening of antiviral drugs thanks to recent revelations about virus replication mechanisms and the advancement of molecular docking technology. This review will summarize recently discovered antiviral drugs, mechanisms of action, and screening and design strategies for novel antiviral agents.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Products/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication
4.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1178662, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234557

ABSTRACT

Gasdermin D (GSDMD)-mediated pyroptosis and downstream inflammation are important self-protection mechanisms against stimuli and infections. Hosts can defend against intracellular bacterial infections by inducing cell pyroptosis, which triggers the clearance of pathogens. However, pyroptosis is a double-edged sword. Numerous studies have revealed the relationship between abnormal GSDMD activation and various inflammatory diseases, including sepsis, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), neurodegenerative diseases, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and malignant tumors. GSDMD, a key pyroptosis-executing protein, is linked to inflammatory signal transduction, activation of various inflammasomes, and the release of downstream inflammatory cytokines. Thus, inhibiting GSDMD activation is considered an effective strategy for treating related inflammatory diseases. The study of the mechanism of GSDMD activation, the formation of GSDMD membrane pores, and the regulatory strategy of GSDMD-mediated pyroptosis is currently a hot topic. Moreover, studies of the structure of caspase-GSDMD complexes and more in-depth molecular mechanisms provide multiple strategies for the development of GSDMD inhibitors. This review will mainly discuss the structures of GSDMD and GSDMD pores, activation pathways, GSDMD-mediated diseases, and the development of GSDMD inhibitors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pyroptosis , Humans , Gasdermins , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism
5.
PLoS Pathog ; 19(5): e1011384, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324465

ABSTRACT

Malayan pangolin SARS-CoV-2-related coronavirus (SARSr-CoV-2) is closely related to SARS-CoV-2. However, little is known about its pathogenicity in pangolins. Using CT scans we show that SARSr-CoV-2 positive Malayan pangolins are characterized by bilateral ground-glass opacities in lungs in a similar manner to COVID-19 patients. Histological examination and blood gas tests are indicative of dyspnea. SARSr-CoV-2 infected multiple organs in pangolins, with the lungs the major target, and histological expression data revealed that ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were co-expressed with viral RNA. Transcriptome analysis indicated that virus-positive pangolins were likely to have inadequate interferon responses, with relative greater cytokine and chemokine activity in the lung and spleen. Notably, both viral RNA and viral proteins were detected in three pangolin fetuses, providing initial evidence for vertical virus transmission. In sum, our study outlines the biological framework of SARSr-CoV-2 in pangolins, revealing striking similarities to COVID-19 in humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Animals , Humans , Pangolins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virulence , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral , Tropism
6.
Comput Inform Nurs ; 2022 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316660

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a leading societal concern. eHealth literacy is important in the prevention and control of this pandemic. The purpose of this study is to identify eHealth literacy of Chinese residents about the COVID-19 pandemic and factors influencing eHealth literacy. A total of 15 694 individuals clicked on the link to the questionnaire, and 15 000 agreed to participate and completed the questionnaire for a response rate of 95.58%. Descriptive statistics, χ2 test, and logistic regression analysis were conducted to analyze participants' level of eHealth literacy about COVID-19 and its influencing factors. The results showed 52.2% of participants had relatively lower eHealth literacy regarding COVID-19 (eHealth literacy score ≤ 48). The scores of the information judgment dimension (3.09 ± 0.71) and information utilization dimension (3.18 ± 0.67) of the eHealth literacy scale were relatively lower. The logistics regression showed that sex, age, education level, level of uncertainty, having people around the respondent diagnosed with COVID-19, relationship with family, and relationship with others were associated to eHealth literacy (χ2 = 969.135, P < .001). The public's eHealth literacy about COVID-19 needs to be improved, especially the ability to judge and utilize online information. Close collaboration among global health agencies, governments, healthcare institutions, and media is needed to provide reliable online information to the public. Interventions to improve eHealth literacy should take into account and accentuate the importance of sex, age, educational background, level of uncertainty, exposure to disease, and social support.

8.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 2488, 2023 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293756

ABSTRACT

Wildlife is reservoir of emerging viruses. Here we identified 27 families of mammalian viruses from 1981 wild animals and 194 zoo animals collected from south China between 2015 and 2022, isolated and characterized the pathogenicity of eight viruses. Bats harbor high diversity of coronaviruses, picornaviruses and astroviruses, and a potentially novel genus of Bornaviridae. In addition to the reported SARSr-CoV-2 and HKU4-CoV-like viruses, picornavirus and respiroviruses also likely circulate between bats and pangolins. Pikas harbor a new clade of Embecovirus and a new genus of arenaviruses. Further, the potential cross-species transmission of RNA viruses (paramyxovirus and astrovirus) and DNA viruses (pseudorabies virus, porcine circovirus 2, porcine circovirus 3 and parvovirus) between wildlife and domestic animals was identified, complicating wildlife protection and the prevention and control of these diseases in domestic animals. This study provides a nuanced view of the frequency of host-jumping events, as well as assessments of zoonotic risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Viruses , Animals , Animals, Domestic/virology , Animals, Wild/virology , Animals, Zoo/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Mammals/virology , Pangolins/virology , Phylogeny , Zoonoses/virology
9.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 4969, 2023 04 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303025

ABSTRACT

People vary both in their embrace of their society's traditions, and in their perception of hazards as salient and necessitating a response. Over evolutionary time, traditions have offered avenues for addressing hazards, plausibly resulting in linkages between orientations toward tradition and orientations toward danger. Emerging research documents connections between traditionalism and threat responsivity, including pathogen-avoidance motivations. Additionally, because hazard-mitigating behaviors can conflict with competing priorities, associations between traditionalism and pathogen avoidance may hinge on contextually contingent tradeoffs. The COVID-19 pandemic provides a real-world test of the posited relationship between traditionalism and hazard avoidance. Across 27 societies (N = 7844), we find that, in a majority of countries, individuals' endorsement of tradition positively correlates with their adherence to costly COVID-19-avoidance behaviors; accounting for some of the conflicts that arise between public health precautions and other objectives further strengthens this evidence that traditionalism is associated with greater attention to hazards.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Motivation , Public Health
10.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 37(7): e24880, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has created a global health crisis. Although Paxlovid is recommended for the early-stage treatment of mild-to-moderate COVID-19 in patients at increased risk of progression to severe COVID-19, more and more cases are reported a COVID-19 rebound after Paxlovid treatment. Currently, information on the additional treatment for COVID-19 rebound following Paxlovid treatment is limited. CASE REPORT: Here, we present four cases with COVID-19 who were mild on admission. All cases experienced a COVID-19 rebound and progressed to severe COVID-19, following treatment with Paxlovid (300 mg of nirmatrelvir with 100 mg ritonavir, twice daily for 5 days). After being treated with proxalutamide (300 mg/day), all cases finally turned real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) negative. CONCLUSION: Our cases suggested that proxalutamide might be an effective remedial treatment option for patients experiencing a COVID-19 rebound after Paxlovid treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Oxazoles
11.
Heliyon ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2268781

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) appeared in Wuhan (Hubei, China) and subsequently swept the globe. In addition to the risk of infection, there is a strong possibility that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be a secondary effect of the pandemic. Health care workers (HCWs) participating in the pandemic are highly exposed to and may bear the brunt out of stressful or traumatic events. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the morbidity and risk factors of PTSD symptoms among Chinese HCWs. A total of 457 HCWs were recruited from March 15, 2020, to Mach 22, 2020, including HCWs in Wuhan and Hubei Province (excluding Wuhan), the areas first and most seriously impacted by COVID-19. The morbidity of PTSD symptoms was assessed by the Event Scale–Revised (IES-R). The risk factors for PTSD symptoms were explored by means of logistic regression analysis. Over 40% of the respondents experienced PTSD symptoms more than one month after the COVID-19 outbreak, and this proportion increased to 57.7% in Wuhan HCWs, especially females and HCWs on the frontline. Thus, rapid mental health assessment and effective psychological interventions need to be developed for frontline HCWs to prevent long-term PTSD-related disabilities. Moreover, Negative coping style and neuroticism personality may be regarded as high risk factors for PTSD symptoms. Improving individual coping strategies to enhance resilience should be the focus of further preventive intervention strategies.

12.
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2286202

ABSTRACT

Objective Hospice aides are vital in delivering care to patients and family members at the end-of-life. The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in disruptions in hospice care delivery, especially in long-term care settings. We aim to provide a description of hospice aide visits among nursing home residents enrolled in hospice during the first nine months of 2020, as compared with the same months in 2019. Design Observational cohort study Setting and Participants 153,109 and 152,077 long-stay nursing home residents enrolled in hospice in 2019 and 2020, respectively. Methods On a monthly basis, we reported estimated probabilities of not having visits from hospice aides, and adjusted visit minutes among those who had hospice aide visits for the 2019 and 2020 cohort, respectively. The regression models accounted for resident sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and nursing home fixed effects. The analyses were conducted at the national- and state- level, separately. Results More than half of residents did not have any visits from hospice aides in 2020 from April and onward. Among residents who had hospice aide visits, the 2020 cohort had reduced visits in March and onward, with the greatest difference being 155 minutes less in April [95% CI: -163.4, -146.5]. State-level analyses suggested that multiple factors besides community spread or state policies might contribute to the reduced presence of hospice aides. Conclusions and Implications Our findings highlight the toll of the pandemic on hospice care delivery in nursing homes and the need for hospice care to be better incorporated into emergency preparedness planning.

14.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 1026887, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286218

ABSTRACT

Viruses are strictly intracellular parasites requiring host cellular functions to complete their reproduction cycle involving virus infection of host cell, viral genome replication, viral protein translation, and virion release. Ribosomes are protein synthesis factories in cells, and viruses need to manipulate ribosomes to complete their protein synthesis. Viruses use translation initiation factors through their own RNA structures or cap structures, thereby inducing ribosomes to synthesize viral proteins. Viruses also affect ribosome production and the assembly of mature ribosomes, and regulate the recognition of mRNA by ribosomes, thereby promoting viral protein synthesis and inhibiting the synthesis of host antiviral immune proteins. Here, we review the remarkable mechanisms used by RNA viruses to regulate ribosomes, in particular, the mechanisms by which RNA viruses induce the formation of specific heterogeneous ribosomes required for viral protein translation. This review provides valuable insights into the control of viral infection and diseases from the perspective of viral protein synthesis.

16.
J Infect Dis ; 2023 Apr 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283518

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: China has been using inactivated COVID-19 vaccines as primary series and booster doses to protect the population from severe to fatal COVID-19. We evaluated primary and booster vaccine effectiveness (VE) against Omicron BA.2 infection outcomes. METHODS: This was a 13-province retrospective cohort study of quarantined close contacts of BA.2-infected individuals. Outcomes were BA.2 infection, COVID-19 pneumonia or worse, and severe/critical COVID-19. Absolute VE was estimated by comparison with an unvaccinated group. RESULTS: There were 289,427 close-contacts ≥3 years old exposed to Omicron BA.2 cases; 31,831 turned nucleic-acid amplification test (NAAT)-positive during quarantine, 97.2% with mild or asymptomatic infection, 2.6% had COVID-19 pneumonia, and 0.15% had severe/critical COVID-19. None died. Adjusted VE against any infection was 17% for primary series and 22% when boosted. Primary series aVE in adults >18 years was 66% against pneumonia or worse infection and 91% against severe/critical COVID-19. Booster dose aVE was 74% against pneumonia or worse, and 93% against severe/critical COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Inactivated COVID-19 vaccines provided modest protection from infection, very good protection against pneumonia, and excellent protection against severe/critical COVID-19. Booster doses are necessary to provide strongest protection.

17.
J Affect Disord ; 329: 343-349, 2023 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288408

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of COVID-19 disarranged lives across mainland China. No study has examined changes in psychological symptoms of healthcare professionals in the intensive care unit (ICU) before and after the outbreak of COVID-19. The aim of this study was to estimate changes in psychological symptoms of ICU healthcare professionals before and after the COVID-19 outbreak, and to analyze factors related to psychological symptoms. METHODS: Two waves' administrations were implemented between December 13 and December 14, 2018, and between April 5 and April 7, 2020, respectively. The symptom checklist-90 (SCL-90) were used to evaluate psychological symptoms. Multiple logistical regression was used to reveal the risk of psychological symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 3902 and 3908 ICU healthcare professionals took part in the first and second surveys. The mean total score of the SCL-90 was 179.27 (70.02) at wave 1 and 147.75 (58.40) at wave 2, respectively. The proportion of psychological symptoms was 55.6 % (95%CI = 54.0-57.1) at wave 1. But rates of psychological symptoms decreased to 36.6 % (95%CI = 35.1-38.2) at wave 2. ICU healthcare professionals with western economic belt and 6-10 years of work were more likely to develop psychological symptoms, while ICU healthcare professionals with the later survey and doctoral degree were less likely to develop psychological symptoms. CONCLUSION: Although COVID-19 period benefited psychological symptoms of ICU healthcare professionals, psychological symptoms still had a related high prevalence. Regular screening and appropriate interventions should still be implemented to decrease the risk for psychological symptoms among Chinese ICU healthcare professionals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Intensive Care Units , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Disease Outbreaks , East Asian People , Health Personnel/psychology
18.
Front Neurosci ; 17: 1075272, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286053

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study examined the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in college students 1 month after the lockdown of Wuhan to identify possible risk factors for PTSD symptoms in a cross-sectional study. Methods: Out of 10,502 who responded, 9,274 students impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic were included in our study. PTSD symptoms was evaluated by the Impact of Event Scale-revised (IES-R). Anxiety/depression symptoms were evaluated by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Personality traits, coping style, and social support were assessed by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Short Scale for Chinese (EPQ-RSC), the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ), and the Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS). Logistic regression analysis was utilized to further explore risk factors for PTSD symptoms. Results: More than 1 month after the COVID-19 outbreak, 13.1% of college students developed PTSD symptoms, indicating that COVID-19 associated stressful experiences were connected with PTSD symptoms. After the COVID-19 outbreak, subjects with symptomatologic PTSD symptoms were more likely to experience strained relationships with their family, to have close contact with COVID-19 patients and to drop out of college. The logistic regression model demonstrated the association factors of PTSD symptoms. Neuroticism, psychoticism and an avoidant coping style were associated with increased risk for PTSD symptoms, while an active coping style was protective against PTSD symptoms during this pandemic. Conclusion: The results showed that PTSD symptoms was prevalent in Chinese college students 1 month after the COVID-19 outbreak. Effective psychological support work should be carried out accordingly.

19.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 45(5): 665-671, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262161

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic imposed unexpected disruptions to anatomical educational practice, the teaching of regional anatomy for international students which has changed to an online format and faces various challenges. The challenges include creating online education homogeneous/equivalent to offline education, introducing local culture to international students, and educating students in medical humanities and ethics. METHODS: To address these problems, the teaching staff integrated medical humanities and local culture into nonsynchronous online teaching of regional anatomy. RESULTS: The nonsynchronous online teaching with interpreted videos of dissections does not significantly affect the experimental and total scores of regional anatomy courses for international students. Integrating medical humanities and local culture into this teaching model is appreciated by them and also has a good teaching effect. CONCLUSION: Students not only gained professional knowledge but also obtained enhanced exposure to local culture and professional spirit from this regional anatomy education.


Subject(s)
Anatomy , COVID-19 , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Students, Medical , Humans , Anatomy, Regional , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Curriculum , Humanities/education , Anatomy/education , Teaching
20.
Heliyon ; 9(4): e14415, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268782

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) appeared in Wuhan (Hubei, China) and subsequently swept the globe. In addition to the risk of infection, there is a strong possibility that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be a secondary effect of the pandemic. Health care workers (HCWs) participating in the pandemic are highly exposed to and may bear the brunt out of stressful or traumatic events. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the morbidity and risk factors of PTSD symptoms among Chinese HCWs. A total of 457 HCWs were recruited from March 15, 2020, to Mach 22, 2020, including HCWs in Wuhan and Hubei Province (excluding Wuhan), the areas first and most seriously impacted by COVID-19. The morbidity of PTSD symptoms was assessed by the Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). The risk factors for PTSD symptoms were explored by means of logistic regression analysis. Over 40% of the respondents experienced PTSD symptoms more than one month after the COVID-19 outbreak, and this proportion increased to 57.7% in Wuhan HCWs, especially females and HCWs on the frontline. Thus, rapid mental health assessment and effective psychological interventions need to be developed for frontline HCWs to prevent long-term PTSD-related disabilities. Moreover, Negative coping style and neuroticism personality may be regarded as high risk factors for PTSD symptoms. Improving individual coping strategies to enhance resilience should be the focus of further preventive intervention strategies.

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