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1.
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules ; 230:123191, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2179329

ABSTRACT

Viral mRNA of coronavirus translates in an eIF4E-dependent manner, and the phosphorylation of eIF4E can modulate this process, but the role of p-eIF4E in coronavirus infection is not yet entirely evident. p-eIF4E favors the translation of selected mRNAs, specifically the mRNAs that encode proteins associated with cell proliferation, inflammation, the extracellular matrix, and tumor formation and metastasis. In the present work, two rounds of TMT relative quantitative proteomics were used to screen 77 cellular factors that are upregulated upon infection by coronavirus PEDV and are potentially susceptible to a high level of p-eIF4E. PEDV infection increased the translation level of ribosomal protein lateral stalk subunit RPLp2 (but not subunit RPLp0/1) in a p-eIF4E-dependent manner. The bicistronic dual-reporter assay and polysome profile showed that RPLp2 is essential for translating the viral mRNA of PEDV. RNA binding protein and immunoprecipitation assay showed that RPLp2 interacted with PEDV 5′UTR via association with eIF4E. Moreover, the cap pull-down assay showed that the viral nucleocapsid protein is recruited in m7GTP-precipitated complexes with the assistance of RPLp2. The heterogeneous ribosomes, which are different in composition, regulate the selective translation of specific mRNAs. Our study proves that viral mRNA and protein utilize translation factors and heterogeneous ribosomes for preferential translation initiation. This previously uncharacterized process may be involved in the selective translation of coronavirus.

2.
Sustainability ; 15(2):1358, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2200765

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the new crown pneumoniaCOVID-19 epidemic swept the world, and it still has an impact on the production and lifestyle of various countries. Guiding enterprises to implement responsible innovation can enable enterprises to shoulder social responsibilities while innovating, resist the impact of the epidemic, accelerate countries to get out of the haze of the epidemic, and promote high-quality economic development. In this paper, three typical subjects of government, enterprise, and consumer are selected to construct an evolutionary game model, and prospect theory is introduced to explore the strategic choices and influencing factors of the three parties. Through the numerical simulation of MATLAB software, the following conclusions are obtained: in the early stage of policy implementation, the enthusiasm of enterprises to implement responsible innovation is not high;with the implementation of policies and the continuation of time, the enthusiasm of enterprises gradually increases;and the supervision role of the government and consumers gradually decreases. Appropriate government incentives and disincentives will promote enterprises and consumers to participate in responsible innovation. This paper explores the game process of government, enterprises, and consumers from a dynamic perspective, explores the decision-making process of all parties under the prospect theory, reveals the implementation process of responsible innovation and the factors affecting responsible innovation, and provides a theoretical reference for the implementation of responsible innovation model.

3.
Vaccines ; 10(12):2145, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2163723

ABSTRACT

Since the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, pharmaceutical companies and researchers worldwide have worked hard to develop vaccines and drugs to end the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The potential pathogen responsible for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), SARS-CoV-2, belongs to a novel lineage of beta coronaviruses in the subgenus arbovirus. Antiviral drugs, convalescent plasma, monoclonal antibodies, and vaccines are effective treatments for SARS-CoV-2 and are beneficial in preventing infection. Numerous studies have already been conducted using the genome sequence of SARS-CoV-2 in comparison with that of other SARS-like viruses, and numerous treatments/prevention measures are currently undergoing or have already undergone clinical trials. We summarize these studies in depth in the hopes of highlighting some key details that will help us to better understand the viral origin, epidemiology, and treatments of the virus.

4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(11): e2241434, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118223

ABSTRACT

Importance: Older adults and individuals with medical comorbidities are at increased risk for severe COVID-19. Several pharmacotherapies demonstrated to reduce the risk of COVID-19-related hospitalization and death have been authorized for use. Objective: To describe factors associated with receipt of outpatient COVID-19 pharmacotherapies in the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system. Design, Settings, and Participants: This cohort study assessed outpatient veterans with risk factors for severe COVID-19 who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 during January and February 2022. The setting was the VA health care system, the largest integrated health care system in the US. Exposures: Demographic characteristics, place of residence, underlying medical conditions, and COVID-19 vaccination. Main Outcomes and Measures: The odds of receipt of any COVID-19 pharmacotherapy, including sotrovimab, nirmatrelvir boosted with ritonavir, molnupiravir, or remdesivir were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Results: Among 111 717 veterans included in this study (median [IQR] age, 60 [46-72] years; 96 482 [86.4%] male, 23 362 [20.9%] Black, 10 740 [9.6%] Hispanic, 75 973 [68.0%] White) who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 during January to February 2022, 4233 (3.8%) received any COVID-19 pharmacotherapy, including 2870 of 92 396 (3.1%) in January and 1363 of 19 321 (7.1%) in February. Among a subset of 56 285 veterans with documented COVID-19-related symptoms in the 30 days preceding a positive SARS-CoV-2 test, 3079 (5.5%) received any COVID-19 pharmacotherapy. Untreated veterans had a median (IQR) age of 60 (46-71) years and a median (IQR) of 3 (2-5) underlying medical conditions. Veterans receiving any treatment were more likely to be older (aged 65 to 74 years vs 50 to 64 years: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.66 [95% CI, 1.52-1.80]; aged at least 75 years vs 50 to 64 years: aOR, 1.67 [95% CI, 1.53-1.84]) and have a higher number of underlying conditions (at least 5 conditions vs 1 to 2 conditions: aOR, 2.17 [95% CI, 1.98-2.39]). Compared with White veterans, Black veterans (aOR, 0.65 [95% CI, 0.60-0.72]) were less likely to receive treatment; and compared with non-Hispanic veterans, Hispanic veterans (aOR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.77-0.99]) were less likely to receive treatment. There were 16 546 courses of sotrovimab, nirmatrelvir, and molnupiravir allocated across the VA during this period. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of veterans who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 during January and February when supply of outpatient COVID-19 pharmacotherapies was limited, prescription of these pharmacotherapies was underused, and many veterans with risk factors for severe COVID-19 did not receive treatment. Veterans from minority racial and ethnic groups were less likely to receive any pharmacotherapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Veterans , Male , Humans , Aged , Middle Aged , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cohort Studies , COVID-19 Vaccines
5.
Separation and Purification Technology ; 305:122517, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2096024

ABSTRACT

Chloroquine phosphate (CQP) has been suggested as an important and effective clinical reliever medication for the 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19). Nevertheless, its excessive use will inevitably cause irreparable damage to the entire ecosystem, thereby posing a considerable environmental safety concern. Hence, the development of highly-efficient methods of removing CQP from water pollution sources, e.g., effluents from hospitals and pharmaceutical factories is significant. This study reported the fabrication of novel CN bond linked conjugated microporous polymers (CMPs) (BPT–DMB–CMP) with multiple nitrogen-rich anchoring sites for the quick and efficient removal of CQP from aqueous solutions. The irreversible covalent CN bond linked in the internal framework of BPT–DMB–CMP endowed it with good chemical stability and excellent adsorbent regeneration. With its predesigned functional groups (i.e., rich NH bonds, triazine rings, and benzene rings) and large area surface (1,019.89 m2·g−1), BPT–DMB–CMP demonstrated rapid adsorption kinetics (25 min) and an extraordinary adsorption capacity (334.70 mg·g−1) for CQP, which is relatively higher than that of other adsorbents. The adsorption behavior of CQP on BPT–DMB–CMP corresponded with Liu model and mixed-order model. Based on the density functional theory (DFT) calculations, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and adsorption comparisons test, the halogen bonding, and hydrogen bonding cooperates with π − π, C  H···π interactions and size-matching effect in the CQP adsorption system on BPT–DMB–CMP. The excellent practicability for the removal of CQP from real wastewater samples verified the prospect of practical application of BPT–DMB–CMP. BPT–DMB–CMP exhibited the application potentials for the adsorption of other antiviral drugs. This work opens up an efficient, simple, and high adsorption capacity way for removal CQP.

6.
ACS Sens ; 7(11): 3422-3429, 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096637

ABSTRACT

A new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has caused the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. A rapid and economical method for preliminary screening of COVID-19 may help to control the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we report a nickel single-atom electrocatalyst that can be printed on a paper-printing sensor for preliminary screening of COVID-19 suspects by efficient detection of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). The FeNO value is confirmed to be related to COVID-19 in our exploratory clinical study, and a machine learning model that can accurately classify healthy subjects and COVID-19 patients is established based on FeNO and other features. The nickel single-atom electrocatalyst consists of a single nickel atom with N2O2 coordination embedded in porous acetylene black (named Ni-N2O2/AB). A paper-printed sensor was fabricated with the material and showed ultrasensitive response to NO in the range of 0.3-180 ppb. This ultrasensitive sensor could be applied to preliminary screening of COVID-19 in everyday life.


Subject(s)
Breath Tests , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nickel , Nitric Oxide , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Frontiers in psychology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2092574

ABSTRACT

Chinese international students who studied in the United States received “double stigmatization” from American and Chinese authorities because of the “political othering” tactic during COVID-19. The research used a phenomenological approach to examine why and how specifically the transnational identity of Chinese international students in the United States shifted during the double stigmatization. The researcher conducted a total of three rounds of interviews with 15 Chinese international students who studied in the United States and returned to China between 2018 and 2020, which culminated in 45 interviews through a longitudinal study to probe the transnational identities of this population before and during the double stigmatization;the study also examined how the mindsponge mechanism worked during the identity shifts and the interplay among stigmatization, transnational identity shifts, and the mindsponge mechanism. The study concluded that before COVID-19, Chinese international students had been stigmatized in both China and the United States. And there were three identity clusters for international students’ transnational identity: homestayers, wayfarers, and navigators based on four dimensions: intercultural competence, relocation of locality, diaspora consciousness, and attachment between China and the US. The study concluded that during the double stigmatization, Chinese international students in all three identity clusters took individualism into their core values, whereas Chinese traditional values, such as nationalism, collectivism, and obedience to authority waned. In addition, the study corroborated the trust evaluator’s gatekeeper role and substantiated the validity and effectiveness of cost-benefit analysis on an individual’s decision to accept or reject new information and values.

8.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 24(10): 1098-1103, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090826

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the changes in the disease spectrum among hospitalized children in the pediatric intensive care units (PICU) within 2 years before and after the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: The related data on disease diagnosis were collected from all children who were hospitalized in the PICU of Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical College from January 2018 to December 2019 (pre-COVID-19 group) and from January 2020 to December 2021 (post-COVID-19 group). A statistical analysis was performed for the disease spectrum of the two groups. RESULTS: There were 2 368 children in the pre-COVID-19 group and 1 653 children in the post-COVID-19 group. The number of children in the post-COVID-19 group was reduced by 30.19% compared with that in the pre-COVID-19 group. There was a significant difference in age composition between the two groups (P<0.05). The top 10 diseases in the pre-COVID-19 group by number of cases were respiratory diseases, neurological diseases, sepsis, critical illness, circulatory system diseases, severe neurosurgical diseases, digestive system diseases, unintentional injuries, endocrine system diseases, and tumors. The top 10 diseases in the post-COVID-19 group by number of cases were respiratory diseases, neurological diseases, sepsis, circulatory system diseases, unintentional injuries, endocrine system diseases, severe neurosurgical diseases, acute abdomen, trauma surgical diseases, and digestive system diseases. The proportions of respiratory diseases, critical illness and severe neurosurgical diseases in the post-COVID-19 group were lower than those in the pre-COVID-19 group (P<0.05), while the proportions of unintentional injuries, acute abdomen, endocrine system diseases, trauma surgical diseases and sepsis were higher than those in the pre-COVID-19 group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 epidemic has led to a significant reduction in the number of children admitted to the PICU, and there are significant changes in the disease spectrum within 2 years before and after the outbreak of COVID-19. Relevant prevention and control measures taken during the COVID-19 epidemic can reduce the incidence of respiratory diseases, neurological diseases, and other critical illness in children, but it is necessary to strengthen the prevention of unintentional injuries and chronic disease management during the epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Nervous System Diseases , Sepsis , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Sepsis/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
9.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071839

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a member of the family Coronaviridae, causes acute diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, and high mortality in newborn piglets, and has caused significant economic losses in the pig industry. There are currently no specific drugs available to treat PEDV. Viruses depend exclusively on the cellular machinery to ensure an efficient replication cycle. In the present study, we found that small-molecule RAF265, an anticancer drug that has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of RAF, reduced viral loads of PEDV by 4 orders of magnitude in Vero cells, and protected piglets from virus challenge. RAF265 reduced PEDV production by mediating cytoskeleton arrangement and targeting the host cell's translation machinery. Treatment with RAF265 inhibited viral entry of PEDV S-glycoprotein pseudotyped viral vector particle (PEDV-pp), at half maximal effective concentrations (EC50) of 79.1 nM. RAF265 also presented potent inhibitory activity against viral infection by SARS-CoV-2-pp and SARS-CoV-pp. The present work may provide a starting point for further progress toward the development of antiviral strategies effective against coronavirus PEDV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Chlorocebus aethiops , Animals , Swine , Vero Cells , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
10.
Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects ; : 130393, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2068831

ABSTRACT

The consumption of famciclovir (FCV) has been increased dramatically since the outbreak of coronavirus in 2019, and the pollution and harm of FCV in waters are concerned. Here, by utilizing aryl halides on 2, 4, 6-tris(4-bromophenyl)-1, 3, 5-triazine (BPT) and primary amine groups on benzidine (BZ), a novel conjugated microporous polymer, namely BPT-BZ-CMP, was synthesized by Buchwald–Hartwig coupling reaction and applied in the removal of FCV from aqueous solution firstly. The synthesized BPT-BZ-CMP were characterized by various methods, including FTIR, SEM, BET, and Zeta–potential. Due to the micropore structure and high specific surface area, it took only 30min for BPT-BZ-CMP to adsorb FCV to reach an equilibrium, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 347.8mg·g−1. The Liu and pseudo-second-order kinetic models properly fit the adsorption equilibrium and kinetic data, respectively. The adsorption process was a spontaneous process, and the hydrogen bonding, π–π interaction and C–H···π interaction enhanced the adsorption of FCV on BPT-BZ-CMP. BPT-BZ-CMP maintained a good adsorption capacity after four consecutive adsorption–desorption cycle experiments. This study confirmed the potential of BPT-BZ-CMP as efficient sorbent to remove FCV from aqueous solutions.

11.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2047165

ABSTRACT

Background Hyperinflammation and coagulopathy are hallmarks of COVID-19 and synergistically contribute to illness progression. Antiplatelet agents have been proposed as candidate drugs for COVID-19 treatment on the basis of their antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory properties. A systematic review and meta-analysis that included early observational studies and recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed to summarize and compare evidence on this issue. Methods PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched to identify studies published up to Nov 7, 2021, and the results of registered clinical trials were followed up to Mar 30, 2022. We included RCTs and observational studies assessing the effect of antiplatelet therapy in adult patients with COVID-19. Data on baseline patient characteristics, interventions, controls, and outcomes were extracted by two independent reviewers. The primary outcome was mortality. Data were pooled using a random-effects model. Results Twenty-seven studies were included, of which 23 observational studies were pooled in a meta-analysis, and the remaining four RCTs (ACTIV-4B, RECOVERY, ACTIV-4a, and REMAP-CAP) were narratively synthesized. Based on 23 observational studies of 87,824 COVID-19 patients, antiplatelet treatment favors a lower risk of mortality [odds ratio (OR) 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61–0.85;I2 = 87.0%, P < 0.01]. The narrative synthesis of RCTs showed conflicting evidence, which did not support adding antiplatelet therapy to the standard care, regardless of the baseline illness severity and concomitant anticoagulation intensity. Conclusion While the rationale for using antiplatelet treatment in COVID-19 patients is compelling and was supported by the combined result of early observational studies, evidence from RCTs did not confirm this approach. Several factors that could explain this inconsistency were highlighted alongside perspectives on future research directions.

12.
Curr Res Ecol Soc Psychol ; 3: 100065, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031226

ABSTRACT

Vaccines can be an effective way to help prevent COVID-19 infections. However, in the age of "infodemic" and people holding different values, promoting COVID-related prevention can be difficult. Based on a survey of 460 Chinese residents in March 2021, the present analysis aims to provide a detailed understanding of the role of values and information sources on the Chinese's attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccines and their vaccination intent. Results revealed that collectivism and the use of mainstream websites were positively associated with value-expressive attitudes, trust toward vaccines, and norms, which in turn predicted vaccination intent. Furthermore, collectivism was negatively associated with attitudes toward inconvenience or minor side effects, whereas interpersonal communication was positively associated with such attitudes. Overall, collectivism appeared to be a much stronger predictor of the Chinese's vaccination intent than the media and interpersonal communication. Although this research was conducted in China, where the pace of mass vaccination was fast, the results can provide insights on what might contribute to the success or failure of a vaccination campaign and be used to compare COVID-19 vaccination campaigns in other countries.

13.
Front Chem ; 10: 909651, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2005848

ABSTRACT

Cytokine-mediated inflammatory response is considered a cause of skin lesion in COVID-19 patients. Complanatuside is a flavonol glycoside isolated from Astragalus complanatus. Flavonoids from Astragalus complanatus were reported to have anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities but the potential protective effect of complanatuside on cytokine-induced inflammatory damage in skin keratinocytes is not known. The aim of this study is to explore the inhibitory effect of complanatuside on inflammation and its underlying mechanisms in skin epithelial HaCaT cells treated with inflammatory cytokines. The combination of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-6 decreased cell viability, increased cell death, and pyroptosis in HaCaT cells. Treatment with complanatuside alleviated the effects of the cytokine combination on HaCaT cells. Complanatuside down-regulated pyroptosis related to NLRP3, GSDMD, and ASC. The effects of complanatuside were related to vast reductions in the levels of iNOS, COX-2, and ROS. Results of the present study indicate that complanatuside inhibited inflammation and protected the cells from inflammatory cell damage in HaCaT cells treated with the combination of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-6. Complanatuside may be a promising candidate for inhibiting COVID-19 related skin inflammatory damage.

14.
Current psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.) ; : 1-14, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1999602

ABSTRACT

In the context of COVID-19, people face conditions of great stress and are susceptible to negative emotions such as worry, fear, and doubt. Therefore, the focus of epidemic prevention should be on mental health as well as physical health. It is important to pay attention to people's mental health while mitigating and controlling the epidemic. As an intervention to improve mental health, exercise behavior has attracted increasing attention from scholars due to its convenience and low cost. Therefore, the goal of this paper was to investigate the differences between characteristics related to linguistic expression and mental health indicators among different groups of Weibo users by constructing a Weibo exercise behavior user lexicon to explore the influence of exercise behavior on mental health. This study developed a user dictionary of exercise behavior, classified Sina Weibo users' exercise behavior, and established relevant systems to uncover the expressive characteristics of psychological vocabulary and behavioral vocabulary to explore the differences in expressive features related to psychological and behavioral vocabulary and mental health indicators among users who engage in different forms of exercise behavior during the period of COVID-19. As a result of an analysis of variance (ANOVA) conducted during the COVID-19 epidemic, (1) based on the constructed user lexicon of motion behavior in Weibo, the classification program exhibited good performance;(2) there were significant differences in the expressions of some lexical features among users who exhibited different motor behaviors;and (3) both nonphysical exercise and physical exercise behavior had positive relationships with some mental health indicators, but the mechanism associated with nonphysical exercise requires further exploration. This study provides a scientific online evaluation methodology and support for research concerning exercise and mental health during the COVID-19 epidemic.

15.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1998857

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a non-neglectable context for the whole healthcare system. Under the background of COVID-19, the detection and diagnosis of malaria cases are under challenge. Here, we reported a COVID-19 and malaria co-infection traveler who has a long living history in Cameroon. The case was administered with dihydroartemisinin and piperaquine tablets for malaria, Lopinavir and Ritonavir tablets, Arbidol, recombinant human interferon α-2b and Compound Maxing Yifei mixture for COVID-19, and Zolpidem Tartrate tablets, Diazepam, Paroxetine Hydrochloride tablets, Thymosin α1, and Lianhua Qinwen Jiaonang during the second hospitalization of the patient since the patient has a certain level of anxiety and insomnia with no evidence of inflammatory reactions. After being tested negative two times for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 48 h, the patient met China's COVID-19 discharge standards and was discharged with stable vital signs and mental state. Since most countries in the sub-Saharan region have a fragile health system, co-infection for both Plasmodium and SARS-CoV-2 may not be uncommon, and raise a challenge in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention for both diseases. We add to the literature on co-infection of P. falciparum malaria and COVID-19 and offer operational advice on diagnosis, prevention, and treatment for the co-infection.

16.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 149, 2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993388

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate whether prone position can reduce the risk of patients with mild or moderate COVID-19 who progress to severe or critical illness. METHODS: The prone position group was treated in prone position on the day of admission in addition to conventional treatment. Indicators such as saturation of pulse oximetry (SpO2), heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and prone position-related adverse events were recorded before prone ventilation, 5 min after prone position and 30 min after prone position. Meanwhile, the cases of severe and critical patients, the percentage of transformation and the final clinical outcome of this group were analyzed. Conversion rates and mortality were calculated for patients with mild or moderate COVID-19 retrieved from the database who received only conventional care without combined prone positioning as control group. RESULTS: (1) A total of 34 patients were included in prone position group. There were significant differences in SpO2 between the first 4 days after admission and the day of discharge (F = 3.17, P < 0.001). (2) The main complications were back and neck muscle soreness (55.9%), followed by abdominal distension (8.9%). (3) In control group, a total of 4873 cases of mild and moderate patients were included from 19 literatures, with an average deterioration rate of 22.7% and mortality rate of 1.7%. (4) In prone position group, there were no severe or critical transformation cases and also no death cases. The prone position group had a significantly lower deterioration rate when compared with the control group (χ2 = 9.962, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Prone position improves SpO2 in patients with mild or moderate COVID-19. It can also reduce the percentage of mild or moderate patients progressing to severe or critical patients. The application of prone position is a simple, feasible, safe and effective treatment method in such patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Patient Positioning/methods , Prone Position , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Retrospective Studies
18.
Pathogens ; 11(8)2022 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979329

ABSTRACT

AIMS: We investigate how fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels affect the clinical severity in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, pneumonia patients with sole bacterial infection, and pneumonia patients with concurrent bacterial and fungal infections. METHODS: We enrolled 2761 COVID-19 patients, 1686 pneumonia patients with bacterial infections, and 2035 pneumonia patients with concurrent infections. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to assess the associations between FBG levels and clinical severity. RESULTS: FBG levels in COVID-19 patients were significantly higher than in other pneumonia patients during hospitalisation and at discharge (all p < 0.05). Among COVID-19 patients, the odds ratios of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), respiratory failure (RF), acute hepatitis/liver failure (AH/LF), length of stay, and intensive care unit (ICU) admission were 12.80 (95% CI, 4.80-37.96), 5.72 (2.95-11.06), 2.60 (1.20-5.32), 1.42 (1.26-1.59), and 5.16 (3.26-8.17) times higher in the FBG ≥7.0 mmol/L group than in FBG < 6.1 mmol/L group, respectively. The odds ratios of RF, AH/LF, length of stay, and ICU admission were increased to a lesser extent in pneumonia patients with sole bacterial infection (3.70 [2.21-6.29]; 1.56 [1.17-2.07]; 0.98 [0.88-1.11]; 2.06 [1.26-3.36], respectively). The odds ratios of ARDS, RF, AH/LF, length of stay, and ICU admission were increased to a lesser extent in pneumonia patients with concurrent infections (3.04 [0.36-6.41]; 2.31 [1.76-3.05]; 1.21 [0.97-1.52]; 1.02 [0.93-1.13]; 1.72 [1.19-2.50], respectively). Among COVID-19 patients, the incidence rate of ICU admission on day 21 in the FBG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L group was six times higher than in the FBG < 6.1 mmol/L group (12.30% vs. 2.21%, p < 0.001). Among other pneumonia patients, the incidence rate of ICU admission on day 21 was only two times higher. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated FBG levels at admission predict subsequent clinical severity in all pneumonia patients regardless of the underlying pathogens, but COVID-19 patients are more sensitive to FBG levels, and suffer more severe clinical complications than other pneumonia patients.

19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972505

ABSTRACT

The transmission of most respiratory pathogens, including SARS-CoV-2, occurs via virus-containing respiratory droplets, and thus, factors that affect virus viability in droplet residues on surfaces are of critical medical and public health importance. Relative humidity (RH) is known to play a role in virus survival, with a U-shaped relationship between RH and virus viability. The mechanisms affecting virus viability in droplet residues, however, are unclear. This study examines the structure and evaporation dynamics of virus-containing saliva droplets on fomites and their impact on virus viability using four model viruses: vesicular stomatitis virus, herpes simplex virus 1, Newcastle disease virus, and coronavirus HCoV-OC43. The results support the hypothesis that the direct contact of antiviral proteins and virions within the "coffee ring" region of the droplet residue gives rise to the observed U-shaped relationship between virus viability and RH. Viruses survive much better at low and high RH, and their viability is substantially reduced at intermediate RH. A phenomenological theory explaining this phenomenon and a quantitative model analyzing and correlating the experimentally measured virus survivability are developed on the basis of the observations. The mechanisms by which RH affects virus viability are explored. At intermediate RH, antiviral proteins have optimal influence on virions because of their largest contact time and overlap area, which leads to the lowest level of virus activity.

20.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 921535, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957203

ABSTRACT

Background: Many countries have adopted lockdown strategies to prevent the spread of COVID-19. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of the pandemic on anxiety, depression and care burden in caregivers of nursing patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), over a one-year period. Methods: We collected data on consecutive patients and their caregivers recruited at T0 (from 30 September to 31 December 2019) before the pandemic of COVID-19 at the memory clinic of Tianjin Huanhu Hospital. The patients and caregivers were followed up on face-to-face at T1 (from 30 September to 31 December 2020) during the pandemic to assess changes in physical activity, social contact, sleep quality, caregiver burden, anxiety and depression. Results: A total of 105 AD, 22 DLB and 50 MCI patients and caregivers were enrolled. A total of 36.6 % of the AD, 81.6% of the DLB, 38% of the MCI caregivers had worsening ZBI, whereas 31.7 % of the AD, 54.4% of the DLB, 26 % of the MCI caregivers had worsening GAD-7, and 29.6 % of the AD, 54.4% of the DLB, and 32 % of the MCI caregivers had worsening PHQ-9. DLB caregivers exhibited a rapid deterioration of ZBI (by 4.27 ± 5.43, P < 0.001), GAD-7 (by 2.23 ± 3.26, P = 0.003) and PHQ-9 (by 1.32 ± 2.25, P = 0.003) compared to AD and MCI caregivers. Conclusion: Social isolation, physical inactivity and sleep disturbance after lockdown for at least 12 months were significantly related to increased caregiver burden and worsened psychological states of caregivers of AD, DLB and MCI sufferers, especially among DLB caregivers.

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