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1.
EClinicalMedicine ; 46:101373-101373, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1782304

ABSTRACT

Background There are concerns that the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk of adverse outcomes among patients with coronavirus COVID-19. This study aimed to synthesize the evidence on associations between the use of NSAIDs and adverse outcomes. Methods A systematic search of WHO COVID-19 Database, Medline, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Embase, China Biology Medicine disc, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Database for all articles published from January 1, 2020, to November 7, 2021, as well as a supplementary search of Google Scholar. We included all comparative studies that enrolled patients who took NSAIDs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data extraction and quality assessment of methodology of included studies were completed by two reviewers independently. We conducted a meta-analysis on the main adverse outcomes, as well as selected subgroup analyses stratified by the type of NSAID and population (both positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or not). Findings Forty comparative studies evaluating 4,867,795 adult cases were identified. Twenty-eight (70%) of the included studies enrolled patients positive to SARS-CoV-2 tests. The use of NSAIDs did not reduce mortality outcomes among people with COVID-19 (number of studies [N] = 29, odds ratio [OR] = 0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.75 to 1.14, I2 = 89%). Results suggested that the use of NSAIDs was not significantly associated with higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with or without COVID-19 (N = 10, OR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.86 to 1.07, I2 = 78%;N = 8, aOR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.94 to 1.09, I2 = 26%), or an increased probability of intensive care unit (ICU) admission (N = 12, OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 0.94 to 1.75, I2 = 82% ;N = 4, aOR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.65 to 1.22, I2 = 60%), requiring mechanical ventilation (N = 11, OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.79 to 1.54, I2 = 63%;N = 5, aOR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.52 to 1.24, I2 = 66%), or administration of supplemental oxygen (N = 5, OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.52 to 1.24, I2 = 63%;N = 2, aOR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.89 to 1.12, I2 = 0%). The subgroup analysis revealed that, compared with patients not using any NSAIDs, the use of ibuprofen (N = 5, OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.50 to 2.39;N = 4, aOR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.78 to 1.16) and COX-2 inhibitor (N = 4, OR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.35 to 1.11;N = 2, aOR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.45 to 1.18) were not associated with an increased risk of death. Interpretation Data suggests that NSAIDs such as ibuprofen, aspirin and COX-2 inhibitor, can be used safely among patients positive to SARS-CoV-2. However, for some of the analyses the number of studies were limited and the quality of evidence was overall low, therefore more research is needed to corroborate these findings. Funding There was no funding source for this study.

2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 868679, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785351

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an infectious respiratory disease propagated by a new virus known as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in global healthcare crises. Emerging evidence from patients with COVID-19 suggests that endothelial cell damage plays a central role in COVID-19 pathogenesis and could be a major contributor to the severity and mortality of COVID-19. Like other infectious diseases, the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is closely associated with metabolic processes. Lactate, a potential biomarker in COVID-19, has recently been shown to mediate endothelial barrier dysfunction. In this review, we provide an overview of cardiovascular injuries and metabolic alterations caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. We also propose that lactate plays a potential role in COVID-19-driven endothelial cell injury.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vascular Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelium , Humans , Lactic Acid/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Diseases/pathology
3.
Curr Med Chem ; 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742087

ABSTRACT

Pentamidine, an FDA-approved human drug for many protozoal infections, was initially synthesized in the late 1930s and first reported to be curative for parasitosis in the 1940s. After ninety years of sometimes quiet growth, pentamidine and its derivatives have gone far beyond antibacterial agents, including but not limited to the ligands of DNA minor groove, modulators of PPIs (protein-protein interactions) of the transmembrane domain 5 of lateral membrane protein 1, and the blockers of the SARS-CoV-2 3a channel. This mini review highlights the development and applications of pentamidine and its analogs, aiming to provide insights for further developing pentamidine derivatives in the following decades.

4.
BMC Microbiol ; 22(1): 42, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690974

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Quantitative point-of-care testing assay for detecting antibodies is critical to COVID-19 control. In this study, we established an up-conversion phosphor technology-based point-of-care testing (UPT-POCT), a lateral flow assay, for rapid COVID-19 diagnosis, as well as prediction of seral neutralizing antibody (NAb) activity and protective effects. METHODS: UPT-POCT was developed targeting total antibodies against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Using ELISA as a contrast method, we evaluated the quantitation accuracy with NAb and serum samples. Cutoff for serum samples was determined through 70 healthy and 140 COVID-19 patients. We evaluated the cross-reactions with antibodies against other viruses. Then, we performed multi-center clinical trials of UPT-POCT, including 782 patients with 387 clinically confirmed COVID-19 cases. Furthermore, RBD-specific antibody levels were detected using UPT-POCT and microneutralization assay for samples from both patients and vaccinees. Specifically, the antibodies of recovered patients with recurrent positive (RP) reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction test results were discussed. RESULTS: The ratios of signal intensities between the test and control bands on the lateral flow strip, namely, T/C ratios, was defined as the results of UPT-POCT. T/C ratios had excellent correlations with concentrations of NAb, as well as OD values of ELISA for serum samples. The sensitivity and specificity of UPT-POCT were 89.15% and 99.75% for 782 cases in seven hospitals in China, respectively. We evaluated RBD-specific antibodies for 528 seral samples from 213 recovered and 99 RP COVID-19 patients, along with 35 seral samples from inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccinees, and we discovered that the total RBD-specific antibody level indicated by T/C ratios of UPT-POCT was significantly related to the NAb titers in both COVID-19 patients (r = 0.9404, n = 527; ρ = 0.6836, n = 528) and the vaccinees (r = 0.9063, ρ = 0.7642, n = 35), and it was highly relevant to the protection rate against RP (r = 0.9886, n = 312). CONCLUSION: This study reveals that the UPT-POCT for quantitative detection of total RBD-specific antibody could be employed as a surrogate method for rapid COVID-19 diagnosis and prediction of protective effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , China , Cross Reactions , Humans , Immunoassay , Limit of Detection , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination
5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324455

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has the capacity to use the eye for transocular entry. The characteristics of lacrimal drainage remind us to pay attention to the transmission route passing through the nasolacrimal ducts and then into the respiratory tract. The aim of this study was to assess ocular symptoms and hand-to-eye/nose contact behaviour in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. Methods: A questionnaire was designed by brain storing method according to practical requirements, then the survey of ocular symptoms and hand-to-eye/nose contact behaviour in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients was administered in person. The patients answered the items under the guidance of a nurse. The data of ocular symptoms and basic information was collected analysed. The correlation between ocular symptoms and hand-to-eye/nose contact behaviour was evaluated. Results: The most common ocular symptoms were increased discharge (in 53.19% of patients), foreign body sensation (44.68%), tearing (44.68%), conjunctival congestion (40.43%) and mild eye pain (40.43%). In total, 61.7% of patients had nasal obstruction and running. A total of 40.4% of patients blew their nose more frequently than usual because of nasal symptoms. A total of 63.8% of patients rubbed their eyes with their hands 1-5 times per day. Only 44.68% of patients washed their hands immediately when arriving at home more than 6 days per week. Increased frequencies of blowing noses (p=0.032), washing hands (p=0.025), and rubbing eyes (p=0.005) can affect ocular symptoms. The frequency and the way of face washing had no correlation with ocular symptoms. Conclusions: Ocular symptoms in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients are much more common than currently reported but nonspecific. This prompt us pay more attention to the true incidence of conjunctivitis in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. The frequency of hand-to-eye/nose contact can increase the risk of presenting ocular symptoms. However, hand washing can decrease the risk. These results provide direct evidence of behaviour change and smooth the concerns for many people.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323656

ABSTRACT

During the special period of the COVID-19 outbreak, this project investigated the driving factors in different information diffusion modes (i.e. broadcasting mode, contagion mode) based on the nomination relations in a social welfare campaign on Weibo. Specifically, we mapped a nomination social network and tracked the core communicators in both modes. Besides, we also observed the network from perspectives such as relationships between core communicators and modularity of the whole network. We extracted 6 homophily factors and tested them on 2 representative communities within the largest component of the network. We found that some core communicators distributed in a co-dependent way. At last, we supposed several explanations to the phenomenon which can be explored in further research.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323550

ABSTRACT

Herein we presented a novel, rapid and amplification-free SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection system based on hybrid capture fluorescence immunoassay (HC-FIA) technology. The usage of the monoclonal antibody S9.6 in recognizing DNA-RNA double-stranded hybrids enabled the conversion of nucleic acid testing into immunofluorescence carrying on a simple lateral flow dipstick. The established HC-FIA also exhibited satisfactory sensitivity, specificity and great robustness. The clinical evaluation of HC-FIA kit and fluorescence reading device are further processed in three hospitals independently. The results of 734 samples from 670 subjects indicated high consistency between our HC-FIA and quantitative polymerase chain reaction based commercially available kit or clinical diagnosis according to Kappa statistics. Altogether, HC-FIA related method and commercial test kit show unparalleled advantages as time saving, amplification-free, high throughput and portable POCT molecular diagnosis, which facilitates its application as on-site Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid detection in epidemic prevention and control worldwide, especially during the outbreak.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315224

ABSTRACT

Background: Public health workers at the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC) and primary health care institutes (PHIs) were among the main workers who implemented prevention, control, and containment measures. However, their efforts and health status have not been well documented. We aimed to investigate the working conditions and health status of front line public health workers in China during the COVID-19 epidemic. Methods: : Between 18 February and 1 March 2020, we conducted an online cross-sectional survey of 2,313 CDC workers and 4,004 PHI workers in five provinces across China experiencing different scales of COVID-19 epidemic. We surveyed all participants about their work conditions, roles, burdens, perceptions, mental health, and self-rated health using a self-constructed questionnaire and standardised measurements (i.e., Patient Health Questionnaire and General Anxiety Disorder scale). To examine the independent associations between working conditions and health outcomes, we used multivariate regression models controlling for potential confounders. Results: : The prevalence of depression, anxiety, and poor self-rated health was 21.3%, 19.0%, and 9.8%, respectively, among public health workers (27.1%, 20.6%, and 15.0% among CDC workers and 17.5%, 17.9%, and 6.8% among PHI workers). The majority (71.6%) made immense efforts in both field and non-field work. Nearly 20.0% have worked all night for more than 3 days, and 45.3% had worked throughout the Chinese New Year holiday. Three risk factors and two protective factors were found to be independently associated with all three health outcomes in our final multivariate models: working all night for >3 days (multivariate odds ratio [ORm]=1.67~1.75, p <0.001), concerns about infection at work (ORm=1.46~1.89, p <0.001), perceived troubles at work (ORm=1.10~1.28, p <0.001), initiating COVID-19 prevention work after January 23 (ORm=0.78~0.82, p =0.002~0.008), and ability to persist for > 1 month at the current work intensity (ORm=0.44~0.55, p <0.001). Conclusions: : Chinese public health workers made immense efforts and personal sacrifices to control the COVID-19 epidemic and faced the risk of mental health problems. Efforts are needed to improve the working conditions and health status of public health workers and thus maintain their morale and effectiveness during the fight against COVID-19.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310365

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, China has carried out dramatic containment measures to control the spread of COVID-19. As of April 6, 2020, most of the confirmed cases outside Hubei province have been cured or confirmed dead. In this study, we aimed to understand environmental factors leading to COVID-19-related mortality outside of Hubei province, in mainland China. Methods We collected spatial-temporal and environmental data of 99 cases of COVID-19-related deaths outside of Hubei province in Mainland China between January 22, 2020 and April 6, 2020. A descriptive analysis, including a spatial-temporal distribution of daily reported diagnosed cases and related deaths, was conducted. We analyzed the possible environmental factors that affect the provincial-level CFR of COVID-19 outside Hubei, China. Results Among the 99 reported deaths, 59 (59.6%) were male and 40 (40.4%) were female. The mean age at death was 71.30 (SD 12.98) years and 74 deaths were among those 65 years or older. The CFR was negatively correlated with temperature (r=-0.679, P  < 0.001) and humidity (r=-0.607, P  = 0.002), while latitude was positively correlated with the CFR (r = 0.636, P  = 0.001). There were no statistically significant associations between CFR and the social environment factors. Conclusion Higher CFR of COVID-19 was associated with lower temperature, lower humidity, and higher latitude. Continual analysis of daily reported diagnoses and mortality data can help healthcare professionals and policy makers understand the trends within a country in order to better prepare nationwide prevention and care guidelines, along with adequately appropriate funds accordingly.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309735

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The aim of this study is to address the difficulties encountered by epidemic control staff in the early and middle stages of their efforts to combat COVID-19, compare the gaps among different types of institutions, and identify shortcomings in epidemic control. Methods: : Using multi-stage sampling, a survey of primary (“primary-urban” and “primary-rural”) and non-primary (“CDC”) public health workers involved in the prevention and control of COVID-19 in five provinces, including Hubei, Guangdong, Sichuan, Jiangsu and Gansu, was conducted from 18 February to 1 March 2020 through a self-administered questionnaire. Results: : A total of 9475 outbreak prevention and control workers were surveyed, of which 40.0% were from the primary-rural, 27.0% were from the primary-urban and 33.0% were CDC. Resources shortage was reported at 27.9%, with the primary-rural being the worst affected ( OR =1.201, 95% CI : 1.073-1.345). Difficulties in data processing were reported at 31.5%, with no significant differences among institutions. Communication and coordination difficulties were reported at 29.8%, with the CDC being the most serious (the rural primary: OR =0.520, 95% CI : 0.446-0.606;the primary-urban: OR =0.533, 95% CI : 0.454-0.625). Work object difficulties were reported at 20.2%, with the primary-urban being the worst ( OR =1.368, 95% CI : 1.199-1.560). Psychological distress was reported at 48.8%, with no significant differences among institutions. Conclusions: : Psychological distress is the most serious problem in the prevention and control of COVID-19, and the resources shortage in primary-rural, communication and coordination difficulties in CDC, and difficulties in working with the target population in the primary-urban deserve attention. This study will provide a scientific basis for improving the national public health emergency management system, especially for reducing the urban-rural differences in emergency response capacity.

11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325364

ABSTRACT

Background: There are concerns that the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk of adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Therefore, this study aimed to synthesize the existing evidence on associations between the use of NSAIDs and adverse outcomes among patients with COVID-19.Methods: Systematic search of WHO COVID-19 Database, Medline, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Embase, China Biology Medicine disc, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Database for all articles published from January 1, 2020, to August 10, 2021, as well as a supplementary search of Google Scholar. We included comparative observational studies and randomized controlled trials that enrolled patients with COVID-19 who took NSAIDs before or after diagnosis of COVID-19. Data extraction and quality assessment of methodology of included studies were completed by two reviewers independently. We conducted a meta-anlysis on the main outcomes, as well as selected subgroup analyses stratified by the type of NSAID.Fingings: Fifteen non-randomized studies evaluating 24700 adult COVID-19 patients were identified. The use of NSAIDs in patients with COVID-19, compared with no use of NSAIDs, was not significantly associated with an elevated mortality (odds ratio [OR]=0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.87 to 1.02), or an increased probability of ICU admission (OR=1.35, 95% CI: 0.73 to 2.49), requiring mechanical ventilation (OR=1.23, 95% CI: 0.71 to 2.13), or administration of supplemental oxygen (OR=0.99, 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.08). The subgroup analyses revealed that the use of ibuprofen (OR=1.22, 95% CI: 0.32 to 4.60), etoricoxib (OR=0.36, 95% CI: 0.02 to 6.49) or celecoxib (zero deaths in both groups) were not associated with an increased risk of death in COVID-19 patients, compared with not using any NSAID.Interpretation: Fever is one of the main clinical symptoms of COVID-19. According to our findings, NSAIDs such as ibuprofen can be used to treat fever in COVID-19 patients safely.Funding: None to declare. Declaration of Interest: None to declare.

12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 752622, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686481

ABSTRACT

The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are used to prevent viral infection by inducing neutralizing antibody in the body, but according to the existing experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS) infection, T-cell immunity could provide a longer durable protection period than antibody. The research on SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell epitope can provide target antigen for the development and evaluation of COVID-19 vaccines, which is conducive to obtain COVID-19 vaccine that can provide long-term protection. For screening specific T-cell epitopes, a SARS-CoV-2 S protein peptide library with a peptide length of 15 amino acids was synthesized. Through flow cytometry to detect percentage of IFN-γ+ T cells after mixed COVID-19 convalescent patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cell with peptide library, seven peptides (P77, P14, P24, P38, P48, P74, and P84) that can be recognized by the T cells of COVID-19 convalescent patients were found. After excluding the nonspecific cross-reactions with unexposed population, three SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell potential epitopes (P38, P48, and P84) were finally screened with the positive reaction rates between 15.4% and 48.0% in COVID-19 convalescent patients. This study also provided the HLA allele information of peptide-positive-response COVID-19 convalescent patients, thus predicting the population coverage of these three potential epitopes. Some HLA alleles showed higher frequency of occurrence in COVID-19 patients than in total Chinese population but no HLA alleles related to the T-cell peptide response and the severity of COVID-19. This research provides three potential T-cell epitopes that are helpful for the design and efficacy evaluation of COVID-19 vaccines. The HLA information provided by this research supplies reference significance for subsequent research such as finding the relation of HLA genotype with disease susceptibility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Female , HLA Antigens/genetics , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
13.
Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly ; : 10776990211072508, 2022.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1673775

ABSTRACT

Networked framing focuses on how the public becomes gatekeepers on social media. To unpack the dynamics of networked framing, we conducted an automated frame analysis to identify the shift of frame structures of government media (N = 12,090) and the public (N = 1.49 million) on Weibo during the COVID-19 pandemic. We found a moderate level of frame alignment between government media and the public, with high divergence observed during the pandemic?s initial stage. The public challenged government media frames by deploying unique frame functions and creating new frames, but their frame network was fragmented relative to that of government media, which constructed a cohesive network of frames to enhance discursive control.

14.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292562

ABSTRACT

Background: As of April 2020, most of the confirmed cases outside Hubei province have been cured or confirmed dead in China. We aimed to understand environmental factors leading to COVID-19-related mortality in non-Hubei region.Methods:: We collected spatial-temporal and environmental data of 99 cases of COVID-19-related deaths outside of Hubei province in Mainland China between January 22, 2020 and April 6, 2020. A descriptive analysis, including a spatial-temporal distribution of daily reported diagnosed cases and related deaths, was conducted. We analyzed the possible environmental factors that affect the provincial-level case fatality rate (CFR) of COVID-19 outside Hubei, China.Results: Among the 99 reported deaths, 59 (59.6%) were male and 40 (40.4%) were female. The mean age at death was 71.30 (SD 12.98) years and 74 deaths were among those 65 years or older. The CFR was negatively correlated with temperature (r=-0.679, P <0.001) and humidity (r=-0.607, P =0.002), while latitude was positively correlated with the CFR (r=0.636, P =0.001). There were no statistically significant associations between CFR and the social environment factors.Conclusion: Higher CFR of COVID-19 was associated with lower temperature, lower humidity, and higher latitude. Continual analysis of daily reported diagnoses and mortality data can help healthcare professionals and policy makers understand the trends within a country in order to better prepare nationwide prevention and care guidelines, along with adequately appropriate funds accordingly.

15.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(11): e26310, 2021 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cancer ranks among the most serious public health challenges worldwide. In China-the world's most populous country-about one-quarter of the population consists of people with cancer. Social media has become an important platform that the Chinese public uses to express opinions. OBJECTIVE: We investigated cancer-related discussions on the Chinese social media platform Weibo (Sina Corporation) to identify cancer topics that generate the highest levels of user engagement. METHODS: We conducted topic modeling and regression analyses to analyze and visualize cancer-related messages on Weibo and to examine the relationships between different cancer topics and user engagement (ie, the number of retweets, comments, and likes). RESULTS: Our results revealed that cancer communication on Weibo has generally focused on the following six topics: social support, cancer treatment, cancer prevention, women's cancers, smoking and skin cancer, and other topics. Discussions about social support and cancer treatment attracted the highest number of users and received the greatest numbers of retweets, comments, and likes. CONCLUSIONS: Our investigation of cancer-related communication on Weibo provides valuable insights into public concerns about cancer and can help guide the development of health campaigns in social media.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Social Media , China , Communication , Female , Humans , Neoplasms/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 730441, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450819

ABSTRACT

Objective: A considerable part of COVID-19 patients were found to be re-positive in the SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test after discharge. Early prediction of re-positive COVID-19 cases is of critical importance in determining the isolation period and developing clinical protocols. Materials and Methods: Ninety-one patients discharged from Wanzhou Three Gorges Central Hospital, Chongqing, China, from February 10, 2020 to March 3, 2020 were administered nasopharyngeal swab SARS-CoV-2 tests within 12-14 days, and 50 eligible patients (32 male and 18 female) with completed data were enrolled. Average age was 48 ± 11.5 years. All patients underwent non-enhanced chest CT on admission. A total of 568 radiomics features were extracted from the CT images, and 17 clinical factors were collected based on the medical record. Student's t-test and support vector machine-based recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE) method were used to determine an optimal subset of features for the discriminative model development. Results: After Student's t-test, 62 radiomics features showed significant inter-group differences (p < 0.05) between the re-positive and negative cases, and none of the clinical features showed significant differences. These significant features were further selected by SVM-RFE algorithm, and a more compact feature subset containing only two radiomics features was finally determined, achieving the best predictive performance with the accuracy and area under the curve of 72.6% and 0.773 for the identification of the re-positive case. Conclusion: The proposed radiomics method has preliminarily shown potential in identifying the re-positive cases among the recovered COVID-19 patients after discharge. More strategies are to be integrated into the current pipeline to improve its precision, and a larger database with multi-clinical enrollment is required to extensively verify its performance.

18.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(12): 2561-2569, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389722

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection poses a global challenge to human health. Upon viral infection, host cells initiate the innate antiviral response, which primarily involves type I interferons (I-IFNs), to enable rapid elimination of the invading virus. Previous studies revealed that SARS-CoV-2 infection limits the expression of I-IFNs in vitro and in vivo, but the underlying mechanism remains incompletely elucidated. In the present study, we performed data mining and longitudinal data analysis using SARS-CoV-2-infected normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells and ferrets, and the results confirmed the strong inhibitory effect of SARS-CoV-2 on the induction of I-IFNs. Moreover, we identified genes that are negatively correlated with IFNB1 expression in vitro and in vivo based on Pearson correlation analysis. We found that SARS-CoV-2 activates numerous intrinsic pathways, such as the circadian rhythm, phosphatidylinositol signaling system, peroxisome, and TNF signaling pathways, to inhibit I-IFNs. These intrinsic inhibitory pathways jointly facilitate the successful immune evasion of SARS-CoV-2. Our study elucidates the underlying mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 evades the host innate antiviral response in vitro and in vivo, providing theoretical evidence for targeting these immune evasion-associated pathways to combat SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Bronchi/cytology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Datasets as Topic , Disease Models, Animal , Epithelial Cells , Ferrets , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferon-gamma/immunology , RNA-Seq , Respiratory Mucosa/cytology , Signal Transduction/genetics , Signal Transduction/immunology
19.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e048449, 2021 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373965

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In the past three decades, China has made great strides in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis (TB). However, the TB burden remains high. In 2019, China accounted for 8.4% of global incident cases of TB, the third highest in the world, with a higher prevalence in rural areas. The Healthy China 2030 highlights the gate-keeping role of primary healthcare (PHC). However, the impact of PHC reforms on the future TB burden is unclear. We propose to use mathematical models to project and evaluate the impacts of different gate-keeping policies. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will develop a deterministic, population-level, compartmental model to capture the dynamics of TB transmission within adult rural population. The model will incorporate seven main TB statuses, and each compartment will be subdivided by service providers. The parameters involving preference for healthcare seeking will be collected using discrete choice experiment (DCE) method. We will solve the deterministic model numerically over a 20-year (2021-2040) timeframe and predict the TB prevalence, incidence and cumulative new infections under the status quo or various policy scenarios. We will also conduct an analysis following standard protocols to calculate the average cost-effectiveness for each policy scenario relative to the status quo. A numerical calibration analysis against the available published TB prevalence data will be performed using a Bayesian approach. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Most of the data or parameters in the model will be obtained based on secondary data (eg, published literature and an open-access data set). The DCE survey has been reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of the School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University. The approval number is SYSU [2019]140. Results of the study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, media and conference presentations.


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis , Adult , Bayes Theorem , China/epidemiology , Health Care Reform , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Primary Health Care , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control
20.
Adv Mater ; 33(40): e2102528, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358054

ABSTRACT

Dendritic cell (DC) vaccines are used for cancer and infectious diseases, albeit with limited efficacy. Modulating the formation of DC-T-cell synapses may greatly increase their efficacy. The effects of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets on DCs and DC-T-cell synapse formation are evaluated. In particular, size-dependent interactions are observed between GO nanosheets and DCs. GOs with diameters of >1 µm (L-GOs) demonstrate strong adherence to the DC surface, inducing cytoskeletal reorganization via the RhoA-ROCK-MLC pathway, while relatively small GOs (≈500 nm) are predominantly internalized by DCs. Furthermore, L-GO treatment enhances DC-T-cell synapse formation via cytoskeleton-dependent membrane positioning of integrin ICAM-1. L-GO acts as a "nanozipper," facilitating the aggregation of DC-T-cell clusters to produce a stable microenvironment for T cell activation. Importantly, L-GO-adjuvanted DCs promote robust cytotoxic T cell immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 spike 1, leading to >99.7% viral RNA clearance in mice infected with a clinically isolated SARS-CoV-2 strain. These findings highlight the potential value of nanomaterials as DC vaccine adjuvants for modulating DC-T-cell synapse formation and provide a basis for the development of effective COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Graphite/therapeutic use , Nanostructures/therapeutic use , Adjuvants, Immunologic/chemistry , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Graphite/chemistry , Humans , Mice , Nanostructures/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
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