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1.
Viruses ; 14(2):186, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1625933

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic is raging around the world. Neutralizing antibodies are powerful tools for the prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Antibody CR3022, a SARS-CoV neutralizing antibody, was found to cross-react with SARS-CoV-2, but its affinity was lower than that of its binding with SARS-CoV, which greatly limited the further development of CR3022 against SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, it is necessary to improve its affinity to SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. In this study, the structure-based molecular simulations were utilized to virtually mutate the possible key residues in the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of the CR3022 antibody. According to the criteria of mutation energy, the mutation sites that have the potential to impact the antibody affinity were then selected. Then optimized CR3022 mutants with the enhanced affinity were further identified and verified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), surface plasma resonance (SPR) and autoimmune reactivity experiments. Finally, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and binding free energy calculation (MM/PBSA) were performed on the wild-type CR3022 and its two double-site mutants to understand in more detail the contribution of these sites to the higher affinity. It was found that the binding affinity of the CR3022 antibody could be significantly enhanced more than ten times after the introduction of the S103F/Y mutation in HCDR–3 and the S33R mutation in LCDR–1. The additional hydrogen-bonding, hydrophobic interactions, as well as salt-bridges formed between the modified double-site mutated antibody and SARS-CoV-2 RBD were identified. The computational and experimental results clearly demonstrated that the affinity of the modified antibody has been greatly enhanced. This study indicates that CR3022 as a neutralizing antibody recognizing the conserved region of RBD against SARS-CoV with cross-reactivity with SARS-CoV-2, a different member in a large family of coronaviruses, could be improved by the computational and experimental approaches which provided insights for developing antibody drugs against SARS-CoV-2.

2.
J Biosaf Biosecur ; 3(2): 155-162, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599127

ABSTRACT

Think tanks play a fundamental role in shaping policy agendas in Western countries, especially in the US. As international biosecurity is turning from a moderate to a serious concern, the convergence of biosecurity subjects and think tanks is evidently increasing. Examining the involvement and implication of think tanks in biosecurity policy formulation domestically and internationally is, therefore, of great value. This article takes a brief look at the intellectual output of over 30 think tanks during the last five years, before and after the outbreak of COVID-19, and tries to build an understanding of the extent to which these think tanks informed strategic, operational, and tactical decisions, with the aim of providing a better basis for dealing with sophisticated biological threats.

3.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 750012, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566657

ABSTRACT

Background: There is little direct or indirect evidence of the effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection during pregnancy on early childhood development. Methods: We conducted a prospective, observational cohort study in China from May 1 to October 31, 2020, that enrolled 135 mother-infant dyads: 57 dyads in the infection cohort and 78 in the non-infection cohort. Among all infants, 14.0% were preterm birth in the infection cohort and 6.4% in the non-infection cohort. Participants were followed by telephone interviews to collect demographic characteristics, medical records of coronavirus disease 2019, breastfeeding data, and early childhood development was assessed by the Age and Stage Questionnaire (ASQ-3) and Age and Stage Questionnaire Social-Emotional (ASQ:SE-2) Chinese versions at 3 months after childbirth. We used multivariable Poisson regression models to estimate the relative risk (RR) of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Multivariable linear regression models and a mediation model were used to test the direct and indirect associations between SARS-CoV-2 infection and the ASQ-3 score. This study was approved by the Peking University Third Hospital Medical Science Research Ethics Committee (No. IRB00006761-M2020127). Results: In the infection cohort, 13.6% of the children showed social-emotional developmental delay, and 13.5% showed overall developmental delay. The corresponding rates in the non-infection cohort were 23.4 and 8.1%. Compared with the non-infection cohort, SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy did not increase the risk of social-emotional (RR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.51-1.49) or overall (RR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.60-1.73) developmental delay. The mediation model showed that SARS-CoV-2 infection indirectly affected the ASQ-3 score by increasing the length of mother-infant separation. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 during late pregnancy did not increase the risk of developmental delay of the offspring 3 months after delivery. However, SARS-CoV-2 may have indirect effects on early childhood development by increasing mother-infant separation.

4.
Molecules ; 26(23)2021 Dec 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555019

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is highly homologous to SARS-CoV. To date, the main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 is regarded as an important drug target for the treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Some experiments confirmed that several HIV protease inhibitors present the inhibitory effects on the replication of SARS-CoV-2 by inhibiting Mpro. However, the mechanism of action has still not been studied very clearly. In this work, the interaction mechanism of four HIV protease inhibitors Darunavir (DRV), Lopinavir (LPV), Nelfinavir (NFV), and Ritonavire (RTV) targeting SARS-CoV-2 Mpro was explored by applying docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and MM-GBSA methods using the broad-spectrum antiviral drug Ribavirin (RBV) as the negative and nonspecific control. Our results revealed that LPV, RTV, and NFV have higher binding affinities with Mpro, and they all interact with catalytic residues His41 and the other two key amino acids Met49 and Met165. Pharmacophore model analysis further revealed that the aromatic ring, hydrogen bond donor, and hydrophobic group are the essential infrastructure of Mpro inhibitors. Overall, this study applied computational simulation methods to study the interaction mechanism of HIV-1 protease inhibitors with SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, and the findings provide useful insights for the development of novel anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents for the treatment of COVID-19.

5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 284: 114543, 2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531566

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Danggui Liuhuang Tang (DGLHT), first recorded in "Lan-Shi-Mi-Cang" (written in 1276 AD), is a famous classical formula. In 2018, it was listed in the Catalogue of Ancient Classic and Famous Prescriptions (First Batch) formulated by the National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine and the National Medical Products Administration. Perimenopausal syndrome (PMS) refers to a series of syndromes with autonomic nervous system dysfunction and neuropsychological symptoms. The treatment of PMS demands non-hormonal drugs. Natural products are considered to be effective substitutes for the treatment of PMS. It is reported that DGLHT has not only good therapeutic effects but also higher safety and fewer side effects in the treatment of PMS. However, the mechanism of DGLHT in treating PMS is not clear. AIM OF THE STUDY: To explore the chemical basis and the mechanism of DGLHT in treating PMS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multivariate statistical analysis was used to analyze the difference of components in supernatant before and after compatibility of DGLHT based on LC-MS data. The qualitative analysis was performed on the precipitate formed in the decocting process using LC-MS while the quantitative analysis on the potential markers using LC-UV. Then, the potential markers were analyzed by network pharmacology. The regulatory effect of DGLHT on FSH, P and E2 were carried out in PMS rats. RESULTS: Five potential markers, epiberberine, coptisine, palmatine, berberine and baicalin, were screened from the analysis of compounds in the supernatant. Four complexes, composed of potential marker monomers, were identified in the sediment, including two that have not been reported. The key targets of potential markers include TNF, NOS3, EGFR, ESR1, PTGS2, AR, CDC42 and RPS6KB1. The top signaling pathways include the cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and estrogen signaling pathway. DGLHT could call back the hormone levels of P and E2 in PMS rats. CONCLUSION: DGLHT active ingredients, epiberberine, coptisine, palmatine, berberine and baicalin contribute a lot to the therapeutic effect. And DGLHT takes effect by regulating hormones secreted by the ovary.

6.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0135221, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526454

ABSTRACT

The emerging new lineages of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) have marked a new phase of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Understanding the recognition mechanisms of potent neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (NAbs) against the spike protein is pivotal for developing new vaccines and antibody drugs. Here, we isolated several monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor-binding domain (S-RBD) from the B cell receptor repertoires of a SARS-CoV-2 convalescent. Among these MAbs, the antibody nCoV617 demonstrates the most potent neutralizing activity against authentic SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as prophylactic and therapeutic efficacies against the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) transgenic mouse model in vivo. The crystal structure of S-RBD in complex with nCoV617 reveals that nCoV617 mainly binds to the back of the "ridge" of RBD and shares limited binding residues with ACE2. Under the background of the S-trimer model, it potentially binds to both "up" and "down" conformations of S-RBD. In vitro mutagenesis assays show that mutant residues found in the emerging new lineage B.1.1.7 of SARS-CoV-2 do not affect nCoV617 binding to the S-RBD. These results provide a new human-sourced neutralizing antibody against the S-RBD and assist vaccine development. IMPORTANCE COVID-19 is a respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The COVID-19 pandemic has posed a serious threat to global health and the economy, so it is necessary to find safe and effective antibody drugs and treatments. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is responsible for binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. It contains a variety of dominant neutralizing epitopes and is an important antigen for the development of new coronavirus antibodies. The significance of our research lies in the determination of new epitopes, the discovery of antibodies against RBD, and the evaluation of the antibodies' neutralizing effect. The identified antibodies here may be drug candidates for the development of clinical interventions for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Binding Sites/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Crystallography, X-Ray , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/immunology , Viral Load/drug effects
7.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481011

ABSTRACT

Human noroviruses are a common pathogen causing acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Among all norovirus genotypes, GII.3 is particularly prevalent in the pediatric population. Here we report the identification of two distinct blockade antibody epitopes on the GII.3 capsid. We generated a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from mice immunized with virus-like particle (VLP) of a GII.3 cluster 3 strain. Two of these mAbs, namely 8C7 and 8D1, specifically bound the parental GII.3 VLP but not VLPs of GII.4, GII.17, or GI.1. In addition, 8C7 and 8D1 efficiently blocked GII.3 VLP binding with its ligand, histo-blood group antigens (HBGA). These data demonstrate that 8C7 and 8D1 are GII.3-specific blockade antibodies. By using a series of chimeric VLPs, we mapped the epitopes of 8C7 and 8D1 to residues 385-400 and 401-420 of the VP1 capsid protein, respectively. These two blockade antibody epitopes are highly conserved among GII.3 cluster 3 strains. Structural modeling shows that the 8C7 epitope partially overlaps with the HBGA binding site (HBS) while the 8D1 epitope is spatially adjacent to HBS. These findings may enhance our understanding of the immunology and evolution of GII.3 noroviruses.

8.
Environ Res ; : 112272, 2021 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474557

ABSTRACT

Studying the influence of weather conditions on the COVID-19 epidemic is an emerging field. However, existing studies in this area tend to utilize time-series data, which have certain limitations and fail to consider individual, social, and economic factors. Therefore, this study aimed to fill this gap. In this paper, we explored the influence of weather conditions on the COVID-19 epidemic using COVID-19-related prefecture-daily panel data collected in mainland China between January 1, 2020, and February 19, 2020. A two-way fixed effect model was applied taking into account factors including public health measures, effective distance to Wuhan, population density, economic development level, health, and medical conditions. We also used a piecewise linear regression to determine the relationship in detail. We found that there is a conditional negative relationship between weather conditions and the epidemic. Each 1 °C rise in mean temperature led to a 0.49% increase in the confirmed cases growth rate when mean temperature was above -7 °C. Similarly, when the relative humidity was greater than 46%, it was negatively correlated with the epidemic, where a 1% increase in relative humidity decreased the rate of confirmed cases by 0.19%. Furthermore, prefecture-level administrative regions, such as Chifeng (included as "warning cities") have more days of "dangerous weather", which is favorable for outbreaks. In addition, we found that the impact of mean temperature is greatest in the east, the influence of relative humidity is most pronounced in the central region, and the significance of weather conditions is more important in the coastal region. Finally, we found that rising diurnal temperatures decreased the negative impact of weather conditions on the spread of COVID-19. We also observed that strict public health measures and high social concern can mitigate the adverse effects of cold and dry weather on the spread of the epidemic. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study which applies the two-way fixed effect model to investigate the influence of weather conditions on the COVID-19 epidemic, takes into account socio-economic factors and draws new conclusions.

9.
Fundamental Research ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1347603

ABSTRACT

Introduction Multivariate time series prediction of infectious diseases is significant to public health, and the deep learning method has attracted increasing attention in this research field. Material and Methods An adaptively temporal graph convolution (ATGCN) model, which learns the contact patterns of multiple age groups in a graph-based approach, was proposed for COVID- 19 and influenza prediction. We compared ATGCN with autoregressive models, deep sequence learning models, and experience- based ATGCN models in short-term and long-term prediction tasks. Results Results showed that the ATGCN model performed better than the autoregressive models and the deep sequence learning models on two datasets in both short-term (12.5% and 10% improvements on RMSE) and long-term (12.4% and 5% improvements on RMSE) prediction tasks. And the RMSE of ATGCN predictions fluctuated least in different age groups of COVID- 19 (0.029 ± 0.003) and influenza (0.059±0.008). Compared with the Ones-ATGCN model or the Pre-ATGCN model, the ATGCN model was more robust in performance, with RMSE of 0.0293 and 0.06 on two datasets when horizon is one. Discussion Our research indicates a broad application prospect of deep learning in the field of infectious disease prediction. Transmission characteristics and domain knowledge of infectious diseases should be further applied to the design of deep learning models and feature selection. Conclusions The ATGCN model addressed the multivariate time series forecasting in a graph-based deep learning approach and achieved robust prediction on the confirmed cases of multiple age groups, indicating its great potentials for exploring the implicit interactions of multivariate variables.

11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(15): e25435, 2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284945

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While this reduced-visit prenatal care model during the COVID-19 pandemic is well-intentioned, there is still a lack of relevant evidence to prove its effectiveness. Therefore, in order to provide new evidence-based medical evidence for clinical treatment, we undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of reduced-visit prenatal care model during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The online literature will be searched using the following combination of medical subject heading terms: "prenatal care" OR "prenatal nursing" AND "reduced-visit" OR "reduce visit" OR "virtual visit." MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science will be searched without any language restrictions. A standard data extraction form is used independently by 2 reviewers to retrieve the relevant data from the articles. The outcome measures are as following: pregnancy-related stress, satisfaction with care, quality of care. The present study will be performed by Review Manager Software (RevMan Version 5.3, The Cochrane Collaboration, Copenhagen, Denmark). P < .05 is set as the significance level. RESULTS: It is hypothesized that reduced-visit prenatal care model will provide similar outcomes compared with traditional care model. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our review will be reported strictly following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) criteria and the review will add to the existing literature by showing compelling evidence and improved guidance in clinic settings. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER: 10.17605/OSF.IO/WYMB7.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , COVID-19 , Evidence-Based Practice , Prenatal Care/organization & administration , Ambulatory Care/methods , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Evidence-Based Practice/methods , Evidence-Based Practice/standards , Evidence-Based Practice/trends , Female , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Pregnancy , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic
12.
Disease Surveillance ; 36(2):127-130, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1229332

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Dalian, Liaoning, July-August, 2020, and provide reference for the prevention and control of COVID-19.

13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(15): e25435, 2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While this reduced-visit prenatal care model during the COVID-19 pandemic is well-intentioned, there is still a lack of relevant evidence to prove its effectiveness. Therefore, in order to provide new evidence-based medical evidence for clinical treatment, we undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of reduced-visit prenatal care model during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The online literature will be searched using the following combination of medical subject heading terms: "prenatal care" OR "prenatal nursing" AND "reduced-visit" OR "reduce visit" OR "virtual visit." MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science will be searched without any language restrictions. A standard data extraction form is used independently by 2 reviewers to retrieve the relevant data from the articles. The outcome measures are as following: pregnancy-related stress, satisfaction with care, quality of care. The present study will be performed by Review Manager Software (RevMan Version 5.3, The Cochrane Collaboration, Copenhagen, Denmark). P < .05 is set as the significance level. RESULTS: It is hypothesized that reduced-visit prenatal care model will provide similar outcomes compared with traditional care model. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our review will be reported strictly following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) criteria and the review will add to the existing literature by showing compelling evidence and improved guidance in clinic settings. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER: 10.17605/OSF.IO/WYMB7.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , COVID-19 , Evidence-Based Practice , Prenatal Care/organization & administration , Ambulatory Care/methods , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Evidence-Based Practice/methods , Evidence-Based Practice/standards , Evidence-Based Practice/trends , Female , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Pregnancy , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic
14.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 8: 100094, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082570

ABSTRACT

Background: China implemented containment measures to stop SARS-CoV-2 transmission in response to the COVID-19 epidemic. After the first epidemic wave, we conducted population-based serological surveys to determine extent of infection, risk factors for infection, and neutralization antibody levels to assess the real infections in the random sampled population. Methods: We used a multistage, stratified cluster random sampling strategy to conduct serological surveys in three areas - Wuhan, Hubei Province outside Wuhan, and six provinces selected on COVID-19 incidence and containment strategy. Participants were consenting individuals >1 year old who resided in the survey area >14 days during the epidemic. Provinces screened sera for SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM, IgG, and total antibody by two lateral flow immunoassays and one magnetic chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay; positive samples were verified by micro-neutralization assay. Findings: We enrolled 34,857 participants (overall response rate, 92%); 427 were positive by micro-neutralization assay. Wuhan had the highest weighted seroprevalence (4•43%, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]=3•48%-5•62%), followed by Hubei-ex-Wuhan (0•44%, 95%CI=0•26%-0•76%), and the other provinces (<0•1%). Living in Wuhan (adjusted odds ratio aOR=13•70, 95%CI= 7•91-23•75), contact with COVID-19 patients (aOR=7•35, 95%CI=5•05-10•69), and age over 40 (aOR=1•36, 95%CI=1•07-1•72) were significantly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among seropositives, 101 (24%) reported symptoms and had higher geometric mean neutralizing antibody titers than among the 326 (76%) without symptoms (30±2•4 vs 15±2•1, p<0•001). Interpretation: The low overall extent of infection and steep gradient of seropositivity from Wuhan to the outer provinces provide evidence supporting the success of containment of the first wave of COVID-19 in China. SARS-CoV-2 infection was largely asymptomatic, emphasizing the importance of active case finding and physical distancing. Virtually the entire population of China remains susceptible to SARS-CoV-2; vaccination will be needed for long-term protection. Funding: This study was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology (2020YFC0846900) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (82041026, 82041027, 82041028, 82041029, 82041030, 82041032, 82041033).

15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(10): 2688-2694, 2020 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059702

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic with no specific antiviral treatments or vaccines. There is an urgent need for exploring the neutralizing antibodies from patients with different clinical characteristics. METHODS: A total of 117 blood samples were collected from 70 COVID-19 inpatients and convalescent patients. Antibodies were determined with a modified cytopathogenic neutralization assay (NA) based on live severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The dynamics of neutralizing antibody levels at different time points with different clinical characteristics were analyzed. RESULTS: The seropositivity rate reached up to 100.0% within 20 days since onset, and remained 100.0% till days 41-53. The total geometric mean titer was 1:163.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 128.5-208.6) by NA and 1:12 441.7 (95% CI, 9754.5-15 869.2) by ELISA. The antibody level by NA and ELISA peaked on days 31-40 since onset, and then decreased slightly. In multivariate generalized estimating equation analysis, patients aged 31-45, 46-60, and 61-84 years had a higher neutralizing antibody level than those aged 16-30 years (ß = 1.0470, P = .0125; ß = 1.0613, P = .0307; ß = 1.3713, P = .0020). Patients with a worse clinical classification had a higher neutralizing antibody titer (ß = 0.4639, P = .0227). CONCLUSIONS: The neutralizing antibodies were detected even at the early stage of disease, and a significant response was shown in convalescent patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Inpatients , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
18.
J Affect Disord ; 281: 91-98, 2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957167

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global COVID-19 pandemic has generated major mental and psychological health problems worldwide. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety, distress, and insomnia during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We searched online biomedical databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Ovid, CNKI, and Wanfang Data) and preprint databases (SSRN, bioRxiv, and MedRxiv) for observational studies from January 1, 2020 to March 16, 2020 investigating the prevalence of mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: We retrieved 821 citations from the biomedical databases and 53 citations from the preprint databases: 66 studies with 221,970 participants were included in our meta-analysis. The overall pooled prevalence of depression, anxiety, distress, and insomnia was 31.4%, 31.9%, 41.1% and 37.9%, respectively. Noninfectious chronic disease patients, quarantined persons, and COVID-19 patients had a higher risk of depression (Q=26.73, p<0.01) and anxiety (Q=21.86, p<0.01) than other populations. The general population and non-medical staff had a lower risk of distress than other populations (Q=461.21, p< 0.01). Physicians, nurses, and non-medical staff showed a higher prevalence of insomnia (Q=196.64, p<0.01) than other populations. LIMITATIONS: All included studies were from the early phase of the global pandemic. Additional meta-analyses are needed to obtain more data in all phases of the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic increases the mental health problems of the global population, particularly health care workers, noninfectious chronic disease patients, COVID-19 patients, and quarantined persons. Interventions for mental health are urgently needed for preventing mental health problems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases , Prevalence , Psychological Distress , Quarantine/psychology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology
19.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 347, 2020 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-910201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence concerning the long-term impact of Covid-19 in pregnancy on mother's psychological disorder and infant's developmental delay is unknown. METHODS: This study is a longitudinal single-arm cohort study conducted in China between May 1 and July 31, 2020. Seventy-two pregnant patients with Covid-19 participated in follow-up surveys until 3 months after giving birth (57 cases) or having abortion (15 cases). We collected data from medical records regarding Covid-19, delivery or abortion, testing results of maternal and neonatal specimens, and questionnaires of quarantine, mother-baby separation, feeding, and measuring of mothers' mental disorders and infants' neurobehavioral disorders. RESULTS: All cases infected in the first trimester and 1/3 of cases infected in the second trimester had an abortion to terminate the pregnancy. 22.2% of pregnant patients were suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder or depression at 3 months after delivery or induced abortion. Among 57 live births, only one neonate was positive of nucleic acid testing for throat swab, but negative in repeated tests subsequently. The median duration of mother-baby separation was 35 days (interquartile range 16 to 52 days). After the termination of maternal quarantine, 49.1% of mothers chose to prolong the mother-baby separation (median 8 days; IQR 5 to 23 days). The breastfeeding rate was 8.8% at 1 week after birth, 19.3% at the age of 1 month, and 36.8% at the age of 3 months, respectively. The proportion of "monitoring" and "risk" in the social-emotional developmental domain at the age of 3 months was 22.7% and 63.6%, respectively. After the adjustment of preterm, neonatal sex, admitted to NICU, and the mother's Covid-19 condition, the negative associations were significantly identified (p < 0.05) between mother-baby separation days and three developmental domains: communication, gross motor, and personal-social. CONCLUSIONS: There is no definite evidence on vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2. In addition to control infection risk, researchers and healthcare providers should pay more attention to maternal mental health and infant's feeding, closeness with parents, and early development.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Child Development , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Infant Behavior/psychology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/psychology , Adult , COVID-19 , Child Development/physiology , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant Behavior/physiology , Infant, Newborn , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mothers/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Chinese Journal of Zoonoses ; 36(5):388-391, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-830214

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to understand epidemiological characteristics of aggravated epidemic situation of COVID-19 pneumonia in Zhengzhou and provide evidence for effective prevention and control measures., The data were collated and analyzed using epidemiological description methods. There was a total of 34 clustered outbreaks. Family (ethnic) group accounted for 85.29% (29/34), international travel group accounted for 5.88% (2/34), company group accounted for 2.94% (1/34), hospital group accounted for 5.88% (2/34). The number of clustered cases accounted for 61.15% (96/157) of the reported confirmed cases in Zhengzhou. 58.82% of the clustered outbreaks were related to other provinces and cities (including Wuhan). Among the clustered outbreaks, one of the follow-up cases occurred earlier than the indicated case, one occurred simultaneously with the indicated case. This study indicates that clustered epidemic of Zhengzhou is dominated by families, and it is necessary to implement centralized medical observation for all close contacts of cases. After resumption work and production, we should implement various related policies and be vigilant against the occurrence of cluster epidemics in enterprises and institutions. The subsequent cases occur earlier or at the same time as the indicated cases, suggesting that the incubation period is contagious.

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