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1.
Pathogens ; 12(1):21, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2166784

ABSTRACT

Reliable diagnostics are necessary to identify influenza infections, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) highlights the need to develop highly specific and sensitive viral detection methods to distinguish severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and other respiratory pathogens to prevent their further spread. In this prospective study, 1070 clinical respiratory samples were collected from patients with acute respiratory infections from January 2019 to February 2021 to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a multiplex probe amplification (MPA) assay, designed to screen 18 pathogens, mainly those causing acute respiratory infections. Ninety-six positive samples and twenty negative samples for the 18 respiratory pathogens defined by the MPA assay and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were further confirmed by reference next-generation sequencing (NGS). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the MPA assay were 95.00%, 93.75%, 98.96% and 75.00%, respectively. Additionally, the co-infection rate for these positive samples were 25% (24/95). The MPA assay demonstrated a highly concordant diagnostic performance with NGS in the diagnosis of 18 respiratory pathogens and might play an important role in clinical respiratory pathogen diagnosis.

2.
Gland Surgery ; 11(9):1497-1506, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2058620

ABSTRACT

Background Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 has been the most important strategy for preventing infection and controlling pandemics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Cancer patients have a significantly higher risk of infection with COVID-19 because of their impaired immunity. Breast cancer is the most common female malignant tumor in the world. However, studies on COVID-19 vaccination in breast cancer patients are scarce, so that more information is needed to guide vaccination in these. Methods We conducted a web-based questionnaire survey on SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in breast cancer patient. Questionnaires completed by non-postoperative patients will be considered invalid. The main variables in the questionnaire including vaccination status, willingness to get the vaccines, candidate factors, and measures of adverse events in vaccinated individuals were used for analysis. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the associations. Results Among 947 valid online questionnaires, 341 (36.0%) accepted SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, while 606 (64.0%) did not. There were significant differences in age, current treatment, time since surgery, and symptoms of anxiety and depression between the two groups. Compared to vaccinated patients, we identified current treatment [odds ratio (OR) =0.51 for endocrine therapy;95% confidence interval (CI): 0.29–0.89], time since surgery (OR =22.49 for 1–2 years;95% CI: 12.31–41.10;OR =8.49 for 2–5 years;95% CI: 4.98–14.46;OR =1.79 for >5 years;95% CI: 1.11–2.89), and symptoms of depression (OR =2.48;95% CI: 1.19–5.15) as significant factors for being unvaccinated. The overall incidence of adverse reactions was 43.1%, and the most common local and systemic adverse reactions were pain (28.4%) and fatigue (8.8%). However, about 76.6% of the unvaccinated participants were willing to be vaccinated. Conclusions Compared to the general population, postoperative patients with breast cancer had a lower rate of vaccination for SARS-CoV-2. Receiving treatment, a shorter time since surgery, and symptoms of depression were associated with being unvaccinated. However, about 76.6% of the unvaccinated participants were willing to be vaccinated. Although our study showed that there were adverse effects of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, such as pain, fatigue, they are common adverse effects of routine vaccination. We believe that vaccination against COVID-19 is safe in postoperative patients with breast cancer.

3.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1998857

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a non-neglectable context for the whole healthcare system. Under the background of COVID-19, the detection and diagnosis of malaria cases are under challenge. Here, we reported a COVID-19 and malaria co-infection traveler who has a long living history in Cameroon. The case was administered with dihydroartemisinin and piperaquine tablets for malaria, Lopinavir and Ritonavir tablets, Arbidol, recombinant human interferon α-2b and Compound Maxing Yifei mixture for COVID-19, and Zolpidem Tartrate tablets, Diazepam, Paroxetine Hydrochloride tablets, Thymosin α1, and Lianhua Qinwen Jiaonang during the second hospitalization of the patient since the patient has a certain level of anxiety and insomnia with no evidence of inflammatory reactions. After being tested negative two times for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 48 h, the patient met China's COVID-19 discharge standards and was discharged with stable vital signs and mental state. Since most countries in the sub-Saharan region have a fragile health system, co-infection for both Plasmodium and SARS-CoV-2 may not be uncommon, and raise a challenge in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention for both diseases. We add to the literature on co-infection of P. falciparum malaria and COVID-19 and offer operational advice on diagnosis, prevention, and treatment for the co-infection.

4.
Environ Pollut ; 311: 119979, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996148

ABSTRACT

Pharmaceutical contaminants in surface water have raised significant concerns because of their potential ecological risks. In particular, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related pharmaceuticals can be released to surface water and reduce environmental water quality. Therefore, reliable and robust sampling tools are required for monitoring pharmaceuticals. In this study, passive sampling devices of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGTs) were developed for sampling 35 pharmaceuticals in surface waters. The results demonstrated that hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) was more suitable for DGT-based devices compared with XAD18 and XDA1 resins. For most pharmaceuticals, the performance of the HLB-DGT devices were independent of pH (5.0-9.0), ionic strength (0.001-0.5 M), and flow velocity (0-400 rpm). The HLB-DGT devices exhibited linear pharmaceutical accumulation for 7 days, and time-weighted average concentrations provided by the HLB-DGT were comparable to those measured by conventional grab sampling. Compared to previous studies, we extended DGT monitoring to include three antiviral drugs used for COVID-19 treatment, which may inspire further exploration on identifying the effects of COVID-19 on ecological and human health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Water Pollutants, Chemical , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diffusion , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
5.
Resources Policy ; : 102895, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1937120

ABSTRACT

Volatility in natural resources commodity prices is prevailing for a longer period. However, after the Covid-19 pandemic, most economical and financial markets were affected, and the natural resources commodity market was greatly affected. Besides, the pandemic's closing or postponement of the industrial sector further fuels uncertainty in the natural resources commodity market. Therefore, it is important to analyze whether volatility exists in natural resources commodity prices during the pandemic period? In this regard, the current study investigated price volatility in copper and crude oil prices during the Covid-19 while using the most recent and extended dataset from January 02, 2019, to October 08, 2021, in the case of the US. For empirical examination, this study used the breakpoint unit root test, which illustrates that the leveled data is non-stationary while the first differenced data is stationary, where both leveled and first differenced data demonstrate the breakpoints in time series. This study uses the threshold generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (TGARCH) and exponential generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (EGARCH) to analyze natural resource commodity price volatility. The empirical findings uncover that both variables are volatile during the Covid-19 pandemic. However, the negative shock of the Covid-19 pandemic makes the crude oil price more volatile relative to copper prices. Besides, the previous variances are also positively associated with the current variances of both variables. The findings also reveal that copper could be a safe haven for reducing volatility in natural resources. Based on the empirical findings, this study suggests ensuring macroeconomic stability and reconsidering the traditional price-fixing or price ceiling policies to tackle volatility in the Covid-19 pandemic.

6.
Remote Sens Appl ; 27: 100789, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895419

ABSTRACT

Remotely sensed imagery is used as a tool to aid decision makers and scientists in a variety of fields. A recent world event in which satellite imagery was extensively relied on by a variety of stakeholders was the COVID-19 pandemic. In this article we aim to give an overview of the types of information offered through remote sensing (RS) to help address different issues related to the pandemic. We also discuss about the stakeholders that benefited from the data, and the value added by its availability. The content is presented under four sub-sections; namely (1) the use of RS in real-time decision-making and strategic planning during the pandemic; how RS revealed the (2) environmental changes and (3) social and economic impacts caused by the pandemic. And (4) how RS informed our understanding of the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2, the pathogen responsible for the pandemic. High resolution optical imagery offered updated on-the-ground data for e.g., humanitarian aid organizations, and informed operational decision making of shipping companies. Change in the intensity of air and water pollution after reduced anthropogenic activities around the world were captured by remote sensing - supplying concrete evidence that can help inform improved environmental policy. Several economic indicators were measured from satellite imagery, showing the spatiotemporal component of economic impacts caused by the global pandemic. Finally, satellite based meteorological data supported epidemiological studies of environmental disease determinants. The varied use of remote sensing during the COVID-19 pandemic affirms the value of this technology to society, especially in times of large-scale disasters.

7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 819062, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862691

ABSTRACT

Background: More than 200 countries are experiencing the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 vaccination strategies have been implemented worldwide, and repeat COVID-19 outbreaks have been seen. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of COVID-19 vaccination on the reduction of perceived anxiety and the association between public anxiety and antibody testing intention during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Chinese adults aged 18 and over were surveyed using an anonymous online questionnaire in April and May 2021. The questionnaire collected sociodemographic characteristics, vaccination characteristics, perceived anxiety due to COVID-19, and attitudes toward future antibody testing after COVID-19 vaccination. Perceived anxiety was assessed on a visual analog scale (VAS). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors influencing future antibody detection. Results: A total of 3,233 people were investigated, 3,209 valid questionnaires were collected, and the response rate was 99.3%. Of the 3,209 respondents, 2,047 were vaccinated, and 1,162 were unvaccinated. There was a significant difference in anxiety levels between vaccinated and unvaccinated respondents (24.9±25.4 vs. 50.0±33.1, respectively). With the local spread of COVID-19 in mainland China, the public anxiety VAS scores increased by 15.4±25.6 (SMD=120%) and 33.8±31.7 (SMD=49%) among vaccinated and unvaccinated respondents, respectively. Of the 2,047 respondents who were vaccinated, 1,626 (79.4%) thought they would accept antibody testing. Those who displayed more anxiety about acquiring COVID-19 disease were more likely to accept COVID-19 antibody testing. If the antibody test results showed protective antibodies, 1,190 (58.1%) were more likely to arrange travel plans in China, while 526 (25.7%) thought they would feel safer traveling abroad. Conclusion: COVID-19 vaccination strategies help reduce public anxiety. However, public anxiety may be elevated as the local transmission of COVID-19 occurs in mainland China, which is usually caused now by imported cases. Those who display more anxiety choose to have antibody testing. Improving the accessibility of COVID-19 antibody tests can help ease public anxiety and enhance the confidence of some people to participate in social activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Anxiety , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
8.
J Virus Erad ; 7(2): 100040, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225320

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, an outbreak of pneumonia took place caused by a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2 virus), named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A series of strict prevention and control measures were then implemented to reduce the spread of the epidemic. Influenza, another respiratory tract virus, may also respond to these measures. To assess the impact of these measures, we used the total number of passengers movement in mainland China from 2018 to 2020 and daily number of railway passenger flow during the 2020 Spring Festival travel rush to reflect the population movement and to analyze newly and cumulatively confirmed COVID-19 and influenza cases. We found that implementing the series of measures against COVID-19 mitigated both COVID-19 and influenza epidemics in China. Prevention and control measures for COVID-19 might be used to control respiratory tract infections to reduce the national health economic burden caused by these pathogens.

9.
PLoS Biol ; 19(5): e3001209, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219261

ABSTRACT

The ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) threatens global public health and economy unprecedentedly, requiring accelerating development of prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. Molecular understanding of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) would greatly help advance the development of monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy, as well as the design of next generation recombinant vaccines. Here, we applied H2L2 transgenic mice encoding the human immunoglobulin variable regions, together with a state-of-the-art antibody discovery platform to immunize and isolate NAbs. From a large panel of isolated antibodies, 25 antibodies showed potent neutralizing activities at sub-nanomolar levels by engaging the spike receptor-binding domain (RBD). Importantly, one human NAb, termed PR1077, from the H2L2 platform and 2 humanized NAb, including PR953 and PR961, were further characterized and subjected for subsequent structural analysis. High-resolution X-ray crystallography structures unveiled novel epitopes on the receptor-binding motif (RBM) for PR1077 and PR953, which directly compete with human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) for binding, and a novel non-blocking epitope on the neighboring site near RBM for PR961. Moreover, we further tested the antiviral efficiency of PR1077 in the Ad5-hACE2 transduction mouse model of COVID-19. A single injection provided potent protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in either prophylactic or treatment groups. Taken together, these results shed light on the development of mAb-related therapeutic interventions for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/ultrastructure , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Receptors, Virus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
10.
J Nurs Manag ; 29(5): 1263-1274, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044641

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To explore the association between cognitive emotion regulation strategies and anxiety and depression among nurses during the COVID-19 outbreak. BACKGROUND: Nurses play a vital role in responding to the COVID-19 outbreak, but many of them suffer from psychological problems due to the excessive workload and stress. Understanding the correlation between cognitive emotion regulation strategies and anxiety and depression will promote targeted psychosocial interventions for these affected nurses. METHODS: This cross-sectional study of 586 nurses was conducted in Eastern China. Participants completed online questionnaires that investigated anxiety, depression and cognitive emotion regulation strategies. RESULTS: The prevalence of nurses' anxiety and depression was 27.6% and 32.8%, respectively. Lower self-blame, rumination and catastrophizing, as well as greater acceptance and positive refocusing, were related to fewer symptoms of anxiety or depression. CONCLUSION: The cognitive emotion regulation strategies of acceptance and positive refocusing contribute to reducing anxiety or depression. These strategies should be considered when implementing psychotherapeutic interventions to improve nurses' adverse emotional symptoms. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: This study highlights the need to assess cognitive emotion regulation strategies use in screening for anxiety and depression. Nurse managers should develop psychosocial interventions including appropriate strategies to help nurses with adverse emotions during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emotional Regulation , Nurses , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , China , Cognition , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Emotions , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
JAMA Intern Med ; 180(12): 1665-1671, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-738931

ABSTRACT

Importance: Evidence of whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), can be transmitted as an aerosol (ie, airborne) has substantial public health implications. Objective: To investigate potential transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 infection with epidemiologic evidence from a COVID-19 outbreak. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study examined a community COVID-19 outbreak in Zhejiang province. On January 19, 2020, 128 individuals took 2 buses (60 [46.9%] from bus 1 and 68 [53.1%] from bus 2) on a 100-minute round trip to attend a 150-minute worship event. The source patient was a passenger on bus 2. We compared risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection among at-risk individuals taking bus 1 (n = 60) and bus 2 (n = 67 [source patient excluded]) and among all other individuals (n = 172) attending the worship event. We also divided seats on the exposed bus into high-risk and low-risk zones according to the distance from the source patient and compared COVID-19 risks in each zone. In both buses, central air conditioners were in indoor recirculation mode. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction or by viral genome sequencing results. Attack rates for SARS-CoV-2 infection were calculated for different groups, and the spatial distribution of individuals who developed infection on bus 2 was obtained. Results: Of the 128 participants, 15 (11.7%) were men, 113 (88.3%) were women, and the mean age was 58.6 years. On bus 2, 24 of the 68 individuals (35.3% [including the index patient]) received a diagnosis of COVID-19 after the event. Meanwhile, none of the 60 individuals in bus 1 were infected. Among the other 172 individuals at the worship event, 7 (4.1%) subsequently received a COVID-19 diagnosis. Individuals in bus 2 had a 34.3% (95% CI, 24.1%-46.3%) higher risk of getting COVID-19 compared with those in bus 1 and were 11.4 (95% CI, 5.1-25.4) times more likely to have COVID-19 compared with all other individuals attending the worship event. Within bus 2, individuals in high-risk zones had moderately, but nonsignificantly, higher risk for COVID-19 compared with those in the low-risk zones. The absence of a significantly increased risk in the part of the bus closer to the index case suggested that airborne spread of the virus may at least partially explain the markedly high attack rate observed. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study and case investigation of a community outbreak of COVID-19 in Zhejiang province, individuals who rode a bus to a worship event with a patient with COVID-19 had a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection than individuals who rode another bus to the same event. Airborne spread of SARS-CoV-2 seems likely to have contributed to the high attack rate in the exposed bus. Future efforts at prevention and control must consider the potential for airborne spread of the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Community-Acquired Infections , Motor Vehicles/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Transportation/methods , Air Pollution , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/prevention & control , Community-Acquired Infections/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
12.
ECNU Review of Education ; : 2096531120931107-2096531120931107, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-612661
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