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1.
Int J Gen Med ; 16: 2305-2312, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244496

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to analyze the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of measles in Jinan, Shandong, China, over a 32-year stage to facilitate measles prevention in the future. Methods: Data on measles cases from 1991 to 2022 were obtained from the public health department and medical records of patients at Shandong Public Health Clinical Center. Retrospective analysis was conducted on the distribution of measles cases in different years, months, and age groups, and observation of the differences in clinical manifestations and complications among different age groups. Results: From January 1991 to December 2022, 7531 measles cases were recorded at Shandong Public Health Clinical Center. During the 32-year period, there were two outbreaks of measles in 2008 and 2016, respectively. During the COVID-19 pandemic period from 2020 to 2022, the number of cases reached the lowest point in the past 30 years. The number and percentage of cases in the 0-1y groups was significantly higher than in other age groups, and 97.75% patients in this group did not receive measles vaccine. Complications such as pneumonia and myocarditis appeared more frequent in patients under 12 years of age, but liver function damage is more common in adult patients. Conclusion: Although the measles epidemic has been greatly controlled since the use of measles vaccine, intermittent outbreaks still exist, so there is still a long way to go to eliminate measles. The proportion of infants under the age of 1 without measles vaccine and adults over 24 years old accounts for nearly 80% of the total. This group of people should be of concern, and feasible measures should be designated to protect these susceptible populations.

2.
Psychiatry Investig ; 20(4): 307-314, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292814

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Depression was common during coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, while the association of perceived stress with depression among vaccinated healthcare workers has not been investigated. This study aimed to address this issue. METHODS: We included a total of 898 fully vaccinated healthcare workers during the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Delta variant in Nanjing, 2021. Depression was ascertained by Patient Health Questionnaire-9, with a cut-off score of ≥5 indicative of mild-to-severe depression. Perceived stress, resilience, and compassion fatigue were assessed by Perceived Stress Scale-10, Resilience Scale-25, and Professional Quality of Life Scale version-5, respectively. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI), along with subgroup and mediation analyses. RESULTS: The prevalence of mild-to-severe depression was 41.1% in vaccinated healthcare workers. The odd of mild-to-severe depression was increased with higher perceived stress. Compared with vaccinated healthcare workers with the lowest tertile of perceived stress, those with the highest tertile had increased odds of mild-to-severe depression by 120% (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.46 to 3.31) after multivariable-adjustment. However, perceived stress was not associated with mild-to-severe depression in vaccinated healthcare workers with strong resilience, but was in those with weak resilience (pinteraction=0.004). Further analysis showed that compassion fatigue mediated the relationship between perceived stress and mild-to-severe depression, with a mediating effect of 49.7%. CONCLUSION: Perceived stress was related to an increased odd of mild-to-severe depression in vaccinated healthcare workers during COVID-19 pandemic, and this relationship might be explained by compassion fatigue.

3.
Prehosp Emerg Care ; : 1-7, 2022 Aug 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252737

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 has had significant secondary effects on health care systems, including effects on emergency medical services (EMS) responses for time-sensitive emergencies. We evaluated the correlation between COVID-19 hospitalizations and EMS responses for time-sensitive emergencies in a large EMS system. METHODS: This was a retrospective study using data from the Los Angeles County EMS Agency. We abstracted data on EMS encounters for stroke, ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), and trauma from April 5, 2020 to March 6, 2021 and for the same time period in the preceding year. We also abstracted daily hospital admissions and censuses (total and intensive care unit [ICU]) for COVID-19 patients. We designated November 29, 2020 to February 27, 2021 as the period of surge. We calculated Spearman's correlations between the weekly averages of daily hospital admissions and census and EMS responses overall and for stroke, STEMI, OHCA, and trauma. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 70,616 patients admitted for confirmed COVID-19, including 12,467 (17.7%) patients admitted to the ICU. EMS responded to 899,794 calls, including 9,944 (1.1%) responses for stroke, 3,325 (0.4%) for STEMI, 11,207 (1.2%) for OHCA, and 114,846 (12.8%) for trauma. There was a significant correlation between total hospital COVID-19 positive patient admissions and EMS responses for all time-sensitive emergencies, including a positive correlation with stroke (0.41), STEMI (0.37), OHCA (0.78), and overall EMS responses (0.37); and a negative correlation with EMS responses for trauma (-0.48). ICU COVID-19 positive patient admissions also correlated with increases in EMS responses for stroke (0.39), STEMI (0.39), and OHCA (0.81); and decreased for trauma (-0.53). Similar though slightly weaker correlations were found when evaluating inpatient census. During the period of surge, the correlation with overall EMS responses increased substantially (0.88) and was very strong with OHCA (0.95). CONCLUSION: We found significant correlation between COVID-19 hospitalizations and the frequency of EMS responses for time-sensitive emergencies in this regional EMS system. EMS systems should consider the potential effects of this and future pandemics on EMS responses and prepare to meet non-pandemic resource needs during periods of surge, particularly for time-sensitive conditions.

4.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 24(13): 1603-1612, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288739

ABSTRACT

Sera obtained from convalescent individuals, and vaccinated individuals can induce low neutralizing efficacy against variants of concerns (VOCs) of SARS-CoV-2. In addition, the majority of COVID-19 vaccines are less efficacious against VOCs when compared to their efficacy against the original virus. Immune escape is one of the significant mechanisms observed during SARS-CoV-2 infection due to the substantial mutational capacity of VOCs such as B.1.1.7, P.1, B.1.351, B.1.617.2, C.37, and B.1.621. Omicron, a novel strain of SARS-CoV-2, also referred to as B.1.1.529, was identified in South Africa. This variant is a potential new VOC by the World Health Organization (WHO), and confirmed cases have been arising across several nations due to its rapid spreading ability. Omicron variant can acquire substantial immune escape following Delta, Beta/Gamma D614G VOCs and subsequently facilitating potential infectivity due to its enhanced ACE2 binding ability. The Omicron variant is a highly mutated variant accompanied by higher transmissibility and immune evasion. This mini review describes the ability of VOCs to acquire immune escape and also describes the comparative neutralization efficacy of several vaccines, including Booster doses against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mutation , Antibodies, Neutralizing
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(3)2023 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286212

ABSTRACT

Face masks can effectively prevent the spread of viruses. It is necessary to determine the wearing condition of masks in various locations, such as traffic stations, hospitals, and other places with a risk of infection. Therefore, achieving fast and accurate identification in different application scenarios is an urgent problem to be solved. Contactless mask recognition can avoid the waste of human resources and the risk of exposure. We propose a novel method for face mask recognition, which is demonstrated using the spatial and frequency features from the 3D information. A ToF camera with a simple system and robust data are used to capture the depth images. The facial contour of the depth image is extracted accurately by the designed method, which can reduce the dimension of the depth data to improve the recognition speed. Additionally, the classification process is further divided into two parts. The wearing condition of the mask is first identified by features extracted from the facial contour. The types of masks are then classified by new features extracted from the spatial and frequency curves. With appropriate thresholds and a voting method, the total recall accuracy of the proposed algorithm can achieve 96.21%. Especially, the recall accuracy for images without mask can reach 99.21%.


Subject(s)
Form Perception , Masks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Algorithms , Recognition, Psychology
6.
Patient Prefer Adherence ; 17: 505-516, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270090

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the willingness of Chinese adults aged 40 years and older to undergo gastroscopy for gastric cancer (GC) screening during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. The secondary purpose was to identify factors influencing willingness to undergo gastroscopy. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in selected cities and counties from nine provinces in China using a multi-stage sampling approach. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine the independent predictors of willingness to undergo gastroscopy. Results: This study included 1900 participants, and 1462 (76.95%) responded that they would undergo gastroscopy for GC screening. Participants of younger age, from the eastern region, living in an urban area, with higher educational levels, with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, or with precancerous stomach lesions, were more willing to undergo gastroscopy. The top four reasons to reject gastroscopy were fear of pain or discomfort, worry about a possible devastating test result, no symptoms in self-feeling, and concern about the high expense. Of all those who would reject gastroscopy for GC screening, 36.76% (161/438) would be willing to accept painless gastroscopy, while 24.89% (109/438) would be willing to undergo gastroscopy screening if higher medical reimbursement rates were available. Participants considered that gastroscopy was a relatively fearful and unknown procedure, accompanied by high risks and benefits compared to all other life events. Conclusion: In general, 76.95% of participants over 40 years old were willing to undergo gastroscopy for GC screening in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants' willingness to undergo GC screening increased due to medical resource constraints and increased interest in their health. Individuals with H. pylori infection are more likely to undergo gastroscopy, whereas old age individuals, those with lower educational levels, and those living in rural areas are more likely to reject gastroscopy.

7.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2022: 5978314, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288694

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a global threat that pushes healthcare to its limits. Hypertension is one of the most common risk factors for cardiovascular complications in COVID-19 and is strongly associated with disease severity and mortality. To date, clinical mechanisms by which hypertension leads to increased risk in COVID-19 are still unclear. Furthermore, additional factors might increase these risks, such as the consideration of age and sex, which are of interest when in search of personalized treatments for hypertensive COVID-19 patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 543 COVID-19 patients in seven provinces of China to examine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in this population and to determine risk factors of hypertensive COVID-19 patients. We also used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with hypertensive COVID-19 patients in different age and sex subgroups. Results: Among the enrolled COVID-19 patients, the median age was 47 years (interquartile range (IQR) 34.0-57.0), and 99 patients (18.23%) were over 60 years old. With regard to comorbidities, 91 patients (16.75%) were diagnosed with hypertension, followed by diabetes, coronary disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Of the hypertensive COVID-19 patients, 51 (56.04%) were male. Multivariable analysis showed that old age, comorbid diabetes or coronary heart disease on admission, increased D-dimer, increased glucose, and decreased lymphocyte count were independent risk factors associated with hypertensive COVID-19 patients. Elevated total bilirubin (odds ratio [OR]: 1.014, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.23-1.05; p = 0.043) and triglycerides (OR: 1.173, 95% CI: 0.049-1.617; p = 0.007) were found to be associated with elderly hypertensive COVID-19 patients. In addition, we found that decreased lymphocytes, basophil, high-density lipoprotein, and increased fibrinogen and creatinine were related to a higher risk of disease severity in male patients. The most common abnormal clinical findings pertaining to female hypertensive COVID-19 patients were hemoglobin, total bile acid, total protein, and low-density lipoprotein. Conclusions: Factors associated with increased risk of hypertensive COVID-19 patients were identified. Results to the different age and sex subgroups in our study will allow for better possible personalized care and also provide new insights into specific risk stratification, disease management, and treatment strategies for COVID-19 patients with hypertension in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Disease , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Aged , Aging , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 205: 115279, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287294

ABSTRACT

The highly transmissible variants of SARS-CoV-2, the causative pathogen of the COVID-19 pandemic, bring new waves of infection worldwide. Identification of effective therapeutic drugs to combat the COVID-19 pandemic is an urgent global need. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), an essential enzyme for viral RNA replication, is the most promising target for antiviral drug research since it has no counterpart in human cells and shows the highest conservation across coronaviruses. This review summarizes recent progress in studies of RdRp inhibitors, focusing on interactions between these inhibitors and the enzyme complex, based on structural analysis, and their effectiveness. In addition, we propose new possible strategies to address the shortcomings of current inhibitors, which may guide the development of novel efficient inhibitors to combat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Humans , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/chemistry
9.
Phys Med Biol ; 68(3)2023 01 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246231

ABSTRACT

Lung infection image segmentation is a key technology for autonomous understanding of the potential illness. However, current approaches usually lose the low-level details, which leads to a considerable accuracy decrease for lung infection areas with varied shapes and sizes. In this paper, we propose bilateral progressive compensation network (BPCN), a bilateral progressive compensation network to improve the accuracy of lung lesion segmentation through complementary learning of spatial and semantic features. The proposed BPCN are mainly composed of two deep branches. One branch is the multi-scale progressive fusion for main region features. The other branch is a flow-field based adaptive body-edge aggregation operations to explicitly learn detail features of lung infection areas which is supplement to region features. In addition, we propose a bilateral spatial-channel down-sampling to generate a hierarchical complementary feature which avoids losing discriminative features caused by pooling operations. Experimental results show that our proposed network outperforms state-of-the-art segmentation methods in lung infection segmentation on two public image datasets with or without a pseudo-label training strategy.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia , Humans , Semantics , Technology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
10.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 2022 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228500

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Our objective was to describe differences in telemedicine use among women with metastatic breast cancer (mBC) by race, age, and geographic region. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of women with recurrent or de novo mBC treated in US community cancer practices that initiated a new line of therapy between March 2020 and February 2021. Multivariable modified Poisson regression models were used to calculate adjusted rate ratios (RR) and robust 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with telemedicine visits within 90 days of therapy initiation. RESULTS: Overall, among 3412 women with mBC, 751 (22%) patients had telemedicine visits following therapy initiation, with lower risks observed among older women (<50 years: 24%; 50-64 years: 22%; 65-74 years: 21%; ≥75 years: 20%). Greater telemedicine use was observed among Asian women (35%) compared to White (21%), Black (18%), and Hispanic (21%) women. Fewer telemedicine visits occurred in Southern (12%) and Midwestern (17%) states versus Northeastern (37%) or Western (36%) states. In multivariable models, women ages ≥75 years had significantly lower risks of telemedicine visits (RR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.62-0.95) compared to ages <50 years. Compared to patients in Northeastern states, women in Midwestern (RR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.37-0.57) and Southern (RR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.26-0.37) states had significantly lower risks of telemedicine visits; but not women in Western states (RR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.83-1.12). No statistically significant differences in telemedicine use were found between racial groups in overall multivariable models. CONCLUSIONS: In this study of community cancer practices, older mBC patients and those living in Southern and Midwestern states were less likely to have telemedicine visits. Preferences for communication and delivery of care may have implications for measurement of exposures and endpoints in pharmacoepidemiologic studies of cancer patients.

12.
Journal of Hainan Medical University ; 27(1):6-10, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2145378

ABSTRACT

COVID-19is highly infectious and epidemic, which belongs to the " plague" disease of traditional Chinese medicine and seriously endangers the safety of human life. Based on the theory of Guangwenyilun combined with the treatment experience of COVID-19 in TCM, syndrome differentiation-based treatment and the clinical characteristic of COVID-19is be- ing deeply analysed. COVID-19began because of the" epidemic pathogenic factors", and the pathogenesis is that the dampness and heat generated toxin which blocked the qi movement. The early onset of this disease is in the pleurodiaphragmatic inter- space, and its transmission can be divided into sequential transmission and reverse transmission. Regardless of the direction of its transmission, grasping the transmission of" epidemic pathogenic factors" on the diagnosis and treatment combined with " five distinguishing thought, exterior and interior, accompanying symptoms" theory will be of great importance to help to im- prove the effect of treatment. At the same time, this clinical approach will also provide reference for the diagnosis and treat- ment of any possible new diseases.

13.
J Virol ; 96(22): e0113322, 2022 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108209

ABSTRACT

Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are important tools for vector development for applications such as immunization, oncolytic therapy, or gene therapy. However, their potential is limited by preexisting immunity against HAdV; therefore, it is important for future vector design to identify HAdV types of low seroprevalence. To provide such data, we performed an analysis of both binding and neutralizing antibodies in sera from three student cohorts. Among these young adults, we found the highest levels of binding antibodies against HAdV-C1, -D33, -A31, -B35, -C5, -D26, -E4, and -B7. The highest levels of neutralizing antibodies were detected against HAdV-C2, -B3, -C1, -F41, -G52, -C5, -A31, -E4, and -C6. While binding and neutralizing antibody levels were not different in males and females or in samples collected before and after the cold season, we found significantly lower levels of binding antibodies in sera collected 20 months after the beginning of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, indicating a waning of HAdV-specific antibody responses on that time scale. Our data indicate that mainly HAdV types of species A, B, and D show low seroprevalence with regard to both binding and neutralizing antibodies and may represent good candidates for further characterization and future development as novel vector systems. IMPORTANCE Vectors based on human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are important for the development of novel immunizations, oncolytic therapies, and gene therapies. The use of HAdV-based vaccines against Ebola virus, the rapid adaptation of the vector technology for vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and their very good efficacy have shown the great potential of HAdV-based vaccines. Preexisting immunity against HAdV-based vectors can limit their efficacy significantly; therefore, it is highly desirable to identify HAdV types with low seroprevalence. The identification of new suitable HAdV types for vector development will broaden the repertoire and contribute to future epidemic preparedness.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human , Adenoviruses, Human , COVID-19 , Male , Young Adult , Female , Humans , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Students
15.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 876718, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054996

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The impact of colchicine on hospitalized patients with Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) related cardiac injury is unknown. Materials and Methods: In this multicenter randomized controlled open-label clinical trial, we randomized hospitalized adult patients with documented COVID-19 and evidence of cardiac injury in a 1:1 ratio to either colchicine 0.6 mg po twice daily for 30 days plus standard of care or standard of care alone. Cardiac injury was defined as elevated cardiac biomarkers, new arrhythmia, new/worsened left ventricular dysfunction, or new pericardial effusion. The primary endpoint was the composite of all-cause mortality, need for mechanical ventilation, or need for mechanical circulatory support (MCS) at 90 days. Key secondary endpoints included the individual components of the primary endpoint and change in and at least 2-grade reduction in the World Health Organization (WHO) Ordinal Scale at 30 days. The trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04355143). Results: We enrolled 93 patients, 48 patients in the colchicine arm and 45 in the control arm. There was no significant difference in the primary outcome between the colchicine and control arms (19 vs. 15%, p = 0.78), nor in the individual components of all-cause mortality (17 vs. 15%, p = 1.0) and need for mechanical ventilation (8 vs. 5%, p = 0.68); no patients in either group required MCS. The change in (-1.8 ± 2.4 vs. -1.2 ± 2.0, p = 0.12) and at least 2-grade reduction (75 vs. 75%, p = 1.0) in the WHO ordinal scale was also similar between groups. Conclusion: Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and evidence of cardiac injury did not benefit from colchicine therapy.

16.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1989752

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has resulted in hundreds of millions of infections and millions of deaths worldwide. Preliminary results exhibited excellent efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in preventing hospitalization and severe disease. However, data on inactivated vaccine-induced immune responses of naturally infected patients are limited. Here, we characterized SARS-CoV-2 RBD-specific IgG (anti-S-RBD IgG) and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 wild type and variants of concerns (VOCs), as well as RBD-specific IgG-secreting B cells and antigen-specific T cells respectively in 51 SARS-CoV-2 recovered subjects and 63 healthy individuals. In SARS-CoV-2 recovered patients, a single dose vaccine is sufficient to reactivate robust anti-S-RBD IgG and NAbs. The neutralizing capacity against VOCs increased significantly post-vaccination no matter healthy individuals or SARS-CoV-2 recovered patients. In addition, RBD-specific IgG-secreting B cells in SARS-CoV-2 recovered patients were significantly higher than that in healthy vaccine recipients. After the vaccine booster, the frequencies of specific IFN-γ+ CD4+ T cell, IL-2+ CD4+ T cell, and TNF-α+ CD4+ T cell responses were significantly increased in SARS-CoV-2 recovered patients. Our data highlighted the safety and utility of SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine and demonstrated that robust humoral and cellular immune response can be reactivated by one-dose inactivated vaccine in SARS-CoV-2 recovered patients.

17.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 849598, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969055

ABSTRACT

Background: Qingfei Paidu decoction (QFPDD) has been widely used in treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. However, studies on the treatment effect of COVID-19 patients and other respiratory diseases have not been well demonstrated. Our study aims to determine the treatment effect of QFPDD in combination with conventional treatment on COVID-19 patients and other respiratory diseases. Methods: This retrospective study recruited COVID-19 patients who were treated with QFPDD for at least two courses (6 days) from seven hospitals in five provinces from January 21 to March 18 2020. Demographic, epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, computed tomography characteristics, treatment, and outcome data were collected and analyzed. The improvements in clinical symptoms before and after QFPDD treatment were compared. Results: Eight COVID-19 patients were included in this study. Of them, six were males (75.0%). The median age of the patients was 66 (60-82) years. Four patients were classified as mild and moderate cases (50.0%); there were two severe cases (25.0%) and critical cases (25.0%). The most common symptom was cough (7 [87.5%]), followed by fever (6 [75.0%]), fatigue (4 [50.0%]), asthma (4 [50.0%]), and anorexia (3 [37.5%]). Abnormal findings included decrease in neutrophils (3 [37.5%]), lymphocytes (2 [25.0%]), alkaline phosphatase (3 [37.5%]), lactic dehydrogenase (4 [50.0%]), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (2 [25.0%]), and C-reactive protein (5 [83.3%]) at admission. After one course (3 days) of QFPDD, nasal obstruction and sore throat completely disappeared, and fever (5 [83.3%]), fatigue (2 [50.0%]), and cough (2 [28.6%]) were improved. After two courses (6 days), the fever disappeared completely in all patients, and the other symptoms showed a tendency to improve. In non-severe patients, 87.5% baseline symptoms completely disappeared. In severe patients, 61.1% of the baseline symptoms completely disappeared after patients were administered QFPDD for two courses. Of the abnormal indicators, 55.6% returned to normal levels. The median duration to complete fever recovery was 1.0 day. The median durations of viral shedding and hospitalization were 10.5 and 21.5 days, respectively. None of the patients worsened and died, and no serious adverse events occurred related to QFPDD during hospitalization. Conclusion: QFPDD combined with conventional treatment improved clinical symptoms in COVID-19 patients with other respiratory diseases, and no serious adverse reactions associated with QFPDD were observed. Larger sample studies confirm our findings in the future.

18.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(12): 4795-4808, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954695

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is hopefully approaching its end in many countries as herd immunity develops and weaker strains of SARS-CoV-2 dominate. However, a new concern occurs over the long-term effects of COVID-19, collectively called "Long COVID", as some symptoms of the nervous system last even after patients recover from COVID-19. This review focuses on studies of anosmia, i.e., impairment of smell, which is the most common sensory defect during the disease course and is caused by olfactory dysfunctions. It remains mysterious how the olfactory functions are affected since the virus can't invade olfactory receptor neurons. We describe several leading hypotheses about the mystery in hope to provide insights into the pathophysiology and treatment strategies for anosmia.


Subject(s)
Anosmia , COVID-19 , Anosmia/diagnosis , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
19.
BMJ Open ; 11(8), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843224

ABSTRACT

ObjectivesTo determine the association of general practitioner (GP) contact with depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown in China.DesignIn April 2020, a follow-up survey was conducted on the basis of a baseline survey conducted between October 2018 and May 2019.SettingThe survey was embedded in the Stanford Wellness Living Laboratory-China (WELL China) study, an ongoing prospective community-based cohort study during 2018–2019.ParticipantsThe survey was conducted by telephone interview among 4144 adult urban residents participating in the WELL China study at baseline. We collected information on sociodemographic characteristics, depressive symptoms and GP contact during the lockdown period (February to March 2020).Primary and secondary outcome measuresDepressive symptoms were measured using the WHO-Five Well-being Index, comprising five questionnaire items that briefly indicate psychological well-being. Logistic regression models were applied to assess the association between GP contact and depressive symptoms.ResultsIn total, 3356 participants responded to the survey;203 were excluded owing to missing data on depressive symptoms, leaving 3153 participants in the present study. During lockdown, 449 participants had GP contact. GP contact was significantly negatively associated with prevalent depressive symptoms (OR, 0.67;95% CI 0.51 to 0.89;p<0.01) and incident depressive symptoms (OR 0.68;95% CI 0.51 to 0.93;p<0.05). Stratified analysis showed a significant negative association between depressive symptoms and GP contact in individuals who were 45–64 years old (p<0.01), had a middle or high education (p<0.01) and had self-reported non-communicable diseases (p<0.05).ConclusionsContact with GPs during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdowns may have a negative association with depressive symptoms in community-dwelling populations. Given the possibility of further surges in COVID-19 infections, GPs’ contact in the community should be enhanced.

20.
Med Image Anal ; 79: 102459, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799795

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) broke out at the end of 2019, and has resulted in an ongoing global pandemic. Segmentation of pneumonia infections from chest computed tomography (CT) scans of COVID-19 patients is significant for accurate diagnosis and quantitative analysis. Deep learning-based methods can be developed for automatic segmentation and offer a great potential to strengthen timely quarantine and medical treatment. Unfortunately, due to the urgent nature of the COVID-19 pandemic, a systematic collection of CT data sets for deep neural network training is quite difficult, especially high-quality annotations of multi-category infections are limited. In addition, it is still a challenge to segment the infected areas from CT slices because of the irregular shapes and fuzzy boundaries. To solve these issues, we propose a novel COVID-19 pneumonia lesion segmentation network, called Spatial Self-Attention network (SSA-Net), to identify infected regions from chest CT images automatically. In our SSA-Net, a self-attention mechanism is utilized to expand the receptive field and enhance the representation learning by distilling useful contextual information from deeper layers without extra training time, and spatial convolution is introduced to strengthen the network and accelerate the training convergence. Furthermore, to alleviate the insufficiency of labeled multi-class data and the long-tailed distribution of training data, we present a semi-supervised few-shot iterative segmentation framework based on re-weighting the loss and selecting prediction values with high confidence, which can accurately classify different kinds of infections with a small number of labeled image data. Experimental results show that SSA-Net outperforms state-of-the-art medical image segmentation networks and provides clinically interpretable saliency maps, which are useful for COVID-19 diagnosis and patient triage. Meanwhile, our semi-supervised iterative segmentation model can improve the learning ability in small and unbalanced training set and can achieve higher performance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Supervised Machine Learning
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