Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 43
Filter
1.
Medical Image Analysis ; : 102459, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1799795

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) broke out at the end of 2019, and has resulted in an ongoing global pandemic. Segmentation of pneumonia infections from chest computed tomography (CT) scans of COVID-19 patients is significant for accurate diagnosis and quantitative analysis. Deep learning-based methods can be developed for automatic segmentation and offer a great potential to strengthen timely quarantine and medical treatment. Unfortunately, due to the urgent nature of the COVID-19 pandemic, a systematic collection of CT data sets for deep neural network training is quite difficult, especially high-quality annotations of multi-category infections are limited. In addition, it is still a challenge to segment the infected areas from CT slices because of the irregular shapes and fuzzy boundaries. To solve these issues, we propose a novel COVID-19 pneumonia lesion segmentation network, called Spatial Self-Attention network (SSA-Net), to identify infected regions from chest CT images automatically. In our SSA-Net, a self-attention mechanism is utilized to expand the receptive field and enhance the representation learning by distilling useful contextual information from deeper layers without extra training time, and spatial convolution is introduced to strengthen the network and accelerate the training convergence. Furthermore, to alleviate the insufficiency of labeled multi-class data and the long-tailed distribution of training data, we present a semi-supervised few-shot iterative segmentation framework based on re-weighting the loss and selecting prediction values with high confidence, which can accurately classify different kinds of infections with a small number of labeled image data. Experimental results show that SSA-Net outperforms state-of-the-art medical image segmentation networks and provides clinically interpretable saliency maps, which are useful for COVID-19 diagnosis and patient triage. Meanwhile, our semi-supervised iterative segmentation model can improve the learning ability in small and unbalanced training set and can achieve higher performance.

2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 764203, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775974

ABSTRACT

Background: Stigmatization and poor social support are challenges faced by individuals living with HIV or sexually transmitted disease, which can have a profound negative impact on their healthcare. Mother-to-child transmission of either HIV or syphilis can lead to adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate stigmatization and social support of pregnant women with HIV or syphilis in eastern China. Methods: This was an explanatory sequential mixed-method study conducted in Zhejiang province, China in 2019. Stigmatization, social support, and the associated factors toward HIV or syphilis were evaluated using questionnaires. The social support rating scale was used to evaluate social support, where a score <25% was defined as poor social support. A logistic regression model was used to explore the association between stigmatization and poor social support. Results: A total of 448 women (HIV positive, N = 93; syphilis, N = 355) were recruited in this study. Higher stigmatization was observed in pregnant women with HIV compared to those with syphilis (53.76% vs. 24.36%, p < 0.001), and poorer social support was observed in women with HIV compared with those with syphilis (40.86% vs. 19.86%, p < 0.001), with significant distributions of the total social support scores (Z = -1.976, p = 0.048) and scores on objectivity (Z = -2.036, p = 0.042) and subjectivity (Z = -2.500, p = 0.012). Similar social support among HIV or syphilis pregnant women was observed in medical healthcare facilities. In multivariable logistic model analysis, stigmatization (OR adj = 2.927; 95%CI, 1.714-4.996; p < 0.001) and ethnic minority (OR adj = 2.373; 95%CI, 1.113-5.056; p = 0.025) were negatively associated with social support. Interestingly, employment status was associated with improved social support (OR adj = 0.345; 95%CI, 0.180-0.662; p = 0.001). Conclusion: Stigmatization among pregnant women with HIV or syphilis remains high. We demonstrated that stigmatization was a significant predictor of low social support in pregnant women with HIV or syphilis. The support shown in medical facilities was similar toward pregnant women with HIV or syphilis. Implementation of stigmatization eradication and social support strategies targeting pregnant women with HIV or syphilis may therefore improve the dual elimination of mother-to-child transmission service.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Social Stigma , Social Support , Syphilis , China/epidemiology , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Minority Groups , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/psychology , Pregnant Women , Syphilis/epidemiology , Syphilis/psychology
3.
Chin Med ; 17(1): 27, 2022 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702656

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tea trees originated in southwest China 60 million or 70 million years ago. Written records show that Chinese ancestors had begun drinking tea over 3000 years ago. Nowadays, with the aging of populations worldwide and more people suffering from non-communicable diseases or poor health, tea beverages have become an inexpensive and fine complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapy. At present, there are 3 billion people who like to drink tea in the world, but few of them actually understand tea, especially on its development process and the spiritual and cultural connotations. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, CNKI, and other relevant platforms with the key word "tea", and reviewed and analyzed tea-related literatures and pictures in the past 40 years about tea's history, culture, customs, experimental studies, and markets. RESULTS: China is the hometown of tea, tea trees, tea drinking, and tea culture. China has the oldest wild and planted tea trees in the world, fossil of a tea leaf from 35,400,000 years ago, and abundant tea-related literatures and art works. Moreover, tea may be the first Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) used by Chinese people in ancient times. Tea drinking has many benefits to our physical health via its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immuno-regulatory, anticancer, cardiovascular-protective, anti-diabetic, and anti-obesity activities. At the moment, COVID-19 is wreaking havoc across the globe and causing severe damages to people's health and lives. Tea has anti-COVID-19 functions via the enhancement of the innate immune response and inhibition of viral growth. Besides, drinking tea can allow people to acquire a peaceful, relaxed, refreshed and cheerful enjoyment, and even longevity. According to the meridian theory of traditional Chinese medicine, different kinds of tea can activate different meridian systems in the human body. At present, black tea (fermented tea) and green tea (non-fermented tea) are the most popular in the world. Black tea accounts for over 90% of all teas sold in western countries. The world's top-grade black teas include Qi Men black in China, Darjeeling and Assam black tea in India, and Uva black tea in Sri Lanka. However, all top ten famous green teas in the world are produced in China, and Xi Hu Long Jing tea is the most famous among all green teas. More than 700 different kinds of components and 27 mineral elements can be found in tea. Tea polyphenols and theaflavin/thearubigins are considered to be the major bioactive components of black tea and green tea, respectively. Overly strong or overheated tea liquid should be avoided when drinking tea. CONCLUSIONS: Today, CAM provides an array of treatment modalities for the health promotion in both developed and developing countries all over the world. Tea drinking, a simple herb-based CAM therapy, has become a popular man-made non-alcoholic beverage widely consumed worldwide, and it can improve the growth of economy as well. Tea can improve our physical and mental health and promote the harmonious development of society through its chemical and cultural elements.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315379

ABSTRACT

Background: While the immunogenicity of inactivated vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) has been characterized in several well-conducted clinical trials, real-world evidence concerning immune responses against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) raised by such vaccines is currently missing. Here, we comprehensively characterized various parameters of SARS-CoV-2-specific cellular and humoral immune responses induced by inactivated COVID-19 vaccines under real-world conditions. Methods: Venous blood was collected from 126 adults, before and/or after inactivated COVID-19 vaccine inoculation. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody (NAb) and S-receptor binding domain IgG in the serum were detected. The isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated by three pools of lyophilized peptides covering the spike, nucleocapsid, and membrane protein of SARS-CoV-2 for evaluating antigen-specific T cell responses against the virus. Findings: The seroconversion rate for S-RBD IgG and NAb after two doses of vaccination was 87.06% (74/85) and 78.82% (67/85), respectively. Female participants developed higher concentrations of S-RBD IgG and NAb compared to male vaccinees. Interestingly, a longer dosing interval between the first and second vaccination resulted in a better long-term SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD IgG response. The frequencies of CD4+ T cells that produce effector cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α) in response to stimulation with peptide pools corresponding to the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S), nucleocapsid (N) or membrane (M) protein increased significantly after a single vaccination dose, and continued to increase after the second administration. S, N, or M-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses became detectable in 95.83% (69/72) and 54.16% (39/72) of double-vaccinated individuals, respectively. The longitudinal analysis demonstrated that CD4+ T cell responses recognizing S, N, and M waned quickly after a single vaccine dose, but were boosted and became more sustained following a second dose. Interpretation: Both humoral and cellular SARS-CoV-2-specific immunity are elicited in the majority of individuals after two doses of inactivated COVID-19 vaccines. Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR2100048837).Funding Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, National Natural Science Foundation of China, National Science and Technology Major Project, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Medical Faculty of the University of Duisburg-Essen and Stiftung Universiätsmedizin, University Hospital Essen, Germany, and the Tongji-Rongcheng Center for Biomedicine, Huazhong University of Science and Technology.Declaration of Interest: None to declare. Ethical Approval: The study protocol was approved by the local medical ethics committee of Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (2021-0570)

5.
Viral Immunol ; 35(2): 170-174, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684495

ABSTRACT

Widespread vaccination of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine makes the assessment of antibodies' positive rates essential. In this study, a total of 378 hospital staff members vaccinated with the vaccine were selected as research subjects. Serum-specific IgG and IgM against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S) were detected, and S-specific IgG and IgM positive rates were analyzed in different age and sex groups, as was the serological pattern of IgG/IgM. The positive rates of IgG and IgM were 92.06% and 44.44%, respectively. The percentage of both IgG and IgM positive (IgG+IgM+) was 43.92%. A total of 182 vaccinees (46.90%) were IgG positive and IgM negative (IgG+IgM-), and 28 vaccinees (7.41%) were negative for both IgG and IgM (IgG-IgM-); 2 participants were positive for IgM alone (IgG-IgM+). In sex subgroups, the rate of IgM positivity was significantly higher in the male group than in the female group (p = 0.027). In different age subgroups, positive rates for IgG in the young group were significantly higher than those in the other group (p = 0.035). Furthermore, ratios of sample values to cutoff values (S/CO values) for IgG in vaccinees who were S-specific IgG positive were compared, and the S/CO values of IgG were significantly higher in the younger group than in the other group (p < 0.001). When comparing the influence of sex on two specific serological patterns (IgG+IgM- and IgG+IgM+), a significant difference in positivity rates was detected (p = 0.011). Male vaccinees were more likely than females to have an IgG+IgM+ pattern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Male , Personnel, Hospital , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
6.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(2): 707-716, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627058

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)" caused by the "severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)" has caused huge losses to the world due to the unavailability of effective treatment options. It is now a serious threat to humans as it causes severe respiratory disease, neurological complications, and other associated problems. Although COVID-19 generally causes mild and recoverable symptoms in children, it can cause serious severe symptoms and death causing complications. Most importantly, SARS-CoV-2 can cause neurological complications in children, such as shortness of breath, myalgia, stroke, and encephalopathy. These problems are highly linked with cytokine storm and proinflammatory responses, which can alter the physiology of the blood-brain barrier and allow the virus to enter the brain. Despite the direct infection caused by the virus entry into the brain, these neurological complications can result from indirect means such as severe immune responses. This review discusses viral transmission, transport to the brain, the associated prenatal stress, and neurological and/or immunological complications in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Central Nervous System Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Child , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
7.
International journal of biological sciences ; 18(2):707-716, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1610099

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)” caused by the “severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)” has caused huge losses to the world due to the unavailability of effective treatment options. It is now a serious threat to humans as it causes severe respiratory disease, neurological complications, and other associated problems. Although COVID-19 generally causes mild and recoverable symptoms in children, it can cause serious severe symptoms and death causing complications. Most importantly, SARS-CoV-2 can cause neurological complications in children, such as shortness of breath, myalgia, stroke, and encephalopathy. These problems are highly linked with cytokine storm and proinflammatory responses, which can alter the physiology of the blood-brain barrier and allow the virus to enter the brain. Despite the direct infection caused by the virus entry into the brain, these neurological complications can result from indirect means such as severe immune responses. This review discusses viral transmission, transport to the brain, the associated prenatal stress, and neurological and/or immunological complications in children.

8.
Frontiers in immunology ; 12, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602189

ABSTRACT

While the immunogenicity of inactivated vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) has been characterized in several well-conducted clinical trials, real-world evidence concerning immune responses against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) raised by such vaccines is currently missing. Here, we comprehensively characterized various parameters of SARS-CoV-2-specific cellular and humoral immune responses induced by inactivated COVID-19 vaccines in 126 individuals under real-world conditions. After two doses of vaccination, S-receptor binding domain IgG (S-RBD IgG) and neutralizing antibody (NAb) were detected in 87.06% (74/85) and 78.82% (67/85) of individuals, respectively. Female participants developed higher concentrations of S-RBD IgG and NAb compared to male vaccinees. Interestingly, a longer dosing interval between the first and second vaccination resulted in a better long-term SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD IgG response. The frequencies of CD4+ T cells that produce effector cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α) in response to stimulation with peptide pools corresponding to the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S), nucleocapsid (N) or membrane (M) protein were significantly higher in individuals received two doses of vaccine than those received one dose of vaccine and unvaccinated individuals. S, N, or M-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were detectable in 95.83% (69/72) and 54.16% (39/72) of double-vaccinated individuals, respectively. The longitudinal analysis demonstrated that CD4+ T cell responses recognizing S, N, and M waned quickly after a single vaccine dose, but were boosted and became more sustained following a second dose. Overall, we provide a comprehensive characterization of immune responses induced by inactivated COVID-19 vaccines in real-world settings, suggesting that both humoral and cellular SARS-CoV-2-specific immunity are elicited in the majority of individuals after two doses of inactivated COVID-19 vaccines.

9.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 469, 2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582108

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is now included in the treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in many settings. However, different clinical trials report different outcomes without consensus. This study aims to evaluate the impact of CBT on the mental state, quality of life and disease activity of patients with IBD. DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: This systematic review searched eligible studies from 1946 to December 8, 2019, in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane library, ClinicalTrials.gov, PsycINFO, Web of Science for eligible randomized controlled trials (RCT). RESULTS: Among the initial identified 1807 references, 11 studies met inclusion criteria. CBT was shown to improve patient's quality of life and reduce the level of depression and anxiety post-intervention but was not sustained. Evidence is not enough for the effect of CBT on disease activity, or C-reactive protein level. CONCLUSIONS: CBT has shown short-term positive psychological effects on IBD patients, but there is insufficient evidence for sustained physical and psychological improvements of IBD patients. PROSPERO registration: CRD42019152330.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Chronic Disease , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e052383, 2021 08 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356950

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the association of general practitioner (GP) contact with depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown in China. DESIGN: In April 2020, a follow-up survey was conducted on the basis of a baseline survey conducted between October 2018 and May 2019. SETTING: The survey was embedded in the Stanford Wellness Living Laboratory-China (WELL China) study, an ongoing prospective community-based cohort study during 2018-2019. PARTICIPANTS: The survey was conducted by telephone interview among 4144 adult urban residents participating in the WELL China study at baseline. We collected information on sociodemographic characteristics, depressive symptoms and GP contact during the lockdown period (February to March 2020). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Depressive symptoms were measured using the WHO-Five Well-being Index, comprising five questionnaire items that briefly indicate psychological well-being. Logistic regression models were applied to assess the association between GP contact and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: In total, 3356 participants responded to the survey; 203 were excluded owing to missing data on depressive symptoms, leaving 3153 participants in the present study. During lockdown, 449 participants had GP contact. GP contact was significantly negatively associated with prevalent depressive symptoms (OR, 0.67; 95% CI 0.51 to 0.89; p<0.01) and incident depressive symptoms (OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.51 to 0.93; p<0.05). Stratified analysis showed a significant negative association between depressive symptoms and GP contact in individuals who were 45-64 years old (p<0.01), had a middle or high education (p<0.01) and had self-reported non-communicable diseases (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Contact with GPs during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdowns may have a negative association with depressive symptoms in community-dwelling populations. Given the possibility of further surges in COVID-19 infections, GPs' contact in the community should be enhanced.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , General Practitioners , Adult , Anxiety , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Cardiooncology ; 7(1): 28, 2021 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350157

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) appears to be associated with poor outcomes in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), data on patients with CVD and concomitant cancer is limited. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of underlying CVD and CVD risk factors with cancer history on in-hospital mortality in those with COVID-19. METHODS: Data from symptomatic adults hospitalized with COVID-19 at 86 hospitals in the US enrolled in the American Heart Association's COVID-19 CVD Registry was analyzed. The primary exposure was cancer history. The primary outcome was in-hospital death. Multivariable logistic regression models were adjusted for demographics, CVD risk factors, and CVD. Interaction between history of cancer with concomitant CVD and CVD risk factors were tested. RESULTS: Among 8222 patients, 892 (10.8%) had a history of cancer and 1501 (18.3%) died. Cancer history had significant interaction with CVD risk factors of age, body mass index (BMI), and smoking history, but not underlying CVD itself. History of cancer was significantly associated with increased in-hospital death (among average age and BMI patients, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.60, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.07-6.24; p < 0.0001 in those with a smoking history and aOR = 1.33, 95%CI: 1.01-1.76; p = 0.04 in non-smokers). Among the cancer subgroup, prior use of chemotherapy within 2 weeks of admission was associated with in-hospital death (aOR = 1.72, 95%CI: 1.05-2.80; p = 0.03). Underlying CVD demonstrated a numerical but statistically nonsignificant trend toward increased mortality (aOR = 1.18, 95% CI: 0.99-1.41; p = 0.07). CONCLUSION: Among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, cancer history was a predictor of in-hospital mortality. Notably, among cancer patients, recent use of chemotherapy, but not underlying CVD itself, was associated with worse survival. These findings have important implications in cancer therapy considerations and vaccine distribution in cancer patients with and without underlying CVD and CVD risk factors.

12.
J Affect Disord ; 294: 128-136, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317696

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to explore the risk profiles attributable to psychosocial and behavioural problems during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. To this end, we created a risk-prediction nomogram model. METHODS: A national multicentre study was conducted through an online questionnaire involving 12,186 children (6-11 years old) and adolescents (12-16 years old). Respondents' psychosocial and behavioural functioning were assessed using the Achenbach Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Data were analysed using STATA software and R-language. RESULTS: The positive detection rate of psychological problems within Wuhan was greater than that outside Wuhan for schizoid (P = 0.005), and depression (P = 0.030) in children, and for somatic complaints (P = 0.048), immaturity (P = 0.023), and delinquent behaviour (P = 0.046) in adolescents. After graded multivariable adjustment, seven factors associated with psychological problems in children and adolescents outside Wuhan were parent-child conflict (odds ratio (OR): 4.94, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 4.27-5.72), sleep problems (OR: 4.05, 95% CI: 3.77-4.36), online study time (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.37-0.47), physical activity time (OR: 0.510, 95% CI: 0.44-0.59), number of close friends (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.44-0.6), time spent playing videogames (OR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.90-2.69) and eating disorders (OR: 2.71, 95% CI: 2.35-3.11) (all P < 0.001). Contrastingly, within Wuhan, only the first four factors, namely, parent-child conflict (5.95, 2.82-12.57), sleep problems (4.47, 3.06-6.54), online study time (0.37, 0.22-0.64), and physical activity time (0.42, 0.22-0.80) were identified (all P < 0.01). Accordingly, nomogram models were created with significant attributes and had decent prediction performance with C-indexes over 80%. LIMITATION: A cross-sectional study and self-reported measures. CONCLUSIONS: Besides the four significant risk factors within and outside Wuhan, the three additional factors outside Wuhan deserve special attention. The prediction nomogram models constructed in this study have important clinical and public health implications for psychosocial and behavioural assessment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Problem Behavior , Adolescent , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Nomograms , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 5(2): 180-184, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318199

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has already stressed the healthcare system in the world. Many hospitals have been overwhelmed by the large number of patients with COVID-19. Due to the shortage of equipment and personnel and the highly contagious nature of COVID-19, many other healthcare services are on hold. However, at Beijing Tiantan Hospital, a rapid response system has been in place so that routine care is not interrupted. We, therefore, would like to share our hospital-wide prevention and management policy during this pandemic to help other healthcare systems to function in this crisis. METHOD: Tiantan hospital is one of the leading neuroscience institutions in the world. With 1650 beds, its annual inpatient admission exceeds 30 000 patients. Its COVID-19 rapid response policy was reviewed for its functionality. RESULTS: There are nine key components of this policy: an incident management system; a comprehensive infection prevention and control, outpatient triage and flow system; a designated fever clinic; patient screening and administration; optimised surgical operations, enhanced nucleic acid testing; screening of returning employees; and a supervision and feedback system. In addition, a specific protocol was designed for treating patients with acute stroke. CONCLUSION: A comprehensive policy is helpful to protect the employee from infection and to provide quality and uninterrupted care to all who need these, including patients with acute ischaemic stroke.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Stroke/therapy , Beijing , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Pathways , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Health Services Needs and Demand , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Needs Assessment , Occupational Health , Pandemics , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis , Triage
14.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(12): 15801-15814, 2021 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285614

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread worldwide and causes high mortality of elderly patients. High-flow nasal cannula therapy (HFNC) is an oxygen delivery method for severely ill patients. We retrospectively analyzed the course of illness and outcomes in 110 elderly COVID-19 patients (≥65 years) treated with HFNC from 6 hospitals. 38 patients received HFNC (200 mmHg < PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 300 mmHg, early HFNC group), and 72 patients received HFNC (100 mmHg < PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 200 mmHg, late HFNC group). There were no significant differences of sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores and APECH II scores between early and late HFNC group on admission. Compared with the late HFNC group, patients in the early HFNC group had a lower likelihood of developing severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), longer time from illness onset to severe ARDS and shorter duration of viral shedding after illness onset, as well as shorter lengths of ICU and hospital stay. 24 patients died during hospitalization, of whom 22 deaths (30.6%) were in the late HFNC group and 2 (5.3%) in the early HFNC group. The present study suggested that the outcomes were better in severely ill elderly patients with COVID-19 receiving early compared to late HFNC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cannula , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/instrumentation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , China , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Retrospective Studies
15.
Res Sq ; 2021 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270324

ABSTRACT

Background: While pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) appears to be associated with poor outcomes in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), data on patients with CVD and concomitant cancer is limited. Evaluate the effect of underlying CVD and CVD risk factors with cancer history on in-hospital mortality in those with COVID-19. Methods: Data from symptomatic adults hospitalized with COVID-19 at 86 hospitals in the US enrolled in the American Heart Association’s COVID-19 CVD Registry was analyzed. The primary exposure was cancer history. The primary outcome was in-hospital death. Multivariable logistic regression models were adjusted for demographics, CVD risk factors, and CVD. Interaction between history of cancer with concomitant CVD and CVD risk factors were tested. Results: Among 8222 patients, 892 (10.8%) had a history of cancer and 1501 (18.3%) died. Cancer history had significant interaction with CVD risk factors of age, body mass index (BMI), and smoking history, but not underlying CVD itself. History of cancer was significantly associated with increased in-hospital death (among average age and BMI patients, adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=3.60, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.07-6.24; p<0.0001 in those with a smoking history and aOR=1.33, 95%CI: 1.01 - 1.76; p=0.04 in non-smokers). Among the cancer subgroup, prior use of chemotherapy within 2 weeks of admission was associated with in-hospital death (aOR=1.72, 95%CI: 1.05-2.80; p=0.03). Underlying CVD demonstrated a numerical but statistically nonsignificant trend toward increased mortality (aOR=1.18, 95% CI: 0.99 - 1.41; p=0.07). Conclusion: Among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, cancer history was a predictor of in-hospital mortality. Notably, among cancer patients, recent use of chemotherapy, but not underlying CVD itself, was associated with worse survival. These findings have important implications in cancer therapy considerations and vaccine distribution in cancer patients with and without underlying CVD and CVD risk factors.

16.
Kidney Dis (Basel) ; 5: 1-10, 2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263967

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought increased focus on hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), as doctors, the medical community, and policymakers around the world attempt to understand how the risks of HCQ weigh against unknown benefits. We aim to evaluate the effects of HCQ on cardiac conduction, thus contributing to the global understanding of implications of HCQ use. METHODS: We reviewed 717 cases of nonmalaria patients treated with HCQ (302) or without HCQ (415) in our hospital from 2008 to 2019, analyzed the cardiac conduction recorded by electrocardiogram (122 vs. 180) including heart rate (HR), PR, and corrected-QT (QTc) intervals, and explored the relationship of cardiac conduction with age, HCQ dosage, HCQ duration, sex, and primary diseases in HCQ users. RESULTS: The all-cause mortality is similar between HCQ and non-HCQ groups (4.0 vs. 4.3%, p = 0.85). Patients aged 45 years or older, not younger ones, have lower HR (80.1 ± 1.7 vs. 85.7 ± 1.8 bpm, p = 0.03) but longer PR (163 ± 3.4 vs. 146.6 ± 4.2 ms, p = 0.003) and QTc (417.8 ± 3.8 vs. 407.7 ± 2.7 ms, p = 0.03) in HCQ than those in non-HCQ. The age in the HCQ group is positively correlated with PR (R = 0.31, p < 0.01) and QTc (R = 0.34, p < 0.01) but not HR. HR, PR, and QTc are not related to HCQ dosage (0.1-0.6 g/day), HCQ duration (0.2-126 months), sex, primary diseases, and repeated exams. CONCLUSION: Age is the most important risk factor of HCQ on cardiac conduction in nonmalaria patients. Electrocardiogram monitoring is suggested in aged patients due to the effects of HCQ on HR, PR, and QTc.

17.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 342, 2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258580

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the psychosocial and behavioral problems of children and adolescents in the early stage of reopening schools. In this national cross-sectional study, a total of 11072 students from China were naturally divided into two groups based on their schooling status: reopened schools (RS) and home schooling (HS) group. The psychosocial and behavioral functioning were measured by Achenbach Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and compared in these two groups. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore the independent predictors associated with the psychosocial and behavioral problems. Our results showed that the students in the RS group had more adverse behaviors than that of HS group. The RS group had the higher rates of parent-offspring conflict, prolonged homework time, increased sedentary time and sleep problems (all p < 0.001). When separate analyses were conducted in boys and girls, the RS group had the higher scores for (1) overall behavioral problems (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01), internalizing (p = 0.02 and p = 0.02) and externalizing (p = 0.02 and p = 0.004) behaviors in the 6-11 age group; (2) externalizing (p = 0.049 and p = 0.006) behaviors in the 12-16 age group. Multivariable regression showed parent-offspring conflict and increased sedentary time were the most common risk factors, while physical activity and number of close friends were protective factors for behavior problems in RS students (p < 0.01 or 0.05). The present study revealed that students' psychosocial and behavioral problems increased in the early stage of schools reopened unexpectedly. These findings suggest that close attention must be paid and holistic strategies employed in the school reopening process of post-COVID-19 period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Problem Behavior , Adolescent , Child , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(12): e019635, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249490

ABSTRACT

Background Public health emergencies may significantly impact emergency medical services responses to cardiovascular emergencies. We compared emergency medical services responses to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and ST-segment‒elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic to 2018 to 2019 and evaluated the impact of California's March 19, 2020 stay-at-home order. Methods and Results We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study using Los Angeles County emergency medical services registry data for adult patients with paramedic provider impression (PI) of OHCA or STEMI from February through May in 2018 to 2020. After March 19, 2020, weekly counts for PI-OHCA were higher (173 versus 135; incidence rate ratios, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.19‒1.37; P<0.001) while PI-STEMI were lower (57 versus 65; incidence rate ratios, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.78‒0.97; P=0.02) compared with 2018 and 2019. After adjusting for seasonal variation in PI-OHCA and decreased PI-STEMI, the increase in PI-OHCA observed after March 19, 2020 remained significant (P=0.02). The proportion of PI-OHCA who received defibrillation (16% versus 23%; risk difference [RD], -6.91%; 95% CI, -9.55% to -4.26%; P<0.001) and had return of spontaneous circulation (17% versus 29%; RD, -11.98%; 95% CI, -14.76% to -9.18%; P<0.001) were lower after March 19 in 2020 compared with 2018 and 2019. There was also a significant increase in dead on arrival emergency medical services responses in 2020 compared with 2018 and 2019, starting around the time of the stay-at-home order (P<0.001). Conclusions Paramedics in Los Angeles County, CA responded to increased PI-OHCA and decreased PI-STEMI following the stay-at-home order. The increased PI-OHCA was not fully explained by the reduction in PI-STEMI. Field defibrillation and return of spontaneous circulation were lower. It is critical that public health messaging stress that emergency care should not be delayed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Electric Countershock , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Incidence , Los Angeles/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/diagnosis , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/physiopathology , Physical Distancing , Registries , Return of Spontaneous Circulation , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
20.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 1133-1140, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196448

ABSTRACT

To report the clinical characteristics and potential risk factors of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan Stadium Cabin Hospital in Hubei Province. A total of 571 patients of COVID-19 treated in the Wuhan Stadium Cabin Hospital were selected for analysis, univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods were used to explore the risk factors associated with disease aggravation. The main clinical symptoms of moderate COVID-19 were fever, cough and dyspnea, hypertension, diabetes, and coronary heart diseases were the main comorbidities both in transferred and stable patients. Twenty-six patients (4.55%) of mild and moderate patients had disease aggravation, and most of which occurred between 36 and 48 hours after admission. Multiple regression analysis showed increasing odds of disease aggravation associated with former smoker history, diabetes, dyspnea, consolidation, and interstitial abnormalities of computed tomography scanning, lymphopenia and elevated of C-reactive protein, the time points of transferred patients mainly between 36 and 48 hours (65.38%), and the average hospital stay for stable patients was 15 days.It could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage, and provide early warning role for timely intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Factors , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL