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2.
Journal of Hazardous Materials ; 401:123360-123360, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-662387

ABSTRACT

A combination process of Fenton-like and catalytic Mn(II) oxidation via molecular oxygen-induced abio-oxidation of As(III)-Mn(II)-rich acid mine drainage (AMD) is developed to rapidly and efficiently remove As and obtain low As-leaching solids in this study The effect of pH, temperature, oxygen flow rate and neutralization reagent on As removal was investigated The results showed that pH was important to As removal efficiency, which achieved maximum in 0 25-2 h, but decreased from ∼100 % to ∼92 6 % with the increase of pH 5-9 pH, temperature and oxygen flow rate played key roles in As(III) oxidation The increase of As(III) oxidized from 16 8 to 67 1% to 98 6-99 0 % occurred as increasing the pH 5-9, 25-95 °C and oxygen flow rate of 0-2 4 L min-1 NaOH or Ca(OH)2 as base was less important to As removal The mechanism involved Fenton-like reaction between Fe(II) and O2 for produced Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxide association with As(III + V) and Mn(II), catalytic Mn(II) oxidation for the formation of Mn(III, IV) oxides, and further As(III) oxidation by Mn(III, IV) oxides As-bearing six-line ferrihydrite was the main solid product for low As-leaching fixation pH 8, 95 °C and oxygen flow rate of 1 6 L min-1 were optimal for As removal

3.
J Infect Dis ; 222(7): 1090-1097, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-741868

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) could recur as seasonal outbreaks, a circulating pattern observed among other preexisting human seasonal coronaviruses (sCoVs). However, little is known about seasonality of sCoVs on a global scale. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of data on seasonality of sCoVs. We compared seasonality of sCoVs with influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus. We modeled monthly activity of sCoVs using site-specific weather data. RESULTS: We included sCoV seasonality data in 40 sites from 21 countries. sCoVs were prevalent in winter months in most temperate sites except for China, whereas sCoVs tended to be less seasonal in China and in tropical sites. In temperate sites excluding China, 53.1% of annual sCoV cases (interquartile range [IQR], 34.6%-61.9%) occurred during influenza season and 49.6% (IQR, 30.2%-60.2%) of sCoV cases occurred during respiratory syncytial virus season. Low temperature combined with high relative humidity was associated with higher sCoV activity. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study that provides an overview of the global seasonality of sCoVs. Our findings offer clues to the possible postpandemic circulating season of SARS-CoV-2 and add to the knowledge pool necessary for postpandemic preparedness for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , China , Humans , Seasons
4.
Open Medicine ; 15(1):723-727, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-732981

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, novel coronavirus pneumonia-19 (COVID-19) was discovered in the viral pneumonia cases that occurred in Wuhan, China, and then quickly spread around the world This report described the clinical course of two COVID-19 patients and the purpose of the study was to discuss the combination of chest CT and clinical features for diagnosis of COVID-19 The first case was a typical COVID-19 case A 66-year-old female presented to our hospital with a 3-day history of fever She had contact with a COVID-19 patient Chest CT showed a typical COVID-19 appearance She was diagnosed with COVID-19 by a positive nucleic acid test The second case was a 50-year-old male with a 2-day history of fever He denied having been to Wuhan Chest CT also showed typical features of COVID-19 pneumonia COVID-19 nucleic acid tests were repeated up to seven times and the results remained controversial Eventually, he was diagnosed with COVID-19 Our study shows that chest CT has high sensitivity for diagnosis of COVID-19 in clinical practice, particularly when the nucleic acid test is negative The chest CT should be considered as a diagnostic tool for the COVID-19 screening, comprehensive evaluation, and follow-up and patients would benefit from effective treatments in time

5.
J Clin Pathol ; 2020 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733145

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The global outbreak of COVID-19 has resulted in an increased mortality. However, whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can affect multiple organs is still unclear. In this study, postmortem percutaneous biopsies of multiple organs from deceased patients were performed to understand the histopathological changes caused by COVID-19. METHODS: Biopsy specimens of pulmonary, cardiac, hepatic and lymphoid tissues were obtained from three patients, who died due to COVID-19 pneumonia. H&E stain, Masson trichrome stain, immunohistochemistry stain and in-situ hybridisation were used. RESULTS: Pulmonary damages caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection was diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). In the early phase, the histological findings were mainly those of exudative features of DAD. The later phase was characterised by organisation of DAD combined with bacterial pneumonia. No serious damage was found in the bronchiolar epithelium and submucosal glands. The hepatic tissue revealed features of ischaemic necrosis, but findings suggestive of mild lobular hepatitis were also observed. The lymphoid tissue revealed features of non-specific acute lymphadenitis. The cardiac tissue revealed changes of underlying disease. SARS-CoV-2 RNAs were not detected in hepatocytes, cholangiocytes and lymphocytes of lymph nodes. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 predominantly involves the pulmonary tissue, causes DAD and aggravates the cardiovascular disease. However, other extrapulmonary tissues did not reveal any virus-specific findings, but were affected by multiple factors. The findings in this report caution the pathologists that they should not mistakenly attribute all the histological features to CoV infection. Moreover, the clinicians should pay attention to the potentially injurious and correctable causes.

6.
J Chem Inf Model ; 2020 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714468

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the new coronavirus (nCoV-19) has impacted human health on a global scale, while the interaction between the virus and the host is the foundation of the disease. The viral genome codes a cluster of proteins, each with a unique function in the event of host invasion or viral development. Under the current adverse situation, we employ virtual screening tools in searching for drugs and natural products which have been already deposited in DrugBank in an attempt to accelerate the drug discovery process. This study provides an initial evaluation of current drug candidates from various reports using our systemic in silico drug screening based on structures of viral proteins and human ACE2 receptor. Additionally, we have built an interactive online platform (https://shennongproject.ai/) for browsing these results with the visual display of a small molecule docked on its potential target protein, without installing any specialized structural software. With continuous maintenance and incorporation of data from laboratory work, it may serve not only as the assessment tool for the new drug discovery but also an educational web site for the public.

7.
Chinese Medicine ; 15(1):78-78, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-688856

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new global public health emergency The therapeutic benefits of Cold‒Damp Plague Formula (CDPF) against COVID-19, which was used to treat “cold‒dampness stagnation in the lung” in Trial Versions 6 and 7 of the “Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for COVID-19”, have been demonstrated, but the effective components and their mechanism of action remain unclear In this study, a network pharmacology approach was employed, including drug-likeness evaluation, oral bioavailability prediction, protein‒protein interaction (PPI) network construction and analysis, Gene Ontology (GO) terms, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway annotation, and virtual docking, to predict the bioactive components, potential targets, and molecular mechanism of CDPF for COVID-19 treatment The active compound of herbs in CDPF and their candidate targets were obtained through database mining, and an herbs—ingredients—targets network was constructed Subsequently, the candidate targets of the active compounds were compared to those relevant to COVID-19, to identify the potential targets of CDPF for COVID-19 treatment Subsequently, the PPI network was constructed, which provided a basis for cluster analysis and hub gene screening The seed targets in the most significant module were selected for further functional annotation GO enrichment analysis identified four main areas: (1) cellular responses to external stimuli, (2) regulation of blood production and circulation, (3) free radical regulation, (4) immune regulation and anti-inflammatory effects KEGG pathway analysis also revealed that CDPF could play pharmacological roles against COVID-19 through “multi components‒multi targets‒multi pathways” at the molecular level, mainly involving anti-viral, immune-regulatory, and anti-inflammatory pathways;consequently, a “CDPF—herbs—ingredients—targets—pathways—COVID-19” network was constructed In hub target analysis, the top hub target IL6, and ACE2, the receptor via which SARS-CoV-2 typically enters host cells, were selected for molecular docking analyses, and revealed good binding activities This study revealed the active ingredients and potential molecular mechanism by which CDPF treatment is effective against COVID-19, and provides a reference basis for the wider application and further mechanistic investigations of CDPF in the fight against COVID-19

8.
Med (N Y) ; 2020 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-664427

ABSTRACT

Background: The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global public health concern due to relatively easy person-to-person transmission and the current lack of effective antiviral therapy. However, the exact molecular mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Methods: Genome-wide screening was used to establish intraviral and viral-host interactomes. Quantitative proteomics was used to investigate the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proteome signature in COVID-19. Findings: We elucidated 286 host proteins targeted by SARS-CoV-2 and >350 host proteins that are significantly perturbed in COVID-19-derived PBMCs. This signature in severe COVID-19 PBMCs reveals a significant upregulation of cellular proteins related to neutrophil activation and blood coagulation, as well as a downregulation of proteins mediating T cell receptor signaling. From the interactome, we further identified that non-structural protein 10 interacts with NF-κB-repressing factor (NKRF) to facilitate interleukin-8 (IL-8) induction, which potentially contributes to IL-8-mediated chemotaxis of neutrophils and the overexuberant host inflammatory response observed in COVID-19 patients. Conclusions: Our study not only presents a systematic examination of SARS-CoV-2-induced perturbation of host targets and cellular networks but it also reveals insights into the mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 triggers cytokine storms, representing a powerful resource in the pursuit of therapeutic interventions. Funding: National Key Research and Development Project of China, National Natural Science Foundation of China, National Science and Technology Major Project, Program for Professor of Special Appointment (Eastern Scholar) at Shanghai Institutions of Higher Learning, Shanghai Science and Technology Commission, Shanghai Municipal Health Commission, Shanghai Municipal Key Clinical Specialty, Innovative Research Team of High-level Local Universities in Shanghai, Interdisciplinary Program of Shanghai Jiao Tong University, SII Challenge Fund for COVID-19 Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Large Research Infrastructure of Maintenance and Remolding Project, and Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Technology Talent Program.

9.
J Infect Dis ; 222(7): 1090-1097, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-659793

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) could recur as seasonal outbreaks, a circulating pattern observed among other preexisting human seasonal coronaviruses (sCoVs). However, little is known about seasonality of sCoVs on a global scale. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of data on seasonality of sCoVs. We compared seasonality of sCoVs with influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus. We modeled monthly activity of sCoVs using site-specific weather data. RESULTS: We included sCoV seasonality data in 40 sites from 21 countries. sCoVs were prevalent in winter months in most temperate sites except for China, whereas sCoVs tended to be less seasonal in China and in tropical sites. In temperate sites excluding China, 53.1% of annual sCoV cases (interquartile range [IQR], 34.6%-61.9%) occurred during influenza season and 49.6% (IQR, 30.2%-60.2%) of sCoV cases occurred during respiratory syncytial virus season. Low temperature combined with high relative humidity was associated with higher sCoV activity. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study that provides an overview of the global seasonality of sCoVs. Our findings offer clues to the possible postpandemic circulating season of SARS-CoV-2 and add to the knowledge pool necessary for postpandemic preparedness for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , China , Humans , Seasons
10.
Radiology ; 296(2): E65-E71, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-657750

ABSTRACT

Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has widely spread all over the world since the beginning of 2020. It is desirable to develop automatic and accurate detection of COVID-19 using chest CT. Purpose To develop a fully automatic framework to detect COVID-19 using chest CT and evaluate its performance. Materials and Methods In this retrospective and multicenter study, a deep learning model, the COVID-19 detection neural network (COVNet), was developed to extract visual features from volumetric chest CT scans for the detection of COVID-19. CT scans of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and other non-pneumonia abnormalities were included to test the robustness of the model. The datasets were collected from six hospitals between August 2016 and February 2020. Diagnostic performance was assessed with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, sensitivity, and specificity. Results The collected dataset consisted of 4352 chest CT scans from 3322 patients. The average patient age (±standard deviation) was 49 years ± 15, and there were slightly more men than women (1838 vs 1484, respectively; P = .29). The per-scan sensitivity and specificity for detecting COVID-19 in the independent test set was 90% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 83%, 94%; 114 of 127 scans) and 96% (95% CI: 93%, 98%; 294 of 307 scans), respectively, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.96 (P < .001). The per-scan sensitivity and specificity for detecting CAP in the independent test set was 87% (152 of 175 scans) and 92% (239 of 259 scans), respectively, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.93, 0.97). Conclusion A deep learning model can accurately detect coronavirus 2019 and differentiate it from community-acquired pneumonia and other lung conditions. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Deep Learning , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , ROC Curve , Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/methods , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
12.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1175-1179, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-361278

ABSTRACT

Different primers/probes sets have been developed all over the world for the nucleic acid detection of SARS-CoV-2 by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) as a standard method. In our recent study, we explored the feasibility of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) for clinical SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection compared with qRT-PCR using the same primer/probe sets issued by Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) targeting viral ORF1ab or N gene, which showed that ddPCR could largely minimize the false negatives reports resulted by qRT-PCR [Suo T, Liu X, Feng J, et al. ddPCR: a more sensitive and accurate tool for SARS-CoV-2 detection in low viral load specimens. medRxiv [Internet]. 2020;2020.02.29.20029439. Available from: https://medrxiv.org/content/early/2020/03/06/2020.02.29.20029439.abstract]. Here, we further stringently compared the performance of qRT-PCR and ddPCR for 8 primer/probe sets with the same clinical samples and conditions. Results showed that none of 8 primer/probe sets used in qRT-PCR could significantly distinguish true negatives and positives with low viral load (10-4 dilution). Moreover, false positive reports of qRT-PCR with UCDC-N1, N2 and CCDC-N primers/probes sets were observed. In contrast, ddPCR showed significantly better performance in general for low viral load samples compared to qRT-PCR. Remarkably, the background readouts of ddPCR are relatively lower, which could efficiently reduce the production of false positive reports.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA Primers , DNA Probes , Humans , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Pandemics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Load
13.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1259-1268, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-342833

ABSTRACT

Quantitative real time PCR (RT-PCR) is widely used as the gold standard for clinical detection of SARS-CoV-2. However, due to the low viral load specimens and the limitations of RT-PCR, significant numbers of false negative reports are inevitable, which results in failure to timely diagnose, cut off transmission, and assess discharge criteria. To improve this situation, an optimized droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) was used for detection of SARS-CoV-2, which showed that the limit of detection of ddPCR is significantly lower than that of RT-PCR. We further explored the feasibility of ddPCR to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA from 77 patients, and compared with RT-PCR in terms of the diagnostic accuracy based on the results of follow-up survey. 26 patients of COVID-19 with negative RT-PCR reports were reported as positive by ddPCR. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, negative likelihood ratio (NLR) and accuracy were improved from 40% (95% CI: 27-55%), 100% (95% CI: 54-100%), 100%, 16% (95% CI: 13-19%), 0.6 (95% CI: 0.48-0.75) and 47% (95% CI: 33-60%) for RT-PCR to 94% (95% CI: 83-99%), 100% (95% CI: 48-100%), 100%, 63% (95% CI: 36-83%), 0.06 (95% CI: 0.02-0.18), and 95% (95% CI: 84-99%) for ddPCR, respectively. Moreover, 6/14 (42.9%) convalescents were detected as positive by ddPCR at 5-12 days post discharge. Overall, ddPCR shows superiority for clinical diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 to reduce the false negative reports, which could be a powerful complement to the RT-PCR.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , False Negative Reactions , Humans , Limit of Detection , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Viral Load/methods
15.
Clin. Infect. Dis. ; 5(70): 850-858, 20200301.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-326398

ABSTRACT

Background. Respiratory virus-laden particles are commonly detected in the exhaled breath of symptomatic patients or in air sampled from healthcare settings. However, the temporal relationship of detecting virus-laden particles at nonhealthcare locations vs surveillance data obtained by conventional means has not been fully assessed. Methods. From October 2016 to June 2018, air was sampled weekly from a university campus in Hong Kong. Viral genomes were detected and quantified by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Logistic regression models were fitted to examine the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of ecological and environmental factors associated with the detection of virus-laden airborne particles. Results. Influenza A (16.9% [117/694]) and influenza B (4.5% [31/694]) viruses were detected at higher frequencies in air than rhinovirus (2.2% [6/270]), respiratory syncytial virus (0.4% [1/270]), or human coronaviruses (0% [0/270]). Multivariate analyses showed that increased crowdedness (aOR, 2.3 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.5-3.8]; P < .001) and higher indoor temperature (aOR, 1.2 [95% CI, 1.1-1.3]; P < .001) were associated with detection of influenza airborne particles, but absolute humidity was not (aOR, 0.9 [95% CI, .7-1.1]; P = .213). Higher copies of influenza viral genome were detected from airborne particles >4 μm in spring and <1 μm in autumn. Influenza A(H3N2) and influenza B viruses that caused epidemics during the study period were detected in air prior to observing increased influenza activities in the community. Conclusions. Air sampling as a surveillance tool for monitoring influenza activity at public locations may provide early detection signals on influenza viruses that circulate in the community.

16.
Sci Immunol ; 5(47)2020 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260039

ABSTRACT

Gastrointestinal symptoms and fecal shedding of SARS-CoV-2 RNA are frequently observed in COVID-19 patients. However, it is unclear whether SARS-CoV-2 replicates in the human intestine and contributes to possible fecal-oral transmission. Here, we report productive infection of SARS-CoV-2 in ACE2+ mature enterocytes in human small intestinal enteroids. Expression of two mucosa-specific serine proteases, TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4, facilitated SARS-CoV-2 spike fusogenic activity and promoted virus entry into host cells. We also demonstrate that viruses released into the intestinal lumen were inactivated by simulated human colonic fluid, and infectious virus was not recovered from the stool specimens of COVID-19 patients. Our results highlight the intestine as a potential site of SARS-CoV-2 replication, which may contribute to local and systemic illness and overall disease progression.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Enterocytes/virology , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Animals , Cell Line , Duodenum/cytology , Enterocytes/pathology , Humans , Mice , Organoids/virology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Rotavirus/physiology , Vesiculovirus/genetics
17.
Nat Med ; 26(6): 842-844, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-244490

ABSTRACT

Respiratory immune characteristics associated with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity are currently unclear. We characterized bronchoalveolar lavage fluid immune cells from patients with varying severity of COVID-19 and from healthy people by using single-cell RNA sequencing. Proinflammatory monocyte-derived macrophages were abundant in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with severe COVID-9. Moderate cases were characterized by the presence of highly clonally expanded CD8+ T cells. This atlas of the bronchoalveolar immune microenvironment suggests potential mechanisms underlying pathogenesis and recovery in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Single-Cell Analysis , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology
18.
Precision Clinical Medicine ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-232527

ABSTRACT

Fighting at the frontlines against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the health workers are at high risk of virus infection and overwork-related sudden death and disorders including cardiovascular diseases and stress When we noticed the increase of overwork-related sudden deaths in physicians and nurses in the first two weeks after lockdown of Wuhan, we organized the ‘Touching Your Heart’ program by remote monitoring, aiming to protect health workers from overwork-related disorders through integrated volunteer work by physicians and medical engineering researchers from Wuhan Huoshenshan Hospital, Nanjing Medical University and Tiangong University By remotely monitoring the health condition of the medical aid team working at Wuhan Huoshenshan Hospital, the program successfully helped in avoiding severe overwork-related events in them The result of our program reminded the frontline health workers around the world to take precaution against overworked-related severe events, and showed that precision monitoring is effective in improving work efficiency and maintaining sustainable work force during the emergency situations like a pandemic

19.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(4): 299-304, 2020 Apr.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-103522

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) started in December 2019 in China and the epidemic is still going on at present. Since children are the susceptible population, the number of cases is gradually increasing. In addition to the typical respiratory symptoms, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection also has the clinical symptoms of cardiovascular system damage. Based on a literature review, this article discusses the possible cardiovascular system damage caused by SARS-CoV-2 in children and related mechanisms, in order to provide help for the timely treatment and prevention of cardiovascular system damage caused by SARS-CoV-2 in children.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Cardiovascular System/physiopathology , Child , China , Humans , Pandemics
20.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 2020 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-88716

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome, hypercoagulability, hypertension, and multiorgan dysfunction. Effective antivirals with safe clinical profile are urgently needed to improve the overall prognosis. In an analysis of a randomly collected cohort of 124 patients with Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), we found that hypercoagulability as indicated by elevated concentrations of D-dimers was associated with disease severity. By virtual screening of a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drug library, we identified an anticoagulation agent dipyridamole (DIP) in silico, which suppressed SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro. In a proof-of-concept trial involving 31 patients with COVID-19, DIP supplementation was associated with significantly decreased concentrations of D-dimers (P<0.05), increased lymphocyte and platelet recovery in the circulation, and markedly improved clinical outcomes in comparison to the control patients. In particular, all 8 of the DIP-treated severely ill patients showed remarkable improvement: 7 patients (87.5%) achieved clinical cure and were discharged from the hospitals while the remaining 1 patient (12.5%) was in clinical remission.

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