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1.
Nano Energy ; : 107987, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2095844

ABSTRACT

Since the COVID-19 pandemic outbreaks, the utilization of medical masks plays a critical role in reducing the infected risk. However, constructing multifunctional masks to achieve simultaneously self-sterilization, reusability, and respiratory monitoring capability remains still a huge challenge. Herein, a reusable Ag micro-mesh film-based mask is proposed, which enables the capabilities of electrothermal sterilization and self-powered real-time respiratory monitoring. Highly conductive Ag micro-mesh films prepared by continuous draw spinning method demonstrate excellent electrothermal performances for thermal sterilization and serve as working electrode to fabricate triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) for real-time respiratory monitoring, respectively. Under a low driving voltage of 3.0V, the surface temperature of Ag micro-mesh film enables a quick increase to over 60 °C within 30s, which endows thermal sterilization against S. aureus with antibacterial efficiency of 95.58% within 20min to achieve the self-sterilization of medical masks. Furthermore, a self-powered alarm system based on the fabricated TENG as respiratory monitor is developed for real-time respiratory monitoring to render a timely treatment for patients in danger of tachypnea and apnea. Consequently, this work has paved a new and practical avenue to achieve reusable multifunctional masks with capabilities of electrothermal sterilization and real-time respiratory monitoring in clinical medicine.

2.
Frontiers in psychiatry ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2093067

ABSTRACT

Background When the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) erupted in Yangzhou, China, at the end of July 2021, medical workers in Yangzhou immediately joined the frontline for the fight against the pandemic. This study aimed to identify the mental health and fatigue experienced by the medical workers in Yangzhou during the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods We included 233 medical workers who participated in the front-line work for more than 1 month through the questionnaire, including doctors, nurses, medical technicians and medical students. The generalized anxiety disorder-7 (GAD-7), patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and Fatigue self-assessment scale (FSAS) were administered to the participants and their responses were evaluated. Results A total of 233 eligible questionnaires were received. Among them, 130 people (57.08%) were probably anxious and 141 (60.52%) people were clinically depressed. Poor sleep was considered an independent risk factor for anxiety (OR = 7.164, 95% CI: 3.365 15.251, p = 0.000) and depression (OR = 6.899, 95% CI: 3.392 14.030, p = 0.000). A high PHQ-9 score was considered an independent risk factor for general fatigue (OR = 1.697, 95% CI: 1.481 1.944, p = 0.000). Mental fatigue (OR = 1.092, 95% CI: 1.027 1.161, p = 0.005) and fatigue response to sleep/rest (OR = 1.043, 95% CI: 1.011 1.076 p = 0.008) were considered independent risk factors for general fatigue. Conclusion Poor quality of sleep led to probable anxiety, depression, and general fatigue. Mental fatigue and fatigue response to sleep/rest were independent risk factors for depression, which merits attention for battling COVID-19.

3.
Journal of Affective Disorders ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2086349

ABSTRACT

Background This meta-analysis and systematic review aimed to evaluate the global prevalence and risk factors of mental problems (i.e., depression, anxiety, stress, sleep disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), burnout, psychological distress, and suicidal ideation) among medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, psycARTICLES, PsycINFO, CNKI, and Wan Fang for studies on the prevalence of mental problems among medical students from January 1, 2020, to April 1, 2022. The pooled prevalence was calculated by random-effect models. We performed a narrative review to identify the risk factors. Results The meta-analysis included 201 studies (N = 198,000). The prevalence of depression (41 %, 95 % CI, 37–45 %,), anxiety (38 %,95 % CI, 34 %–42 %), stress (34 %, 95 % CI, 27 %–42 %), sleep disorder (52 %, 95 % CI, 44 %–60 %), psychological distress (58 %, 95 % CI, 51 %–65 %), PTSD (34 %, 95 % CI, 22 %–46 %), suicidal ideation (15 %, 95 % CI, 11 %–18 %) and burnout (38 %, 95 % CI, 25 %–50 %) was high. The major risk factors were being female, being junior or preclinical students, exposure to COVID-19, academic stress, psychiatric or physical disorders history, economic trouble, fear of education impairment, online learning trouble, fear of infection, loneliness, low physical activity, low social support, problematic internet or smartphone use, and young age. Limitations Most studies were cross-sectional. Few studies provided a reasonable response rate, suggesting potential selection bias. Conclusions The study demonstrated a high prevalence and risk factors for mental problems during COVID-19, calling for mental health services. Our findings are valuable for college and health authorities to identify high-risk students and provide targeted intervention.

4.
Economic Analysis and Policy ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2086123

ABSTRACT

After the pandemic, China’s fiscal and monetary authorities implemented macroeconomic restructuring measures to combat the pandemic. Using a difference-in-difference model based on data collected during the COVID-19 phase, this study attempted to determine the economic recovery in China using the pandemic means for economic growth and energy consumption in other economies. A 0.21 percent increase in the western region’s economic growth is comparable to a 0.15 percent increase in the growth of the southern central and northern regions during the pandemic period. Accordingly, we found evidence of actual provincial spillover effects in the clustering of high- and poor-performing regions. The impact of China’s economic resurgence beyond the pandemic phase plays an important role in expanding power consumption in different regions. Since headwinds hamper economic development to aggregate output, fiscal policy is the sole option for maintaining pollution levels while simultaneously improving household well-being in terms of demand and employment.

5.
Remote Sensing ; 14(19):4793, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066344

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the Ukrainian-Russian conflict on 24 February 2022, Ukraine’s economy, society, and cities have been devastated and struck on multiple fronts, with large numbers of refugees fleeing to neighboring countries. The lighting systems in Ukrainian cities have been severely restricted due to Russian missile bombing and curfew policies. The power shortages adversely affected the livelihoods of the Ukrainian residents dramatically. For a timely assessment of the power shortages’ extent and the affected population in Ukraine, this study tracked the dynamics of nighttime light emissions in Ukraine based on the newly developed daily Black Marble product (VNP46A2) from NASA. The results show that the average light radiance in Ukrainian urban areas has decreased by about 37% since the eruption of the war, with Kiev city being the most dramatic region, having a post-conflict decrease of about 51%. In addition, by introducing near-real-time population data, we have implemented a survey of the affected population in Ukraine suffering from war-induced power shortages. Estimates show that about 17.3 million Ukrainian residents were affected by power shortages. In more detail, the number of children under 10 years old was about 2.35 million (about 5.24% of the total population), while the number of elderly people over 60 years old was about 3.53 million (about 7.86% of the total population). Generally, the results of this study could contribute positively to the timely assessment of the impact of the conflict and the implementation of humanitarian relief.

6.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform ; PP2022 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063274

ABSTRACT

In fighting the COVID-19 pandemic, the main challenges include the lack of prior research and the urgency to find effective solutions. It is essential to accurately and rapidly summarize the relevant research work and explore potential solutions for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of COVID-19. It is a daunting task to summarize the numerous existing research works and to assess their effectiveness. This paper explores the discovery of new COVID-19 research approaches based on dynamic link prediction, which analyze the dynamic topological network of keywords to predict possible connections of research concepts. A dynamic link prediction method based on multi-granularity feature fusion is proposed. Firstly, a multi-granularity temporal feature fusion method is adopted to extract the temporal evolution of different order subgraphs. Secondly, a hierarchical feature weighting method is proposed to emphasize actively evolving nodes. Thirdly, a semantic repetition sampling mechanism is designed to avoid the negative effect of semantically equivalent medical entities on the real structure of the graph, and to capture the real topological structure features. Experiments are performed on the COVID-19 Open Research Dataset to assess the performance of the model. The results show that the proposed model performs significantly better than existing state-of-the-art models, thereby confirming the effectiveness of the proposed method for the discovery of new COVID-19 research approaches.

7.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 219: 114799, 2022 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060462

ABSTRACT

As a result of the 2019 coronavirus pandemic, disinfection byproducts generated by the extensive use of chlorine disinfectants have infiltrated the aquatic environment, severely threatening ecological safety and human health. Therefore, the accurate monitoring of the biotoxicity of aqueous environments has become an important issue. Biocathode sensors are excellent choices for toxicity monitoring because of their special electroautotrophic respiration functions. Herein, a novel electroautotrophic biosensor with rapid, sensitive, and stable response and quantifiable output was developed. Its toxicity response was tested with typical disinfection byproducts dichloromethane, trichloromethane, and combinations of both, and corresponding characterization models were developed. Repeated toxicity tests demonstrated that the sensor was reusable rather being than a disposable consumable, which is a prerequisite for its long-term and stable operation. Microbial viability confirmed a decrease in sensor sensitivity due to microbial stress feedback to the toxicants, which is expected to be calibrated in the future by the standardization of the biofilms. Community structure analysis indicated that Moheibacter and Nitrospiraceae played an important role in the toxic response to chlorine disinfection byproducts. Our research provides technical support for protecting the environment and safeguarding water safety for human consumption and contributes new concepts for the development of novel electrochemical sensors.

8.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2058686

ABSTRACT

In this study, we aimed to explore whether lymphocyte–C-reactive protein ratio (LCR) can differentiate disease severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and its value as an assistant screening tool for admission to hospital and intensive care unit (ICU). A total of 184 adult COVID-19 patients from the COVID-19 Treatment Center in Heilongjiang Province at the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University between January 2020 and March 2021 were included in this study. Patients were divided into asymptomatic infection group, mild group, moderate group, severe group, and critical group according to the Diagnosis and Treatment of New Coronavirus Pneumonia (ninth edition). Demographic and clinical data including gender, age, comorbidities, severity of COVID-19, white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil proportion (NEUT%), lymphocyte count (LYMPH), lymphocyte percentage (LYM%), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), platelet (PLT), C-reactive protein (CRP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum creatinine (SCr), albumin (ALB), total bilirubin (TB), direct bilirubin (DBIL), indirect bilirubin (IBIL), and D-dimer were obtained and collated from medical records at admission, from which sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score and LCR were calculated, and all the above indicators were compared among the groups. Multiple clinical parameters, including LYMPH, CRP, and LCR, showed significant differences among the groups. The related factors to classify COVID-19 patients into moderate, severe, and critical groups included age, number of comorbidities, WBC, LCR, and AST. Among these factors, the number of comorbidities showed the greatest effect, and only WBC and LCR were protective factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of LCR to classify COVID-19 patients into moderate, severe, and critical groups was 0.176. The cutoff value of LCR and the sensitivity and specificity of the ROC curve were 1,780.7050 and 84.6% and 66.2%, respectively. The related factors to classify COVID-19 patients into severe and critical groups included the number of comorbidities, PLT, LCR, and SOFA score. Among these factors, SOFA score showed the greatest effect, and LCR was the only protective factor. The area under the ROC curve of LCR to classify COVID-19 patients into severe and critical groups was 0.106. The cutoff value of LCR and the sensitivity and specificity of the ROC curve were 571.2200 and 81.3% and 90.0%, respectively. In summary, LCR can differentiate disease severity of COVID-19 patients and serve as a simple and objective assistant screening tool for hospital and ICU admission.

9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(39): e30874, 2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051708

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As an infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the common signs of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are respiratory symptoms, fever, cough, shortness of breath, and dyspnea, with multiple organ injuries in severe cases. Therefore, finding drugs to prevent and treat COVID-19 is urgently needed and expected by the public. Several studies suggested beneficial effects of melatonin for the relevant prevention and treatment. To explore the effect and safety of melatonin in the treatment and provide theoretical support and reference for seeking the most suitable drug for COVID-19, the meta-analysis was carried out accordingly. METHODS: It included randomized clinical trials of patients with COVID-19 treated with melatonin. Total effective rate was the primary outcome, while C-reactive protein (CRP), arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), white blood cell count (WBC) were the secondary measures. Random-effect and fixed-effect models were used to evaluate the effect size of some indicators in this meta-analysis. RESULTS: Six eligible studies with 338 participants were included. One hundred seventy subjects were treated with melatonin adjuvant therapy and 168 subjects were assigned to the control group, with total excellent effective rate in subjects treated with melatonin [odds ratio = 3.05, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.47, 6.31, P = .003]. Homogeneity was analyzed by fixed effect model (I2 = 0%). There was no significant difference in CRP between the melatonin group and the control group (weighted mean difference [WMD] = -0.36, 95% CI = -3.65, 2.92, P = .83). Significant difference was not existed in SaO2 between the melatonin treatment group and the control group (WMD = 1, 95% CI = -1.21, 3.22, P = .37). In terms of WBC, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups (WMD = -1.07, 95% CI = -2.44, 0.30, P = .13). CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analysis showed that melatonin had the beneficial effects for COVID-19 prevention and treatment as an adjunctive agent in combination with basic treatment for the treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Melatonin , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cough/drug therapy , Dyspnea/drug therapy , Humans , Melatonin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Commun Med (Lond) ; 2: 119, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042347

ABSTRACT

Background: Short-term prediction of COVID-19 epidemics is crucial to decision making. We aimed to develop supervised machine-learning algorithms on multiple digital metrics including symptom search trends, population mobility, and vaccination coverage to predict local-level COVID-19 growth rates in the UK. Methods: Using dynamic supervised machine-learning algorithms based on log-linear regression, we explored optimal models for 1-week, 2-week, and 3-week ahead prediction of COVID-19 growth rate at lower tier local authority level over time. Model performance was assessed by calculating mean squared error (MSE) of prospective prediction, and naïve model and fixed-predictors model were used as reference models. We assessed real-time model performance for eight five-weeks-apart checkpoints between 1st March and 14th November 2021. We developed an online application (COVIDPredLTLA) that visualised the real-time predictions for the present week, and the next one and two weeks. Results: Here we show that the median MSEs of the optimal models for 1-week, 2-week, and 3-week ahead prediction are 0.12 (IQR: 0.08-0.22), 0.29 (0.19-0.38), and 0.37 (0.25-0.47), respectively. Compared with naïve models, the optimal models maintain increased accuracy (reducing MSE by a range of 21-35%), including May-June 2021 when the delta variant spread across the UK. Compared with the fixed-predictors model, the advantage of dynamic models is observed after several iterations of update. Conclusions: With flexible data-driven predictors selection process, our dynamic modelling framework shows promises in predicting short-term changes in COVID-19 cases. The online application (COVIDPredLTLA) could assist decision-making for control measures and planning of healthcare capacity in future epidemic growths.

11.
J Glob Health ; 12: 05040, 2022 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040348

ABSTRACT

Background: With the easing of COVID-19 non-pharmaceutical interventions, the resurgence of both influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was observed in several countries globally after remaining low in activity for over a year. However, whether co-infection with influenza or RSV influences disease severity in COVID-19 patients has not yet been determined clearly. We aimed to understand the impact of influenza/RSV co-infection on clinical disease severity among COVID-19 patients. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review of publications comparing the clinical severity between the co-infection group (ie, influenza/RSV with SARS-CoV-2) and mono-infection group (ie, SARS-CoV-2), using the following four outcomes: need or use of supplemental oxygen, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation, and deaths. We summarized the results by clinical outcome and conducted random-effect meta-analyses where applicable. Results: Twelve studies reporting a total of 7862 COVID-19 patients were included in the review. Influenza and SARS-CoV-2 co-infection were found to be associated with a higher risk of ICU admission (five studies, odds ratio (OR) = 2.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.64-2.68) and mechanical ventilation (five studies, OR = 2.31, 95% CI = 1.10-4.85). No significant association was found between influenza co-infection and need/use of supplemental oxygen or deaths among COVID-19 patients (four studies, OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.37-2.95; 11 studies, OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 0.65-3.08, respectively). For RSV co-infection, data were only sufficient to allow for analyses for the outcome of deaths, and no significant association was found between RSV co-infection and deaths among COVID-19 patients (three studies, OR = 5.27, 95% CI = 0.58-47.87). Conclusions: Existing evidence suggests that co-infection with influenza might be associated with a 2-fold increase in the risk for ICU admission and for mechanical ventilation among COVID-19 patients whereas evidence is limited on the role of RSV co-infection. Co-infection with influenza does not increase the risk of death in COVID-19 patients. Registration: PROSEPRO CRD42021283045.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Coinfection/complications , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Oxygen , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/complications , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(15): 5591-5606, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040345

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the pandemic respiratory infectious disease COVID-19. However, clinical manifestations and outcomes differ significantly among COVID-19 patients, ranging from asymptomatic to extremely severe, and it remains unclear what drives these disparities. Here, we studied 159 sequentially enrolled hospitalized patients with COVID-19-associated pneumonia from Brescia, Italy using the VirScan phage-display method to characterize circulating antibodies binding to 96,179 viral peptides encoded by 1,276 strains of human viruses. SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with a marked increase in immune antibody repertoires against many known pathogenic and non-pathogenic human viruses. This antiviral antibody response was linked to longitudinal trajectories of disease severity and was further confirmed in additional 125 COVID-19 patients from the same geographical region in Northern Italy. By applying a machine-learning-based strategy, a viral exposure signature predictive of COVID-19-related disease severity linked to patient survival was developed and validated. These results provide a basis for understanding the role of memory B-cell repertoire to viral epitopes in COVID-19-related symptoms and suggest that a unique anti-viral antibody repertoire signature may be useful to define COVID-19 clinical severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Virome , Antiviral Agents , Epitopes
13.
Biocybern Biomed Eng ; 42(3): 977-994, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035780

ABSTRACT

Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) testing relies on traditional screening methods, which require a lot of manpower and material resources. Recently, to effectively reduce the damage caused by radiation and enhance effectiveness, deep learning of classifying COVID-19 negative and positive using the mixed dataset by CT and X-rays images have achieved remarkable research results. However, the details presented on CT and X-ray images have pathological diversity and similarity features, thus increasing the difficulty for physicians to judge specific cases. On this basis, this paper proposes a novel coronavirus pneumonia classification model using the mixed dataset by CT and X-rays images. To solve the problem of feature similarity between lung diseases and COVID-19, the extracted features are enhanced by an adaptive region enhancement algorithm. Besides, the depth network based on the residual blocks and the dense blocks is trained and tested. On the one hand, the residual blocks effectively improve the accuracy of the model and the non-linear COVID-19 features are obtained by cross-layer link. On the other hand, the dense blocks effectively improve the robustness of the model by connecting local and abstract information. On mixed X-ray and CT datasets, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), area under curve (AUC), and accuracy can all reach 0.99. On the basis of respecting patient privacy and ethics, the proposed algorithm using the mixed dataset from real cases can effectively assist doctors in performing the accurate COVID-19 negative and positive classification to determine the infection status of patients.

14.
Chinese Journal of Nosocomiology ; 32(12):1771-1775, 2022.
Article in English, Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2033834

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the differences of clinical characteristics, laboratory tests and imaging examinations in patients with Novel Coronavirus(SARS-COV-2)Delta variant infection in Gansu province, so as to provide reference for the prevention and treatment of SARS-COV-2. METHODS: The medical records, laboratory tests and imaging studies of 140 patients with SARS-COV-2 Delta variant infection admitted to Yantan Branch and Zhangye Second Hospital of Lanzhou Second People's Hospital from Oct. to Dec. 2021 in Gansu province were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 140 infected patients, 65 were males and 75 were females. The oldest was 87 years old, and the youngest was 1 year and 8 months, with an average age of(42.65+or-20.87) years old. Twenty percent of confirmed patients had fever. The mean duration of positive nucleic acid was 19.74 days. There were significant differences in the expression levels of serum amyloid A(SAA), interleukin-6(IL-6), C-reactive protein(CRP), basophil granulocytes(BAS) and lymphocyte(LYM) in patients with different types. Pulmonary lesions were found in 101 patients(72.14%) by imaging, and the proportion of abnormal lung imaging in mild, ordinary and severe patients accounted for 55.81%, 73.13% and 100% respectively. CONCLUSION: The majority of patients with COVID-19 Delta infection in Gansu province were mild and ordinary type. There were fewer fever patients. The main clinical manifestations were cough, expectoration and pharyngeal discomfort. Severe and critically ill patients are older and have more underlying diseases.

15.
Clin Transl Med ; 12(9): e1016, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2027332

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To determine an appropriate dose of, and immunization schedule for, a vaccine SCoK against COVID-19 for an efficacy study; herein, we conducted randomized controlled trials to assess the immunogenicity and safety of this vaccine in adults. METHODS: These randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 and 2 trials of vaccine SCoK were conducted in Binhai District, Yan City, Jiangsu Province, China. Younger and older adult participants in phase 1 and 2 trials were sequentially recruited into different groups to be intramuscularly administered 20 or 40 µg vaccine SCoK or placebo. Participants were enrolled into our phase 1 and 2 studies to receive vaccine or placebo. RESULTS: No serious vaccine-related adverse events were observed in either trial. In both trials, local and systemic adverse reactions were absent or mild in most participants. In our phase 1 and 2 studies, the vaccine induced significantly increased neutralizing antibody responses to pseudovirus and live SARS-CoV-2. The vaccine induced significant neutralizing antibody responses to live SARS-CoV-2 on day 14 after the last immunization, with NT50s of 80.45 and 92.46 in participants receiving 20 and 40 µg doses, respectively; the seroconversion rates were 95.83% and 100%. The vaccine SCoK showed a similar safety and immunogenicity profiles in both younger participants and older participants. The vaccine showed better immunogenicity in phase 2 than in phase 1 clinical trial. Additionally, the incidence of adverse reactions decreased significantly in phase 2 clinical trial. The vaccine SCoK was well tolerated and immunogenic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Infect Dis ; 226(Suppl 1): S29-S37, 2022 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017954

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Knowledge on age-specific hospitalizations associated with RSV infection is limited due to limited testing, especially in older children and adults in whom RSV infections are not expected to be severe. Burden estimates based on RSV coding of hospital admissions are known to underestimate the burden of RSV. We aimed to provide robust and reliable age-specific burden estimates of RSV-associated hospital admissions based on data on respiratory infections from national health registers and laboratory-confirmed cases of RSV. METHODS: We conducted multiseason regression analysis of weekly hospitalizations with respiratory infection and weekly laboratory-confirmed cases of RSV and influenza as covariates, based on national health registers and laboratory databases across 6 European countries. The burden of RSV-associated hospitalizations was estimated by age group, clinical diagnosis, and presence of underlying medical conditions. RESULTS: Across the 6 European countries, hospitalizations of children with respiratory infections were clearly associated with RSV, with associated proportions ranging from 28% to 60% in children younger than 3 months and we found substantial proportions of admissions to hospital with respiratory infections associated with RSV in children younger than 3 years. Associated proportions were highest among hospitalizations with ICD-10 codes of "bronchitis and bronchiolitis." In all 6 countries, annual incidence of RSV-associated hospitalizations was >40 per 1000 persons in the age group 0-2 months. In age group 1-2 years the incidence rate ranged from 1.3 to 10.5 hospitalizations per 1000. Adults older than 85 years had hospitalizations with respiratory infection associated to RSV in all 6 countries although incidence rates were low. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the substantial proportion of RSV infections among hospital admissions across different ages and may help public health professionals and policy makers when planning prevention and control strategies. In addition, our findings provide valuable insights for health care professionals attending to both children and adults presenting with symptoms of viral respiratory infections.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Adult , Age Factors , Child , Child, Preschool , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Time Factors
17.
Food Control ; : 109340, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2007702

ABSTRACT

The detection of infectious SARS-CoV-2 in food and food packaging associated with the cold chain has raised concerns about the possible transmission pathway of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in foods transported through cold-chain logistics and the need for novel decontamination strategies. In this study, the effect of electron beam (E-beam) irradiation on the inactivation of two SARS-CoV-2surrogate, viruses porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), in culture medium and food substrate, and on food substrate were investigated. The causes of virus inactivation were also investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Quantitative Real-time PCR (QRT-PCR). Samples packed inside and outside, including virus-inoculated large yellow croaker and virus suspensions, were irradiated with E-beam irradiation (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 kGy) under refrigerated (0 °C)and frozen (−18 °C) conditions. The titers of both viruses in suspension and fish decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing doses of E-beam irradiation. The maximum D10 value of both viruses in suspension and fish was 1.24 kGy. E-beam irradiation at doses below 10 kGy was found to destroy the spike proteins of both SARS-CoV-2 surrogate viruses by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and negative staining of thin-sectioned specimens, rendering them uninfectious. E-beam irradiation at doses greater than 10 kGy was also found to degrade viral genomic RNA by qRT-PCR. There were no significant differences in color, pH, TVB-N, TBARS, and sensory properties of irradiated fish samples at doses below 10 kGy. These findings suggested that E-beam irradiation has the potential to be developed as an efficient non-thermal treatment to reduce SARS-CoV-2 contamination in foods transported through cold chain foods to reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans through the cold chain.

18.
Med Clin (Engl Ed) ; 159(4): 171-176, 2022 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004336

ABSTRACT

Background: At present, COVID-19 is a global pandemic and is seriously harmful to humans. In this retrospective study, the aim was to investigate the interaction between CVD and COVID-19. Methods: A total of 180 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in Yichang Central People's Hospital from 29 January to 17 March 2020 were initially included. The medical history, clinical manifestations at the time of admission, laboratory test results, hospitalization time and complications were recorded. According to the medical history, the patients were assigned to the nonsevere group with non-CVD (n = 90), the nonsevere group with CVD (n = 22), the severe group with non-CVD (n = 40) and the severe group with CVD (n = 28). Results: In the severe group, compared with non-CVD patients, CVD patients had a significantly higher incidence of fever (P < 0.05). However, compared with the nonsevere group, the severe group had significantly higher proportions of patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, CHD and HF (all P < 0.05). Among the patients with nonsevere COVID-19, the WBC count and the levels of IL-6, CRP, D-dimer, NT-proBNP, and FBG were significantly higher and the Hb level was significantly lower in the CVD patients than in the non-CVD patients (all P < 0.05). However, among the patients with severe COVID-19, only the level of NT-proBNP was significantly higher in CVD patients than in non-CVD patients (P < 0.05). In addition, the WBC count and the levels of IL-6, CRP, D-dimer, CKMB, ALT, AST, SCR, NT-proBNP, and FBG were significantly higher and the Hb level was significantly lower in the severe group than in the nonsevere group (all P < 0.05). However, among the patients with severe COVID-19, the incidences of acute myocardial injury, acute kidney injury, arrhythmia, and sudden death were significantly higher in the CVD group than in the non-CVD group (all P < 0.05). The same results were found in the comparison of the nonsevere group with the severe group. Among the patients with nonsevere COVID-19, those without CVD had a mean hospitalization duration of 25.25 (SD 7.61) days, while those with CVD had a mean hospitalization duration of 28.77 (SD 6.11) days; the difference was significant (P < 0.05). The same results were found in the comparison of the severe group. Conclusions: CVD affects the severity of COVID-19. COVID-19 also increases the risk of severe CVD.


Antecedentes: La infección por SARS-CoV-2 está provocando graves consecuencias en la humanidad. El objetivo de este estudio retrospectivo fue investigar el impacto de las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV) en la gravedad de dicha infección. Métodos: Entre el 29 de enero y el 17 de marzo de 2020, se diagnosticaron 180 pacientes con neumonía por SARS-CoV-2 en el Hospital Popular Central de Yichang. Se registraron los antecedentes, manifestaciones clínicas, resultados de laboratorio, tiempo de hospitalización y complicaciones. Los pacientes se dividieron en cuatro grupos: 1) infección no grave sin ECV (n = 90), 2) infección no grave con ECV (n = 22), 3) infección grave sin ECV (n = 40) y 4) infección grave con ECV (n = 28). Resultados: La prevalencia de fiebre en los pacientes con ECV fue significativamente mayor que en aquellos sin ECV (P < 0,05). Sin embargo, en comparación con los pacientes no graves, la proporción de pacientes con hipertensión, diabetes mellitus tipo 2, cardiopatía coronaria e insuficiencia cardíaca en los pacientes graves fue significativamente mayor (p< 0,05). Los niveles de recuento de leucocitos, IL-6, PCR, dímero D, NT-proBNP y glucemia en ayunas (GA) en pacientes con ECV fueron significativamente mayores que en los de pacientes sin ECV, aunque los niveles de Hb fueron significativamente menores que los de los pacientes sin ECV (p< 0,05). Sin embargo, los valores de NT-proBNP en pacientes con ECV fueron significativamente mayores que en los pacientes sin ECV (P< 0,05). Además, el recuento de leucocitos y los niveles de IL-6, PCR, dímero D, CK-MB, ALT, AST, creatinina, NT-proBNPy GA en el grupo de pacientes graves fueron significativamente mayores que en el grupo no grave, mientras que los valores de Hb fueron significativamente menores que en el grupo no grave (p< 0,05). La prevalencia de lesión miocárdica aguda, lesión renal aguda, arritmia y muerte súbita en el grupo con ECV fue significativamente mayor que en el grupo sin ECV (p< 0,05). Los mismos resultados se encontraron al comparar los pacientes no graves con aquellos con infección grave. Entre los pacientes no graves, la duración media de la estancia hospitalaria fue de 25,25 (DE: 7,61) días en los pacientes sin ECV, mientras que la duración media de la estancia hospitalaria fue de 28,77 (DE: 6,11) días en los pacientes con ECV (p< 0,05). Los mismos resultados se observaron al comparar los dos grupos con infección grave. Conclusiones: La infección por SARS-CoV-2 es de evolución más grave en los pacientes con ECV.

19.
The international journal of high performance computing applications ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1999016

ABSTRACT

As a theoretically rigorous and accurate method, FEP-ABFE (Free Energy Perturbation-Absolute Binding Free Energy) calculations showed great potential in drug discovery, but its practical application was difficult due to high computational cost. To rapidly discover antiviral drugs targeting SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and TMPRSS2, we performed FEP-ABFE–based virtual screening for ∼12,000 protein-ligand binding systems on a new generation of Tianhe supercomputer. A task management tool was specifically developed for automating the whole process involving more than 500,000 MD tasks. In further experimental validation, 50 out of 98 tested compounds showed significant inhibitory activity towards Mpro, and one representative inhibitor, dipyridamole, showed remarkable outcomes in subsequent clinical trials. This work not only demonstrates the potential of FEP-ABFE in drug discovery but also provides an excellent starting point for further development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs. Besides, ∼500 TB of data generated in this work will also accelerate the further development of FEP-related methods.

20.
World J Clin Cases ; 10(23): 8161-8169, 2022 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1998046

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been far more devastating than expected, showing no signs of slowing down at present. Heilongjiang Province is the most northeastern province of China, and has cold weather for nearly half a year and an annual temperature difference of more than 60ºC, which increases the underlying morbidity associated with pulmonary diseases, and thus leads to lung dysfunction. The demographic features and laboratory parameters of COVID-19 deceased patients in Heilongjiang Province, China with such climatic characteristics are still not clearly illustrated. AIM: To illustrate the demographic features and laboratory parameters of COVID-19 deceased patients in Heilongjiang Province by comparing with those of surviving severe and critically ill cases. METHODS: COVID-19 deceased patients from different hospitals in Heilongjiang Province were included in this retrospective study and compared their characteristics with those of surviving severe and critically ill cases in the COVID-19 treatment center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University. The surviving patients were divided into severe group and critically ill group according to the Diagnosis and Treatment of New Coronavirus Pneumonia (the seventh edition). Demographic data were collected and recorded upon admission. Laboratory parameters were obtained from the medical records, and then compared among the groups. RESULTS: Twelve COVID-19 deceased patients, 27 severe cases and 26 critically ill cases were enrolled in this retrospective study. No differences in age, gender, and number of comorbidities between groups were found. Neutrophil percentage (NEUT%), platelet (PLT), C-reactive protein (CRP), creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB), serum troponin I (TNI) and brain natriuretic peptides (BNP) showed significant differences among the groups (P = 0.020, P = 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively). The increase of CRP, D-dimer and NEUT% levels, as well as the decrease of lymphocyte count (LYMPH) and PLT counts, showed significant correlation with death of COVID-19 patients (P = 0.023, P = 0.008, P = 0.045, P = 0.020, P = 0.015, respectively). CONCLUSION: Compared with surviving severe and critically ill cases, no special demographic features of COVID-19 deceased patients were observed, while some laboratory parameters including NEUT%, PLT, CRP, CK-MB, TNI and BNP showed significant differences. COVID-19 deceased patients had higher CRP, D-dimer and NEUT% levels and lower LYMPH and PLT counts.

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