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1.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259706, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526685

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: China is vulnerable to zoonotic disease transmission due to a large agricultural work force, sizable domestic livestock population, and a highly biodiverse ecology. To better address this threat, representatives from the human, animal, and environmental health sectors in China held a One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization (OHZDP) workshop in May 2019 to develop a list of priority zoonotic diseases for multisectoral, One Health collaboration. METHODS: Representatives used the OHZDP Process, developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US CDC), to prioritize zoonotic diseases for China. Representatives defined the criteria used for prioritization and determined questions and weights for each individual criterion. A review of English and Chinese literature was conducted prior to the workshop to collect disease specific information on prevalence, morbidity, mortality, and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) from China and the Western Pacific Region for zoonotic diseases considered for prioritization. RESULTS: Thirty zoonotic diseases were evaluated for prioritization. Criteria selected included: 1) disease hazard/severity (case fatality rate) in humans, 2) epidemic scale and intensity (in humans and animals) in China, 3) economic impact, 4) prevention and control, and 5) social impact. Disease specific information was obtained from 792 articles (637 in English and 155 in Chinese) and subject matter experts for the prioritization process. Following discussion of the OHZDP Tool output among disease experts, five priority zoonotic diseases were identified for China: avian influenza, echinococcosis, rabies, plague, and brucellosis. CONCLUSION: Representatives agreed on a list of five priority zoonotic diseases that can serve as a foundation to strengthen One Health collaboration for disease prevention and control in China; this list was developed prior to the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and the COVID-19 pandemic. Next steps focused on establishing a multisectoral, One Health coordination mechanism, improving multisectoral linkages in laboratory testing and surveillance platforms, creating multisectoral preparedness and response plans, and increasing workforce capacity.

2.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences ; 22(22):12134, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1512384

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses cause diseases in humans and livestock. The SARS-CoV-2 is infecting millions of human beings, with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The main protease (Mpro) of coronavirus plays a pivotal role in viral replication and transcription, which, in theory, is an attractive drug target for antiviral drug development. It has been extensively discussed whether Xanthohumol is able to help COVID-19 patients. Here, we report that Xanthohumol, a small molecule in clinical trials from hops (Humulus lupulus), was a potent pan-inhibitor for various coronaviruses by targeting Mpro, for example, betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (IC50 value of 1.53 μM), and alphacoronavirus PEDV (IC50 value of 7.51 μM). Xanthohumol inhibited Mpro activities in the enzymatical assays, while pretreatment with Xanthohumol restricted the SARS-CoV-2 and PEDV replication in Vero-E6 cells. Therefore, Xanthohumol is a potent pan-inhibitor of coronaviruses and an excellent lead compound for further drug development.

3.
Evol Psychol Sci ; : 1-10, 2021 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509409

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caught the world by surprise and raised many questions. One of the questions is whether infectious diseases indeed drive fast life history (LH) as the extent research suggests. This paper challenges this assumption and raises a different perspective. We argue that infectious diseases enact either slower or faster LH strategies and the related disease control behavior depending on disease severity. We tested and supported the theorization based on a sample of 662 adult residents drawn from all 32 provinces and administrative regions of mainland China. The findings help to broaden LH perspectives and to better understand unusual social phenomena arising from the COVID-19 pandemic.

4.
Innovation (N Y) ; : 100181, 2021 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506320

ABSTRACT

Most COVID-19 convalescents can build effective anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral immunity, but it remains unclear how long it can maintain and how efficiently it can prevent the reinfection of the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. Here, we tested the sera from 248 COVID-19 convalescents around one year post-infection in Wuhan, the earliest known epicenter. SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulins G (IgG) were well maintained in most patients and potently neutralizes the infection of the original strain and the B.1.1.7 variant. However, varying degrees of immune escape was observed on the other tested variants in a patient-specific manner, with individuals showing remarkably broad neutralization potency. The immune escape can be largely attributed to several critical spike mutations. These results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 can elicit long-lasting immunity but escaped by the emerging variants.

5.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(7)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504985

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The burden of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI), and common viral ALRI aetiologies among 5-19 years are less well understood. We conducted a systematic review to estimate global burden of all-cause and virus-specific ALRI in 5-19 years. METHODS: We searched eight databases and Google for studies published between 1995 and 2019 and reporting data on burden of all-cause ALRI or ALRI associated with influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus and human parainfluenza virus. We assessed risk of bias using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We developed an analytical framework to report burden by age, country and region when there were sufficient data (all-cause and influenza-associated ALRI hospital admissions). We estimated all-cause ALRI in-hospital deaths and hospital admissions for ALRI associated with respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus and human parainfluenza virus by region. RESULTS: Globally, an estimated 5.5 million (UR 4.0-7.8) all-cause ALRI hospital admissions occurred annually between 1995 and 2019 in 5-19 year olds, causing 87 900 (UR 40 300-180 600) in-hospital deaths annually. Influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus were associated with 1 078 600 (UR 4 56 500-2 650 200) and 231 800 (UR 142 700-3 73 200) ALRI hospital admissions in 5-19 years. Human metapneumovirus and human parainfluenza virus were associated with 105 500 (UR 57 200-181 700) and 124 800 (UR 67 300-228 500) ALRI hospital admissions in 5-14 years. About 55% of all-cause ALRI hospital admissions and 63% of influenza-associated ALRI hospital admissions occurred in those 5-9 years globally. All-cause and influenza-associated ALRI hospital admission rates were highest in upper-middle income countries, Asia-Pacific region and the Latin America and Caribbean region. CONCLUSION: Incidence and mortality data for all-cause and virus-specific ALRI in 5-19 year olds are scarce. The lack of data in low-income countries and Eastern Europe and Central Asia, South Asia, and West and Central Africa warrants efforts to improve the development and access to healthcare services, diagnostic capacity, and data reporting.


Subject(s)
Global Health , Respiratory Tract Infections , Adolescent , Child , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology
6.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 31(7): 1052-1060, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504094

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare discharge opioid refills, prescribed morphine equivalent dose and quantity, and longitudinal patient-reported outcomes before and after implementation of a tiered opioid prescribing algorithm among women undergoing open gynecologic surgery within an enhanced recovery after surgery program. METHODS: We compared opioid prescriptions, clinical outcomes, and patient-reported outcomes among 273 women. Post-discharge symptom burden was collected up to 42 days after discharge using the validated 27-item MD Anderson Symptom Inventory and analyzed using linear mixed effects models and Kaplan-Meier curves for symptom recovery. RESULTS: Among 113 pre-implementation and 160 post-implementation patients there was no difference in opioid refills (9.7% vs 11.3%, p=0.84). The post-implementation cohort had a significant reduction in median morphine equivalent dose (112.5 mg vs 225 mg, p<0.01), with no difference in median hospital length of stay (3 days vs 3 days, p=1.0) or 30-day readmission rate (9.4% vs 7.1%, p=0.66). There was no difference in patient-reported pain between the pre- and post-implementation cohorts on the day of discharge (severity 4.93 vs 5.14, p=0.53) or in any patient-reported symptoms, interference measures, or composite scores by post-discharge day 7. The median recovery time for most symptoms was 7 days, except for pain (14 days), fatigue (18 days), and physical interference (21 days), with no differences between cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: After implementation of a tiered opioid prescribing algorithm, the quantity and dose of discharge opioids prescribed decreased with no change in post-operative refills and without negatively impacting patient-reported symptom burden or interference, which can be used to educate and reassure patients and providers.

7.
J Control Release ; 340: 114-124, 2021 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474707

ABSTRACT

The messenger RNA (mRNA)-based therapy, especially mRNA vaccines, has shown its superiorities in versatile design, rapid development and scale production, since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 mRNA vaccines had been approved for application, unexpected adverse events were reported to be most likely associated with the mRNA delivery systems. Thus, the development of mRNA delivery system with good efficacy and safety remains a challenge. Here, for the first time, we report that the neutral cytidinyl lipid, 2-(4-amino-2-oxopyrimidin-1-yl)-N-(2,3-dioleoyl-oxypropyl) acetamide (DNCA), and the cationic lipid, dioleoyl-3,3'-disulfanediylbis-[2-(2,6-diaminohexanamido)] propanoate (CLD), could encapsulate and deliver the COVID-19 mRNA-1096 into the cytoplasm to induce robust adaptive immune response. In the formulation, the molar ratio of DNCA/CLD to a single nucleotide of COVID-19 mRNA-1096 was about 0.9: 0.5: 1 (the N/P ratio was about 7: 1). The DNCA/CLD-mRNA-1096 lipoplexes were rationally prepared by the combination of the lipids DNCA/CLD with the aqueous mRNA solution under mild sonication to stimulate multiple interactions, including H-bonding, π-stacking and electrostatic force between the lipids and the mRNA. After intramuscular applications of the DNCA/CLD-mRNA-1096 lipoplexes, robust neutralizing antibodies and long-lived Th1-biased SARS-CoV-2-specific cell immunity were detected in the immunized mice, thus suggesting the DNCA/CLD a promising mRNA delivery system. Moreover, our study might also inspire better ideas for developing mRNA delivery systems.

8.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 730807, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468351

ABSTRACT

Three new tetramic acid derivatives (1-3) and a new polyketide (4) along with eight known compounds (5-12) were isolated from cultures of the deep-sea-derived fungus Penicillium sp. SCSIO06868. Four new structures were elucidated by analysis of one-dimensional/two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Their absolute configurations were established by X-ray crystallography analysis and comparison of the experimental and reported electronic circular dichroism (ECD) values or specific optical rotation. Compound 3 exhibited potent, selective inhibitory activities against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus with minimum inhibitory concentration values of both 2.5 µg/ml. Also, compound 3 showed weak antiviral activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 main protease, which was responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.

9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5026, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363491

ABSTRACT

Nationwide prospective surveillance of all-age patients with acute respiratory infections was conducted in China between 2009‒2019. Here we report the etiological and epidemiological features of the 231,107 eligible patients enrolled in this analysis. Children <5 years old and school-age children have the highest viral positivity rate (46.9%) and bacterial positivity rate (30.9%). Influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus are the three leading viral pathogens with proportions of 28.5%, 16.8% and 16.7%, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the three leading bacterial pathogens (29.9%, 18.6% and 15.8%). Negative interactions between viruses and positive interactions between viral and bacterial pathogens are common. A Join-Point analysis reveals the age-specific positivity rate and how this varied for individual pathogens. These data indicate that differential priorities for diagnosis, prevention and control should be highlighted in terms of acute respiratory tract infection patients' demography, geographic locations and season of illness in China.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Seasons , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Viruses/classification , Viruses/genetics , Young Adult
10.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(10): e676-e683, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Community mobility data have been used to assess adherence to non-pharmaceutical interventions and its impact on SARS-CoV-2 transmission. We assessed the association between location-specific community mobility and the reproduction number (R) of SARS-CoV-2 across UK local authorities. METHODS: In this modelling study, we linked data on community mobility from Google with data on R from 330 UK local authorities, for the period June 1, 2020, to Feb 13, 2021. Six mobility metrics are available in the Google community mobility dataset: visits to retail and recreation places, visits to grocery and pharmacy stores, visits to transit stations, visits to parks, visits to workplaces, and length of stay in residential places. For each local authority, we modelled the weekly change in R (the R ratio) per a rescaled weekly percentage change in each location-specific mobility metric relative to a pre-pandemic baseline period (Jan 3-Feb 6, 2020), with results synthesised across local authorities using a random-effects meta-analysis. FINDINGS: On a weekly basis, increased visits to retail and recreation places were associated with a substantial increase in R (R ratio 1·053 [99·2% CI 1·041-1·065] per 15% weekly increase compared with baseline visits) as were increased visits to workplaces (R ratio 1·060 [1·046-1·074] per 10% increase compared with baseline visits). By comparison, increased visits to grocery and pharmacy stores were associated with a small but still statistically significant increase in R (R ratio 1·011 [1·005-1·017] per 5% weekly increase compared with baseline visits). Increased visits to parks were associated with a decreased R (R ratio 0·972 [0·965-0·980]), as were longer stays at residential areas (R ratio 0·952 [0·928-0·976]). Increased visits to transit stations were not associated with R nationally, but were associated with a substantial increase in R in cities. An increasing trend was observed for the first 6 weeks of 2021 in the effect of visits to retail and recreation places and workplaces on R. INTERPRETATION: Increased visits to retail and recreation places, workplaces, and transit stations in cities are important drivers of increased SARS-CoV-2 transmission; the increasing trend in the effects of these drivers in the first 6 weeks of 2021 was possibly associated with the emerging alpha (B.1.1.7) variant. These findings provide important evidence for the management of current and future mobility restrictions. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust and Data-Driven Innovation initiative.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Commerce , Pandemics , Parks, Recreational , Transportation , Travel , Workplace , Behavior , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Incidence , Models, Biological , Recreation , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
11.
Health Sci Rep ; 4(3): e376, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441987

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Over the past decade, we have witnessed the initiation and implementation of precision medicine (PM), a discipline that promises to individualize and personalize medical management and treatment, rendering them ultimately more precise and effective. Despite of the continuing advances and numerous clinical applications, the potential of PM remains highly controversial, sparking heated debates about its future. Method: The present article reviews the philosophical issues and practical challenges that are critical to the feasibility and implementation of PM. Outcome: The explanation and argument about the relations between PM and computability, uncertainty as well as complexity, show that key foundational assumptions of PM might not be fully validated. Conclusion: The present analysis suggests that our current understanding of PM is probably oversimplified and too superficial. More efforts are needed to realize the hope that PM has elicited, rather than make the term just as a hype.

12.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 89, 2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440469

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 outbreak has been declared by World Health Organization as a worldwide pandemic. However, there are many unknowns about the antigen-specific T-cell-mediated immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we present both single-cell TCR-seq and RNA-seq to analyze the dynamics of TCR repertoire and immune metabolic functions of blood T cells collected from recently discharged COVID-19 patients. We found that while the diversity of TCR repertoire was increased in discharged patients, it returned to basal level ~1 week after becoming virus-free. The dynamics of T cell repertoire correlated with a profound shift of gene signatures from antiviral response to metabolism adaptation. We also demonstrated that the top expanded T cell clones (~10% of total T cells) display the key anti-viral features in CD8+ T cells, confirming a critical role of antigen-specific T cells in fighting against SARS-CoV-2. Our work provides a basis for further analysis of adaptive immunity in COVID-19 patients, and also has implications in developing a T-cell-based vaccine for SARS-CoV-2.

13.
Front Psychol ; 12: 614193, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417124

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the discrepancy between self-rating and professional evaluation of mental health status in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cluster cases. Method: A total of 65 COVID-19 cluster cases admitted to Beijing Ditan Hospital Capital Medical University from June 14, 2020 to June 16, 2020 were included in the study. Mental health assessment was completed by self-rating and professional evaluation. The gaps between self-rating and professional evaluation in different demographic characteristics were compared. Results: The results of self-rating were inconsistent with those of professional evaluation. The gap was statistically different among certain demographic subgroups. As for anxiety, the gaps had remarkable statistics differences in subgroups of sex, monthly income, infection way, and anxiety/depression medical history. Similarly, in the terms of depression, the gaps had significant statistic differences in the subgroups of the medical history of anxiety/depression, history of physical disease, employment status and the insurance type, marriage, education (year), residing in Beijing (year), and the monthly income. Conclusion: Compared to the professional evaluation, patients had a higher self-rating, which may be related to some demographic characteristics. It suggests that screening can be conducted in patients with COVID-19 by self-rating first, and then professional evaluation should be carried out in the patients with suspicious or positive results.

15.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 18(10): 2313-2324, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392820

ABSTRACT

In response to emerging infectious diseases, such as the recent pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), it is critical to quickly identify and understand responsible pathogens, risk factors, host immune responses, and pathogenic mechanisms at both the molecular and cellular levels. The recent development of multiomic technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and single-cell transcriptomics, has enabled a fast and panoramic grasp of the pathogen and the disease. Here, we systematically reviewed the major advances in the virology, immunology, and pathogenic mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection that have been achieved via multiomic technologies. Based on well-established cohorts, omics-based methods can greatly enhance the mechanistic understanding of diseases, contributing to the development of new diagnostics, drugs, and vaccines for emerging infectious diseases, such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Genomics , Metabolomics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcriptome
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(17)2021 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390653

ABSTRACT

Previous COVID-19 tourism research has not considered the positive impact of a low-risk perception and a perception of the benefits of regional travel on taking alternative tourism. This study attempts to fill the research gap and examine the positive effect of these perceptions on tourists' attitudes to regional travel and intentions to undertake regional travel during the COVID-19 pandemic. A survey of 278 respondents confirmed that the perceived benefit positively influences tourists' attitudes and travel intentions, but that a low-risk perception only positively affects their attitudes. This study contributes to tourism risk management research by introducing the concept of a low-risk perception as a positive factor. For tourism recovery, it finds that relaxation, value, and convenience are benefits to drive people to travel.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Tourism , Travel
18.
J Control Release ; 338: 537-547, 2021 10 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385845

ABSTRACT

mRNA-based therapy has been evaluated in preclinical and clinical studies for the treatment of a wide variety of disease such as cancer immunotherapies and infectious disease vaccines. However, it remains challenging to development safe and efficient delivery system. Here, we have designed a novel self-assembled polymeric micelle based on vitamin E succinate modified polyethyleneimine copolymer (PVES) to delivery mRNA. In vitro, PVES could transfect mRNA into multiple cell lines such as HEK-293T, HeLa and Vero and the transfection efficiencies were much higher than PEI 25 k. In addition, the cytotoxicity of PVES was much lower than PEI 25 k. Furthermore, mice administered intramuscularly with PVES/SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine induced potent antibody response and show no obvious toxicity. These results demonstrated the potential of PVES as a safe and effective delivery carrier for mRNA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Micelles , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines , HeLa Cells , Humans , Mice , Polyethyleneimine , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Transfection
19.
PeerJ ; 9: e11397, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359402

ABSTRACT

Background: Air pollution leads to many adverse health conditions, mainly manifested by respiratory or cardiac symptoms. Previous studies are limited as to whether air pollutants were associated to influenza-like illness (ILI). This study aimed to explore the association between air pollutants and outpatient visits for ILI, especially during an outbreak of influenza. Methods: Daily counts of hospital visits for ILI were obtained from Peking University Third Hospital between January 1, 2015, and March 31, 2018. A generalized additive Poisson model was applied to examine the associations between air pollutants concentrations and daily outpatient visits for ILI when adjusted for the meteorological parameters. Results: There were 35862 outpatient visits at the fever clinic for ILI cases. Air quality index (AQI), PM2.5, PM10, CO and O3 on lag0 days, as well as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) on lag1 days, were significantly associated with an increased risk of outpatient visits for ILI from January 2015 to November 2017. From December 2017 to March 2018, on lag0 days, air pollutants PM2.5 [risk ratio (RR) = 0.971, 95% CI: 0.963-0.979], SO2 (RR = 0.892, 95% CI: 0.840-0.948) and CO (RR = 0.306, 95% CI: 0.153-0.612) were significantly associated with a decreased risk of outpatient visits for ILI. Interestingly, on the lag2 days, all the pollutants were significantly associated with a reduced risk of outpatient visits for ILI except for O3. We did not observe the linear correlations between the outpatient visits for ILI and any of air pollutants, which were instead associated via a curvilinear relationship. Conclusions: We found that the air pollutants may be associated with an increased risk of outpatient visits for ILI during the non-outbreak period and with a decreased risk during the outbreak period, which may be linked with the use of disposable face masks and the change of outdoor activities. These findings expand the current knowledge of ILI outpatient visits correlated with air pollutants during an influenza pandemic.

20.
Communications Earth & Environment ; 2(1), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1354121

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 lockdown has unprecedently affected the dynamics of our society. As traffic flow is a good proxy for societal activity, traffic monitoring becomes a useful tool to assess the lockdown’s impacts. Here we turned two strands of unused telecommunication fibers in Pasadena, California into a seismic array of ~5,000 sensors and detected ground vibrations caused by moving vehicles along the streets above the cable. We monitor the number of vehicles and their mean speed between December 2019 and August 2020 in high spatial and temporal resolution, and then analyze the traffic patterns change due to the COVID-19 lockdown. Our results show a city-wide decline in traffic volume and an increase in speed due to the lockdown, although the level of impact varies substantially by streets. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using telecommunication fiber optic cables in traffic monitoring, which has implications for public health, economy, and transportation safety.Changes in ground vibrations suggest decreased traffic volume and increased average speed in Pasadena, California during the COVID-19 lockdown, according to analyses of data from a Distributed Acoustic Sensing array

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