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1.
Mar Drugs ; 19(10)2021 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485164

ABSTRACT

Inflammation is the body's defense reaction in response to stimulations and is the basis of various physiological and pathological processes. However, chronic inflammation is undesirable and closely related to the occurrence and development of diseases. The ocean gives birth to unique and diverse bioactive substances, which have gained special attention and been a focus for anti-inflammatory drug development. So far, numerous promising bioactive substances have been obtained from various marine organisms such as marine bacteria and fungi, sponges, algae, and coral. This review covers 71 bioactive substances described during 2015-2020, including the structures (65 of which), species sources, evaluation models and anti-inflammatory activities of these substances. This review aims to provide some reference for the research progress of marine-organism-derived anti-inflammatory metabolites and give more research impetus for their conversion to novel anti-inflammatory drugs.

2.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(10): e31400, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463405

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many countries have experienced 2 predominant waves of COVID-19-related hospitalizations. Comparing the clinical trajectories of patients hospitalized in separate waves of the pandemic enables further understanding of the evolving epidemiology, pathophysiology, and health care dynamics of the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed electronic health record (EHR) data from patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections hospitalized in participating health care systems representing 315 hospitals across 6 countries. We compared hospitalization rates, severe COVID-19 risk, and mean laboratory values between patients hospitalized during the first and second waves of the pandemic. METHODS: Using a federated approach, each participating health care system extracted patient-level clinical data on their first and second wave cohorts and submitted aggregated data to the central site. Data quality control steps were adopted at the central site to correct for implausible values and harmonize units. Statistical analyses were performed by computing individual health care system effect sizes and synthesizing these using random effect meta-analyses to account for heterogeneity. We focused the laboratory analysis on C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, fibrinogen, procalcitonin, D-dimer, and creatinine based on their reported associations with severe COVID-19. RESULTS: Data were available for 79,613 patients, of which 32,467 were hospitalized in the first wave and 47,146 in the second wave. The prevalence of male patients and patients aged 50 to 69 years decreased significantly between the first and second waves. Patients hospitalized in the second wave had a 9.9% reduction in the risk of severe COVID-19 compared to patients hospitalized in the first wave (95% CI 8.5%-11.3%). Demographic subgroup analyses indicated that patients aged 26 to 49 years and 50 to 69 years; male and female patients; and black patients had significantly lower risk for severe disease in the second wave than in the first wave. At admission, the mean values of CRP were significantly lower in the second wave than in the first wave. On the seventh hospital day, the mean values of CRP, ferritin, fibrinogen, and procalcitonin were significantly lower in the second wave than in the first wave. In general, countries exhibited variable changes in laboratory testing rates from the first to the second wave. At admission, there was a significantly higher testing rate for D-dimer in France, Germany, and Spain. CONCLUSIONS: Patients hospitalized in the second wave were at significantly lower risk for severe COVID-19. This corresponded to mean laboratory values in the second wave that were more likely to be in typical physiological ranges on the seventh hospital day compared to the first wave. Our federated approach demonstrated the feasibility and power of harmonizing heterogeneous EHR data from multiple international health care systems to rapidly conduct large-scale studies to characterize how COVID-19 clinical trajectories evolve.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control ; : 104208, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1347695

ABSTRACT

We develop a New Keynesian model where all payments between agents require bank deposits, bank deposits are created through disbursement of bank loans, and banks face convex lending costs. At the zero lower bound on deposit rates (ZLBD), changes in policy rates affect activity through both real interest rates and banks’ net interest margins (NIMs). At empirically plausible credit supply elasticities, the Phillips curve is very flat at the ZLBD. This is because inflation increases NIMs, credit, deposits, and thereby output, while higher NIMs also dampen inflation by relaxing price setters’ credit rationing constraint. At the ZLBD, monetary policy has far larger effects on output relative to inflation, and inflation feedback rules stabilize output less effectively than rules that also respond to credit. For post-COVID-19 policy, this suggests urgency in returning inflation to targets, caution with negative policy rates, and a strong influence of credit conditions on rate setting.

5.
Discrete Dynamics in Nature & Society ; : 1-18, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1262423

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of COVID-19 in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, in December 2019, the middle reaches of the Yangtze River became the key areas of the spread of the pandemic and association, and also as the urban economic recovery process after the pandemic eased, it provided an excellent opportunity to research urban resilience. From the viewpoint of urban social-ecological system resilience in public health emergencies, this study comprehensively applies the spatial econometrics, geodetector model, and other methods to investigate the urban resilience level, spatial differentiation, and dominant elements in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River under the impact of the pandemic. This study would aid in providing a scientific basis for sustainable spatial planning and governance. The results demonstrated that the urban resilience in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River had notable spatial agglomeration features, eight elements including tertiary industry proportion possessed a robust explanatory power to the spatial differentiation of urban resilience, and the explanatory power was markedly enhanced after the interaction between influential elements of economic and ecological subsystems. Thus, to upgrade the system cycle mechanism and augment the endogenous power for urban development, we need to focus more on the flow of innovative elements in central cities, the optimization of ecological and safe spatial patterns in Hunan and Hubei Provinces, and the innovation of sustainable supply chain in the entire region. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Discrete Dynamics in Nature & Society is the property of Hindawi Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

6.
Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) ; 34(4): 437-441, 2021 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160622

ABSTRACT

The prevalence and seroconversion rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection among asymptomatic health care workers in the US is unclear. Our study utilized real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) SARS-CoV-2 testing and serological evaluation to detect IgG antibodies specific to SARS-CoV-2 antigens in asymptomatic health care workers. A total of 197 subjects with a mean age of 35 years were recruited into the study. While most (67%) reported prolonged contact with known COVID-19 patients, only 8 (4.2%) tested positive on RT-PCR and 23 (11.7%) had detectable levels of IgG antibody to SARS-CoV-2. Out of 19 subjects with detectable IgG antibody at week 1, 11 (57.9%) lost their antibody response by week 3. No statistically significant difference was found in baseline characteristics or exposure status between subjects with positive and negative results on RT-PCR or antibody positivity. In conclusion, we found a low incidence of PCR positivity for SARS-CoV-2 in a high-risk group. This likely demonstrates the effectiveness of proper personal protective equipment use and low transmission risk in health care settings. The detectable IgG antibody titer was low, and a significant portion of subjects lost their antibody response on repeat testing. This may mean that antibody response in asymptomatic patients is categorically different than in symptomatic hospitalized patients with COVID-19.

7.
R Soc Open Sci ; 8(3): 201895, 2021 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158064

ABSTRACT

Development of strategies for mitigating the severity of COVID-19 is now a top public health priority. We sought to assess strategies for mitigating the COVID-19 outbreak in a hospital setting via the use of non-pharmaceutical interventions. We developed an individual-based model for COVID-19 transmission in a hospital setting. We calibrated the model using data of a COVID-19 outbreak in a hospital unit in Wuhan. The calibrated model was used to simulate different intervention scenarios and estimate the impact of different interventions on outbreak size and workday loss. The use of high-efficacy facial masks was shown to be able to reduce infection cases and workday loss by 80% (90% credible interval (CrI): 73.1-85.7%) and 87% (CrI: 80.0-92.5%), respectively. The use of social distancing alone, through reduced contacts between healthcare workers, had a marginal impact on the outbreak. Our results also indicated that a quarantine policy should be coupled with other interventions to achieve its effect. The effectiveness of all these interventions was shown to increase with their early implementation. Our analysis shows that a COVID-19 outbreak in a hospital's non-COVID-19 unit can be controlled or mitigated by the use of existing non-pharmaceutical measures.

8.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 103, 2021 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147072

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: More than 210,000 medical workers have fought against the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hubei in China since December 2019. However, the prevalence of mental health problems in frontline medical staff after fighting COVID-19 is still unknown. METHODS: Medical workers in Wuhan and other cities in Hubei Province were invited to participate a cross-sectional and convenience sampling online survey, which assessed the prevalence of anxiety, insomnia, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). RESULTS: A total of 1,091 responses (33% male and 67% female) were valid for statistical analysis. The prevalence was anxiety 53%, insomnia 79%, depression 56%, and PTSD 11%. Healthcare workers in Wuhan were more likely to face risks of anxiety (56% vs. 52%, P = 0.03) and PTSD (15% vs. 9%, P = 0.03) than those in other cities of Hubei. In terms of educational attainment, those with doctoral and masters' (D/M) degrees may experience more anxiety (median of 7.0, [interquartile range (IQR) 2.0-8.5] vs. median 5.0 [IQR 5.0-8.0], P = 0.02) and PTSD (median 26.0 [IQR 19.5-33.0] vs. median 23.0 [IQR 19.0-31.0], P = 0.04) than those with lower educational degrees. CONCLUSIONS: The mental problems were an important issue for the healthcare workers after COVID-19. Thus, an early intervention on such mental problems is necessary for healthcare workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Health Personnel/psychology , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/psychology , Prevalence , Psychometrics , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
9.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-5719

ABSTRACT

Background: There had been a preliminary occurrence of human-to-human transmissions between healthcare workers (HCWs), but risk factors in the susceptibility

13.
Chinese Journal of Nosocomiology ; 30(19):2881-2885, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-923213

ABSTRACT

Objective: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2(ACE2) in metallopeptidase has been identified as a functional receptor for COVID-19. The purpose of this study was to explore the difference in the expression of ACE2 in COVID-19-induced pneumonia(hereinafter referred to as "COVID-19").

14.
JGH Open ; 4(6): 1047-1058, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893233

ABSTRACT

Although most COVID-19 patients typically present with respiratory symptoms, many patients could experience digestive symptoms as the major complaint. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the exact prevalence of digestive symptoms and liver injury in COVID-19 patients and compare the difference between patients with and without digestive symptoms. PubMed, Embase, Ovid, Wanfang data, and CNKI were searched until 24 April 2020 to identify studies that reported digestive symptoms and liver injury in COVID-19 patients. A random-effect model was used to combine the data. Finally, 64 studies with 15 141 patients were included. The pooled rate of digestive symptoms and liver dysfunction was 31.8% (95 CI 21.0-42.5%, I 2 = 97.6%) and 27.4% (95 CI 16.9-37.9%, I 2 = 97.9%), respectively. Patients with digestive symptoms were more likely to present with fatigue (OR 2.28, 95 CI 1.66-3.14, P < 0.00001, I 2 = 31%), myalgia (OR 1.96, 95 CI 1.06-3.65, P = 0.03, I 2 = 69%), and acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS) (OR 2.94, 95 CI 1.17-7.40, P = 0.02, I 2 = 0) and had a trend to present as severe/critical type (OR 1.87, 95 CI 0.98-3.57, P = 0.06, I 2 = 58%). Severe/critical patients were more likely to present with diarrhea (OR 2.02, 95 CI 1.16-3.50, P = 0.01, I 2 = 64) and have high alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (OR 2.08, 95 CI 1.55-2.81, P < 0.00001, I 2 = 13%,) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (OR 3.53, 95 CI 2.76-4.51, P < 0.00001, I 2 = 0). The pooled rate of patients with digestive symptoms was 28.7% (95 CI 17.6-39.8%) and 42.8% (95 CI 23.4-62.3%) in studies from China and out of China, respectively. COVID-19 patients had a high rate of digestive symptoms and liver injury. Patients with digestive symptoms had a trend to develop severe/critical illness.

15.
Sleep Med X ; 2: 100028, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-857168

ABSTRACT

Background: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at the forefront of fighting against the COVID-19 pandemic. However, they are at high risk of acquiring the pathogen from infected patients and transmitting to other HCWs. We aimed to investigate risk factors for nosocomial COVID-19 infection among HCWs in a non-COVID-19 hospital yard. Methods: Retrospective data collection on demographics, lifestyles, contact status with infected subjects for 118 HCWs (including 12 COVID-19 HCWs) at Union Hospital of Wuhan, China. Sleep quality and working pressure were evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and The Nurse Stress Index (NSI), respectively. The follow-up duration was from Dec 25, 2019, to Feb 15, 2020. Results: A high proportion of COVID-19 HCWs had engaged in night shift-work (75.0% vs. 40.6%) and felt working under pressure (66.7% vs. 32.1%) than uninfected HCWs. SARS-CoV-2 infected HCWs had significantly higher scores of PSQI and NSI than uninfected HCWs (P < 0.001). Specifically, scores of 5 factors (sleep quality, sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep disorder, and daytime dysfunction) in PSQI were higher among infected HCWs. For NSI, its 5 subscales (nursing profession and work, workload and time allocation, working environment and resources, patient care, management and interpersonal relations) were all higher in infected than uninfected nurse. Furthermore, total scores of PSQI (HR = 2.97, 95%CI = 1.86-4.76; P <0.001) and NSI (HR = 4.67, 95%CI = 1.42-15.45; P = 0.011) were both positively associated with the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conclusion: Our analysis shows that poor sleep quality and higher working pressure may increase the risk of nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 infection among HCWs.

16.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1873

ABSTRACT

A sizeable proportion of enterprises, especially SMEs, in receipt of financial assistance from the government, will fail to repay. In this paper we asked whethe

17.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1245

ABSTRACT

Background: In December 2019, an outbreak of novel beta coronavirus infection was first discovered in Wuhan, China. Since then, the pathogen as well as its ensu

19.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-596

ABSTRACT

Background: The pneumonia associated with the novel coronavirus (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2) is breaking out in Wuhan, China. W

20.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-529

ABSTRACT

Background: A large outbreak of pneumonia associated with 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) occurred in Wuhan City, HubeProvince, China in December 2019. We

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