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Front Aging Neurosci ; 15: 1034376, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270097


Background and objectives: The Movement Disorder Society's Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III (MDS-UPDRS III) is mostly common used for assessing the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). In remote circumstances, vision-based techniques have many strengths over wearable sensors. However, rigidity (item 3.3) and postural stability (item 3.12) in the MDS-UPDRS III cannot be assessed remotely since participants need to be touched by a trained examiner during testing. We developed the four scoring models of rigidity of the neck, rigidity of the lower extremities, rigidity of the upper extremities, and postural stability based on features extracted from other available and touchless motions. Methods: The red, green, and blue (RGB) computer vision algorithm and machine learning were combined with other available motions from the MDS-UPDRS III evaluation. A total of 104 patients with PD were split into a train set (89 individuals) and a test set (15 individuals). The light gradient boosting machine (LightGBM) multiclassification model was trained. Weighted kappa (k), absolute accuracy (ACC ± 0), and Spearman's correlation coefficient (rho) were used to evaluate the performance of model. Results: For model of rigidity of the upper extremities, k = 0.58 (moderate), ACC ± 0 = 0.73, and rho = 0.64 (moderate). For model of rigidity of the lower extremities, k = 0.66 (substantial), ACC ± 0 = 0.70, and rho = 0.76 (strong). For model of rigidity of the neck, k = 0.60 (moderate), ACC ± 0 = 0.73, and rho = 0.60 (moderate). For model of postural stability, k = 0.66 (substantial), ACC ± 0 = 0.73, and rho = 0.68 (moderate). Conclusion: Our study can be meaningful for remote assessments, especially when people have to maintain social distance, e.g., in situations such as the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

Mil Med Res ; 9(1): 32, 2022 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962906


BACKGROUND: Due to the outbreak and rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), more than 160 million patients have become convalescents worldwide to date. Significant alterations have occurred in the gut and oral microbiome and metabonomics of patients with COVID-19. However, it is unknown whether their characteristics return to normal after the 1-year recovery. METHODS: We recruited 35 confirmed patients to provide specimens at discharge and one year later, as well as 160 healthy controls. A total of 497 samples were prospectively collected, including 219 tongue-coating, 129 stool and 149 plasma samples. Tongue-coating and stool samples were subjected to 16S rRNA sequencing, and plasma samples were subjected to untargeted metabolomics testing. RESULTS: The oral and gut microbiome and metabolomics characteristics of the 1-year convalescents were restored to a large extent but did not completely return to normal. In the recovery process, the microbial diversity gradually increased. Butyric acid-producing microbes and Bifidobacterium gradually increased, whereas lipopolysaccharide-producing microbes gradually decreased. In addition, sphingosine-1-phosphate, which is closely related to the inflammatory factor storm of COVID-19, increased significantly during the recovery process. Moreover, the predictive models established based on the microbiome and metabolites of patients at the time of discharge reached high efficacy in predicting their neutralizing antibody levels one year later. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to characterize the oral and gut microbiome and metabonomics in 1-year convalescents of COVID-19. The key microbiome and metabolites in the process of recovery were identified, and provided new treatment ideas for accelerating recovery. And the predictive models based on the microbiome and metabolomics afford new insights for predicting the recovery situation which benefited affected individuals and healthcare.

COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Metabolomics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110074, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-625625


The morbidity and mortality of lung cancer are increasing. The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV-2, leading to subsequent pulmonary interstitial fibrosis with chronic inflammatory changes, e.g., inflammatory factors repeatedly continuously stimulating and attacking the alveolar epithelial cells. Meanwhile, 2019-nCoV-2 can activate PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways, which can play the double roles as both anti-inflammatory and carcinogenic factors. Moreover, hypoxemia may be developed, resulting in the up-regulation of HIF-1 α expression, which can be involved in the occurrence, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis of lung cancer. Additionally, the immune system in 2019-nCoV-2 infected cases can be suppressed to cause tumor immune evasion. Therefore, we speculate that COVID-19 may be a risk factor of secondary lung cancer.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Lung Injury/complications , Lung Neoplasms/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Hypoxia/complications , Models, Biological , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction , Tumor Escape