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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(4)2023 Feb 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243332

ABSTRACT

The major public health emergencies (PHEs) represented by the COVID-19 pandemic, while posing a serious threat to human health, have led people to rethink about the harmonious relationship between humans and nature. It is worthy to explore whether and how the framework effect of event information can be used to turn crises into opportunities to promote public pro-environmental behavior (PEB). Through a pre-and post-test control experiment, this study took the COVID-19 pandemic as a case, to explore the effects of four PHE information frameworks on promoting PEB, coupled with two information loss-gain frameworks and two information content frameworks. The results showed that all four information frameworks contribute to the public PEB. However, there are differences: only the environmental gain information effect is significant for PEB in the private sphere. The environmental loss and health gain information are effective for PEB in organizations. However, in the public sphere, all four information frameworks significantly motivate PEB. Further factorial analysis revealed that the interaction between the information content and loss-gain framework was not significant, with the latter playing the dominant role. These findings provide a new approach to how to develop the information framework effect and turn crises into opportunities to promote public PEB in the context of major PHEs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Humans , Pandemics
2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 573726, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259349

ABSTRACT

Background: Overseas imported cases of COVID-19 continue to increase in China, so we conducted this study to review the epidemiological characteristics of these patients. Methods: From February 26 to April 4, 2020, the imported cases from abroad were enrolled in this study. The effect of prevention countermeasures in curbing the spread of COVID-19 was assessed in this study. Moreover, we defined incubation period and confirmed time as from the date of leaving the epicenter to date of symptom onset and date of final diagnosed, respectively, and the interval of symptom onset to final diagnosed time was defined as diagnostic time. Categorical variables were summarized as numbers and percentages, and the difference among the variables were analyzed. Results: For 670 cases imported from abroad, 555 were Chinese and 115 were foreigners. Apparently, confirmed cases had significantly decreased after China was compelled to temporarily suspend the entry of foreign passport holders with valid visas or residence permits; 6 days after implement of controlled measures, the daily new confirmed cases were reduced to 13 cases. Moreover, about 84.3% of patients (166/197) presented symptoms 1 week after leaving the epicenter, and notably seven patients (3.6%) had symptoms 2 weeks after leaving the epicenter. The median incubation period was 3.0 days (inter quartile range, 1.0 to 6.0), the 95th percentile was 11.6 days. Additionally, most of cases (92.9%) were detected positively of nucleic acid after symptom onset with 4 days, the median diagnostic time was 2.0 days (interquartile range, 1.0 to 3.0), and the 95th percentile of the distribution was 5.0 days. Finally, about 5.8% of patients were healthy carriers, and the median confirmed time of asymptomatic patients was 4.0 days (interquartile range, 2.0 to 9.0). The following variables might be associated with confirmed time: symptom type (P = 0.005), exported regions (P < 0.001), and symptom onset time (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The prevention countermeasures for imported cases implemented by the Chinese government played an indispensable role in curbing the spread of COVID-19; the time of departure from epicenter could provide an estimate of the incubation period; and a confirmed time, 2-week quarantine period might need to be prolonged, while asymptomatic patients should be closely monitored.

3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 564250, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186808

ABSTRACT

Background: Few studies have reported the transmission characteristics of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in low-density populations. This study has therefore analyzed the epidemiological characteristics and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients in Northwestern China, an area with low population density. Methods: From January 21 to March 11, 2020, data from patients diagnosed with novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) in areas of Northwestern China with lower population densities were retrospectively analyzed. Certain variables were categorized as numbers and percentages, with the ratio between resident patients (no history of going out during the epidemic) and imported patients representing the contagiousness of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) responsible for COVID-19. Hospitalization time was also calculated. Results: A total of 617 COVID-19 patients were reported in Northwestern China, and the morbidity and mortality rates of 0.000005 and 0.011, respectively. Further analysis showed that the morbidity was inversely proportional to population density and distance from Wuhan City. This study enrolled 473 confirmed cases; among these patients, there were 248 residents and 225 imported cases with a ratio of 1:1. The youngest and oldest patients were 1 and 94 years of age, respectively, with a median age of 42 years. Fifteen (3.2%) patients were children or infants. Two patients were pregnant, and one patient gave birth to a healthy baby with negative results during her disease course. About 17.3% of patients (82 cases) were healthy carriers without any symptoms during their disease course. One male patient (0.2%) had recurrence of a positive test result 4 days after discharge. The median hospitalization time was 16.0 days, ranging from 2.0 to 43.0 days. Further analysis showed that age (P = 0.03) and severity status (P < 0.001) were significantly correlated with hospitalization time. Conclusions: The morbidity and mortality rates of COVID-19 patients in the regions with a low population density were lower than those of the national average in China. All populations were susceptible to infection by SARS-CoV-2. Asymptomatic patients with positive results should be taken seriously, and the hospitalization time of patients is associated with their age and severity status.

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