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1.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(6): e35343, 2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910886

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 was first reported in 2019, and the Chinese government immediately carried out stringent and effective control measures in response to the epidemic. OBJECTIVE: Nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) may have impacted incidences of other infectious diseases as well. Potential explanations underlying this reduction, however, are not clear. Hence, in this study, we aim to study the influence of the COVID-19 prevention policies on other infectious diseases (mainly class B infectious diseases) in China. METHODS: Time series data sets between 2017 and 2021 for 23 notifiable infectious diseases were extracted from public data sets from the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. Several indices (peak and trough amplitudes, infection selectivity, preferred time to outbreak, oscillatory strength) of each infectious disease were calculated before and after the COVID-19 outbreak. RESULTS: We found that the prevention and control policies for COVID-19 had a strong, significant reduction effect on outbreaks of other infectious diseases. A clear event-related trough (ERT) was observed after the outbreak of COVID-19 under the strict control policies, and its decreasing amplitude is related to the infection selectivity and preferred outbreak time of the disease before COVID-19. We also calculated the oscillatory strength before and after the COVID-19 outbreak and found that it was significantly stronger before the COVID-19 outbreak and does not correlate with the trough amplitude. CONCLUSIONS: Our results directly demonstrate that prevention policies for COVID-19 have immediate additional benefits for controlling most class B infectious diseases, and several factors (infection selectivity, preferred outbreak time) may have contributed to the reduction in outbreaks. This study may guide the implementation of nonpharmaceutical interventions to control a wider range of infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
2.
Mil Med Res ; 9(1): 32, 2022 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896387

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the outbreak and rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), more than 160 million patients have become convalescents worldwide to date. Significant alterations have occurred in the gut and oral microbiome and metabonomics of patients with COVID-19. However, it is unknown whether their characteristics return to normal after the 1-year recovery. METHODS: We recruited 35 confirmed patients to provide specimens at discharge and one year later, as well as 160 healthy controls. A total of 497 samples were prospectively collected, including 219 tongue-coating, 129 stool and 149 plasma samples. Tongue-coating and stool samples were subjected to 16S rRNA sequencing, and plasma samples were subjected to untargeted metabolomics testing. RESULTS: The oral and gut microbiome and metabolomics characteristics of the 1-year convalescents were restored to a large extent but did not completely return to normal. In the recovery process, the microbial diversity gradually increased. Butyric acid-producing microbes and Bifidobacterium gradually increased, whereas lipopolysaccharide-producing microbes gradually decreased. In addition, sphingosine-1-phosphate, which is closely related to the inflammatory factor storm of COVID-19, increased significantly during the recovery process. Moreover, the predictive models established based on the microbiome and metabolites of patients at the time of discharge reached high efficacy in predicting their neutralizing antibody levels one year later. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to characterize the oral and gut microbiome and metabonomics in 1-year convalescents of COVID-19. The key microbiome and metabolites in the process of recovery were identified, and provided new treatment ideas for accelerating recovery. And the predictive models based on the microbiome and metabolomics afford new insights for predicting the recovery situation which benefited affected individuals and healthcare.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Metabolomics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331578

ABSTRACT

Aim: An increasing number of studies have reported a higher frequency of liver injury in COVID-19. Several meta-analyses of the associations between liver injury and COVID-19 had been published, but the dose-response relationship has not been conducted. Therefore, we performed a dose-response meta-analysis to explore this relationship. Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and four additional Chinese databases were used to collect studies from December 1, 2019 to October 26, 2020. Key information was extracted, and the corresponding model was selected on the basis of the heterogeneity test. The pooled RR, OR, and WMD values were then calculated. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias were also assessed to further demonstrate the stability and reliability of the results. Results: Among the 13298 studies that were initially retrieved, 54 studies met our inclusion criteria and included 9907 participants. There was a dose-response relationship between ALT (OR from 1.0 for ≤40 U/L to 1.556[1.130–2.142] for 40–80 U/L and 1.635[1.176–2.273] for >80 U/L), AST (OR from 1.0 for ≤40 U/L to 1.635[1.180–2.266] for 40–80 U/L and 2.019[1.387–2.938] for >80 U/L) and severe COVID-19. Higher ALT, AST, and TBil were associated with need for ICU admission (WMD 6.45[4.08–8.81], 8.80[6.02–11.57], 2.03[0.91–3.14]), and death due to COVID-19 (WMD 3.22[0.08–6.35], 12.06[6.26–17.85], 2.70[0.72–4.68]). There was no publication bias in this meta-analysis. Conclusion: There were dose-response relationships between ALT, AST, and COVID-19 severity. ALT and AST levels in COVID-19 patients on admission should be considered to be clinical warning indicators, which could provide basis for preventing serious COVID-19 and associated deaths

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309726

ABSTRACT

Background: There were 75 local confirmed cases during the COVID-19 epidemic followed by an outbreak of Wuhan in Inner Mongolia. The aims of our study were to provide reference to control measures of COVID-19 and scientific information for supporting government decision-making for serious infectious disease, in remote regions with relatively insufficient medical resources like Inner Mongolia.MethodsThe data published by Internet were summarized in order to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19. The basic reproductive number (R 0 ), incubation period, time from illness onset to confirmed and the duration of hospitalization were analyzed. The composition of imported and local secondary cases and the mild/common and severe/critical cases among different ages, genders and major clinical symptoms were compared.ResultsIn 2020, from January 23 to February 19 (less than 1 month), 75 local cases of COVID-19 were confirmed in Inner Mongolia. Among them, the median age was 45 years old (34.0, 57.0), and 61.1% were male and 33 were imported (44.0%). 29 (38.7%) were detected through close contact tracking, more than 80.0% were mild/common cases. The fatality rate was 1.3% and the basic reproductive number (R 0 ) was estimated to be 2.3. The median incubation period was 8.5 days (6.0~12.0) and the maximum incubation period reached 28 days. There was a statistically difference in the incubation period between imported and local secondary cases ( P <0.001). The duration of hospitalization of patients with incubation period <8.5 days was higher than that of patients with incubation period ≥8.5 days (30.0 vs. 24.0 days).ConclusionIn Inner Mongolia, an early and mandatory control strategy by government associated with the rapidly reduced incidence of COVID-19, by which the epidemic growth was controlled completely. And the fatality rate of COVID-19 was relatively low.

5.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(11): e2105378, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680239

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Delta (B.1.617.2) strain is a variant of concern (VOC) that has become the dominant strain worldwide in 2021. Its transmission capacity is approximately twice that of the original strain, with a shorter incubation period and higher viral load during infection. Importantly, the breakthrough infections of the Delta variant have continued to emerge in the first-generation vaccine recipients. There is thus an urgent need to develop a novel vaccine with SARS-CoV-2 variants as the major target. Here, receptor binding domain (RBD)-conjugated nanoparticle vaccines targeting the Delta variant, as well as the early and Beta/Gamma strains, are developed. Under both a single-dose and a prime-boost strategy, these RBD-conjugated nanoparticle vaccines induce the abundant neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and significantly protect hACE2 mice from infection by the authentic SARS-CoV-2 Delta strain, as well as the early and Beta strains. Furthermore, the elicitation of the robust production of broader cross-protective NAbs against almost all the notable SARS-CoV-2 variants including the Omicron variant in rhesus macaques by the third re-boost with trivalent vaccines is found. These results suggest that RBD-based monovalent or multivalent nanoparticle vaccines provide a promising second-generation vaccine strategy for SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Animals , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Macaca mulatta/metabolism , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Conjugate
6.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 7, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606287

ABSTRACT

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates class-switch recombination and somatic hypermutation (SHM) in antibody genes. Protein expression and activity are tightly controlled by various mechanisms. However, it remains unknown whether a signal from the extracellular environment directly affects the AID activity in the nucleus where it works. Here, we demonstrated that a deubiquitinase USP10, which specifically stabilizes nuclear AID protein, can translocate into the nucleus after AKT-mediated phosphorylation at its T674 within the NLS domain. Interestingly, the signals from BCR and TLR1/2 synergistically promoted this phosphorylation. The deficiency of USP10 in B cells significantly decreased AID protein levels, subsequently reducing neutralizing antibody production after immunization with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nanoparticle vaccines. Collectively, we demonstrated that USP10 functions as an integrator for both BCR and TLR signals and directly regulates nuclear AID activity. Its manipulation could be used for the development of vaccines and adjuvants.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines/immunology , B-Cell Activating Factor/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cytidine Deaminase/immunology , HIV-1/immunology , Nanoparticles , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/immunology , Ubiquitination/immunology , AIDS Vaccines/genetics , Animals , B-Cell Activating Factor/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Cytidine Deaminase/genetics , HEK293 Cells , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , Mice , Mice, Knockout , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Signal Transduction/genetics , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/genetics
7.
Cell Rep ; 38(3): 110256, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588136

ABSTRACT

Inoculation against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is ongoing worldwide. However, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants could cause immune evasion. We developed a bivalent nanoparticle vaccine that displays the receptor binding domains (RBDs) of the D614G and B.1.351 strains. With a prime-boost or a single-dose strategy, this vaccine elicits a robust neutralizing antibody and full protection against infection with the authentic D614G or B.1.351 strain in human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 transgene mice. Interestingly, 8 months after inoculation with the D614G-specific vaccine, a new boost with this bivalent vaccine potently elicits cross-neutralizing antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 variants in rhesus macaques. We suggest that the D614G/B.1.351 bivalent vaccine could be used as an initial single dose or a sequential enforcement dose to prevent infection with SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Protection , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Combined/therapeutic use , Animals , CHO Cells , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemical synthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetulus , Cross Protection/immunology , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Nanoparticles , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Combined/chemical synthesis , Vaccines, Combined/immunology , Vero Cells
8.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 75(4): 361-367, 2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579810

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had severe health impacts worldwide. We aim to provide suggestions to the government for managing serious infectious disease outbreaks in remote regions having relatively poor medical resources. Basic reproduction number (R0), incubation period, time from symptom onset to confirmation, and duration of hospitalization were analyzed. We compared the compositions of imported and local secondary cases and cases with mild/common and severe/critical illnesses according to age, sex, and clinical symptoms. From January 23 to February 19, 2020 (less than one month), 75 local COVID-19 cases were confirmed in Inner Mongolia. Among these, the median age was 45.0 years, and 33 (44.0%) were imported cases. More than 80.0% cases had mild/common illness. The case fatality rate was 1.3%, and R0 was estimated to be 2.3. The median incubation period was 8.5 days. There was a significant difference in the incubation period between imported and local secondary cases (P < 0.001). Early and mandatory control strategies implemented by the government were associated with a rapid reduction in COVID-19 incidence in Inner Mongolia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Government , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(3): e0126721, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522928

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to construct a novel strategy for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants using multiplex PCR-mass spectrometry minisequencing technique (mPCR-MS minisequencing). Using the nucleic acid sequence of a SARS-CoV-2 nonvariant and a synthetic SARS-CoV-2 variant-carrying plasmid, a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) method based on the single-base mass probe extension of multiplex PCR amplification products was established to detect 9 mutation types in 7 mutated sites (HV6970del, N501Y, K417N, P681H, D614G, E484K, L452R, E484Q, and P681R) in the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 variants. Twenty-one respiratory tract pathogens (9 bacteria and 12 respiratory viruses) and nucleic acid samples from non-COVID-19 patients were selected for specific validation. Twenty samples from COVID-19 patients were used to verify the accuracy of this method. The 9 mutation types could be detected simultaneously by triple PCR amplification coupled with MALDI-TOF MS. SARS-CoV-2 and six variants, B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.351 (Beta), B.1.429 (Epsilon), B.1.526 (Iota), P.1 (Gamma) and B.1.617.2 (Delta), could be identified. The detection limit for all 9 sites was 1.5 × 103 copies. The specificity of this method was 100%, and the accuracy of real-time PCR cycle threshold (CT) values less than 27 among positive samples was 100%. This method is open and extensible, and can be used in a high-throughput manner, easily allowing the addition of new mutation sites as needed to identify and track new SARS-CoV-2 variants as they emerge. mPCR-MS minisequencing provides a new detection option with practical application value for SARS-CoV-2 and its variant infection. IMPORTANCE The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants is the key factor in the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. An all-in-one SARS-CoV-2 variant identification method based on a multiplex PCR-mass spectrometry minisequencing system was developed in this study. Six SARS-CoV-2 variants (Alpha, Beta, Epsilon, Iota, Gamma, and Delta) can be identified simultaneously. This method can not only achieve the multisite simultaneous detection that cannot be realized by PCR coupled with first-generation sequencing technology and quantitative PCR (qPCR) technology but also avoid the shortcomings of time-consuming, high-cost, and high technical requirements of whole-genome sequencing technology. As a simple screening assay for monitoring the emergence and spread of SARS-CoV-2 and variants, mPCR-MS minisequencing is expected to play an important role in the detection and monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 infection as a supplementary technology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Base Sequence , Humans , Mutation , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Protein Binding , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Whole Genome Sequencing
11.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(20): e2102785, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366208

ABSTRACT

Respiratory tract microbiome is closely related to respiratory tract infections, while characterization of oropharyngeal microbiome in recovered coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients is not studied. Herein, oropharyngeal swabs are collected from confirmed cases (CCs) with COVID-19 (73 subjects), suspected cases (SCs) (36), confirmed cases who recovered (21), suspected cases who recovered (36), and healthy controls (Hs) (140) and then completed MiSeq sequencing. Oropharyngeal microbial α-diversity is markedly reduced in CCs versus Hs. Opportunistic pathogens are increased, while butyrate-producing genera are decreased in CCs versus Hs. The classifier based on eight optimal microbial markers is constructed through a random forest model and reached great diagnostic efficacy in both discovery and validation cohorts. Notably, the classifier successfully diagnosed SCs with positive IgG antibody as CCs and is demonstrated from the perspective of the microbiome. Importantly, several genera with significant differences gradually increase and decrease along with recovery from COVID-19. Forty-four oropharyngeal operational taxonomy units (OTUs) are closely correlated with 11 clinical indicators of SARS-CoV-2 infection and Hs based on Spearman correlation analysis. Together, this research is the first to characterize oropharyngeal microbiota in recovered COVID-19 cases and suspected cases, to successfully construct and validate the diagnostic model for COVID-19 and to depict the correlations between microbial OTUs and clinical indicators.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , Microbiota , Oropharynx/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
13.
Atmos Environ (1994) ; 262: 118618, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309156

ABSTRACT

The increase of surface ozone during the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown in China has aroused great concern. In this study, we combine 1.5 years of measurements for ozone, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and nitrogen oxide (NOX) at four sites to investigate the effect of COVID-19 lockdown on surface ozone in Dongguan, an industrial city in southern China. We show that the average concentrations of NOX and VOCs decreased by 70%-77% and 54%-68% during the lockdown compared to pre-lockdown, respectively. Based on the source apportionment of VOCs, the contribution of industrial solvent use reduced significantly (86%-94%) during the lockdown, and climbed back slowly along with the re-opening of the industry after lockdown. A slight increase in mean ozone concentration (3%-14%) was observed during the lockdown. The rise of ozone was the combined effect of substantial increase at night (58%-91%) and small reduction in the daytime (1%-17%). These conflicting observations in ozone response between day and night to emission change call for a more detailed approach to diagnostic ozone production response with precursor changes, rather than directly comparing absolute concentrations. We propose that the ratio of daily Ox (i.e. ozone + NO2) enhancement to solar radiation can provide a diagnostic parameter for ozone production response during the lockdown period. Smaller ratio of daily OX (ozone + NO2) enhancement to solar radiation during the lockdown were observed from the long-term measurements in Dongguan, suggesting significantly weakened photochemistry during the lockdown successfully reduces local ozone production. Our proposed approach can provide an evaluation of ozone production response to precursor changes from restrictions of social activities during COVID-19 epidemic and also other regional air quality abatement measures (e.g. public mega-events) around the globe.

14.
Arch Public Health ; 79(1): 118, 2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286838

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection prevention and control (IPC) measures are crucial to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to explore the levels and determinants of HCWs' IPC behaviors based on the theoretical domains framework (TDF), which has been shown to be effective in guiding behavior change. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Wuhan, China in January 2020. Self-reported hand hygiene and droplet isolation behaviors (including the use of masks, gloves, goggles and gowns) were set as dependent variables. TDF domains and HCWs' characteristics were independent variables. Negative binomial regression analyses were performed to explore their relationships. RESULTS: HCWs reported good IPC behaviors, while the compliance with goggle and gown use was relatively low (below 85%). Environmental context and resources domain was significantly related to hand hygiene (ß = 0.018, p = 0.026), overall droplet isolation behaviors (ß = 0.056, p = 0.001), goggle (ß = 0.098, p = 0.001) and gown use (ß = 0.101. p < 0.001). Knowledge domain was significantly related to goggle (ß = 0.081, p = 0.005) and gown use (ß = 0.053, p = 0.013). Emotion domain was a predictor of overall droplet isolation behaviors (ß = 0.043, p = 0.016), goggle (ß = 0.074, p = 0.026) and gown use (ß = 0.106, p < 0.001). Social influences domain was a predictor of overall droplet isolation behaviors (ß = 0.031, p = 0.029) and gown use (ß = 0.039, p = 0.035). HCWs in high-risk departments had better behaviors of gown use (ß = 0.158, p = 0.032). HCWs who had encountered confirmed or suspected patients reported worse behaviors of goggle (ß = - 0.127, p = 0.050) and gown use (ß = - 0.153, p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Adequate personal protective materials and human resources, education and training, as well as supervision and role model setting are necessary to improve IPC behaviors regarding the COVID-19 pandemic.

15.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 46(9): 4362-4369, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202743

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly affected health care systems throughout the world. A Qualtrics survey was targeted for radiologists around the world to study its effect on the operations of prostate MRI studies and biopsies. Descriptive statistics were reported. A total of 60 complete responses from five continents were included in the analysis. 70% of the responses were from academic institutions. Among all participants, the median (range) number of prostate MRI was 20 (0, 135) per week before the COVID-19 pandemic versus 10 (0, 30) during the lockdown period; the median (range) number of prostate biopsies was 4.5 (0, 60) per week before the COVID-19 versus 0 (0, 12) during the lockdown period. Among the 30% who used bowel preparation for their patients prior to MRI routinely, 11% stopped the bowel preparation due to the pandemic. 47% reported that their radiology departments faced staff disruptions, while 68% reported changes in clinic schedules in other clinical departments, particularly urology, genitourinary medical oncology, and radiation oncology. Finally, COVID-19 pandemic was found to disrupt not only the clinical prostate MRI operations but also impacted prostate MRI/biopsy research in up to 50% of institutions. The impact of this collateral damage in delaying diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer is yet to be explored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prostatic Neoplasms , Radiation Oncology , Biopsy , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Image-Guided Biopsy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Pandemics , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Gut ; 70(7): 1253-1265, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166535

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterise the oral microbiome, gut microbiome and serum lipid profiles in patients with active COVID-19 and recovered patients; evaluate the potential of the microbiome as a non-invasive biomarker for COVID-19; and explore correlations between the microbiome and lipid profile. DESIGN: We collected and sequenced 392 tongue-coating samples, 172 faecal samples and 155 serum samples from Central China and East China. We characterised microbiome and lipid molecules, constructed microbial classifiers in discovery cohort and verified their diagnostic potential in 74 confirmed patients (CPs) from East China and 37 suspected patients (SPs) with IgG positivity. RESULTS: Oral and faecal microbial diversity was significantly decreased in CPs versus healthy controls (HCs). Compared with HCs, butyric acid-producing bacteria were decreased and lipopolysaccharide-producing bacteria were increased in CPs in oral cavity. The classifiers based on 8 optimal oral microbial markers (7 faecal microbial markers) achieved good diagnostic efficiency in different cohorts. Importantly, diagnostic efficacy reached 87.24% in the cross-regional cohort. Moreover, the classifiers successfully diagnosed SPs with IgG antibody positivity as CPs, and diagnostic efficacy reached 92.11% (98.01% of faecal microbiome). Compared with CPs, 47 lipid molecules, including sphingomyelin (SM)(d40:4), SM(d38:5) and monoglyceride(33:5), were depleted, and 122 lipid molecules, including phosphatidylcholine(36:4p), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)(16:0p/20:5) and diglyceride(20:1/18:2), were enriched in confirmed patients recovery. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to characterise the oral microbiome in COVID-19, and oral microbiomes and lipid alterations in recovered patients, to explore their correlations and to report the successful establishment and validation of a diagnostic model for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/microbiology , Feces/microbiology , Lipids/blood , Mouth/microbiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , China , Cohort Studies , Female , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Lipidomics , Male , Middle Aged
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21402, 2020 Jul 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-982089

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is highly contagious, and the epidemic has spread to hundreds of countries around the world, and seriously threatens the life safety of people around the world. Arbidol is an antiviral drug with high potential against COVID-19, but evidence of effectiveness and safety is lacking. The systematic review protocol aims to formulate a research plan that can evaluate the efficacy and safety of arbidol for COVID-19. METHODS: The retrieval time will be from the database establishment to June 2020. The retrieval database will include the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, OVID, CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, CBM, etc. The primary outcome will be clinical efficacy, and the secondary results will be accompanying symptoms, time for the temperature to return to normal, time of novel coronavirus nucleic acid turning negative, blood sample test, Computed Tomography examination, length of hospitalization, adverse reactions, and adverse events. RevManV.5.3 software will be used for meta-analysis, and fixed effects model, random-effects model, subgroup analysis, and descriptive analysis will be adopted according to the heterogeneity of the research results. RESULTS: To provide the latest evidence of clinical efficacy and safety of arbidol in the treatment of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Our study will provide the latest evidence analysis of the efficacy and safety of arbidol for COVID-19, to provide evidence-based medicine for the prevention and control of this epidemic. REGISTRATION DETAILS: PROSPERO CRD42020189203.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Indoles/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(32): e21616, 2020 Aug 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-707526

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a global public health emergency. At present, there is no highly effective medicine for the prevention and treatment of 2019-nCoV. Western medicine for COVID-19 is mainly based on symptomatic support therapy. Chinese herbal medicine has been used to prevent infectious diseases for thousands of years in China. Western medicine routine treatment combined with Chinese herbal medicine is an alternative clinical option but lacks evidence-based medical evidence. The systematic review protocol aims to formulate a research plan that can evaluate the efficacy and safety of western medicine routine treatment combined with Chinese herbal medicine for COVID-19. METHODS: We will search the following eight databases: Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, Medline, CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, and CBM. The search time is up to the end of July 2020. Two authors will independently complete literature screening, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment. In case of disagreement, the third author will assist in the judgment. The primary outcome will be the clinical cure rate. The secondary outcome will be accounting symptoms, fever time, time of virus nucleic acid turning negative, check the condition by drawing blood, pneumonia absorption rate, patient hospitalization time, severe conversion rate and case fatality rate, adverse reactions, and adverse events. Revman 5.3 will be used for systematic reviews and meta-analysis. The report of the protocol will follow the PRISMA-P statement, and the report of the systematic review and meta-analysis will follow the PRISMA statement. RESULTS: We will provide evidence-based medical evidence of the efficacy and safety of western medicine routine treatment combined with Chinese herbal medicine for COVID-19. The findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals. REGISTRATION DETAILS: CRD42020190106.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , COVID-19 , China , Combined Modality Therapy , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Survival Analysis , United States
19.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110074, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-625625

ABSTRACT

The morbidity and mortality of lung cancer are increasing. The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV-2, leading to subsequent pulmonary interstitial fibrosis with chronic inflammatory changes, e.g., inflammatory factors repeatedly continuously stimulating and attacking the alveolar epithelial cells. Meanwhile, 2019-nCoV-2 can activate PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways, which can play the double roles as both anti-inflammatory and carcinogenic factors. Moreover, hypoxemia may be developed, resulting in the up-regulation of HIF-1 α expression, which can be involved in the occurrence, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis of lung cancer. Additionally, the immune system in 2019-nCoV-2 infected cases can be suppressed to cause tumor immune evasion. Therefore, we speculate that COVID-19 may be a risk factor of secondary lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Lung Injury/complications , Lung Neoplasms/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Hypoxia/complications , Models, Biological , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction , Tumor Escape
20.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 83, 2020 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593683

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 arise global attention since their first public reporting. Infection prevention and control (IPC) is critical to combat COVID-19, especially at the early stage of pandemic outbreak. This study aimed to measure level of healthcare workers' (HCW') self-reported IPC behaviors with the risk of COVID-19 emerges and increases. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in two tertiary hospitals. A structured self-administered questionnaire was delivered to HCWs in selected hospitals. The dependent variables were self-reported IPC behavior compliance; and independent variables were outbreak risk and three intent of infection risk (risk of contact with suspected patients, high-risk department, risk of affected area). Chi-square tests and multivariable negative binomial regression models were employed. RESULTS: A total of 1386 participants were surveyed. The risk of outbreak increased self-reported IPC behavior on each item (coefficient varied from 0.029 to 0.151). Considering different extent of risk, HCWs from high-risk department had better self-reported practice in most IPC behavior (coefficient ranged from 0.027 to 0.149). HCWs in risk-affected area had higher self-reported compliance in several IPC behavior (coefficient ranged from 0.028 to 0.113). However, HCWs contacting with suspected patients had lower self-reported compliance in several IPC behavior (coefficient varied from - 0.159 to - 0.087). CONCLUSIONS: With the risk of COVID-19 emerges, HCWs improve IPC behaviors comprehensively, which benefits for better combat COVID-19. With the risk (high-risk department and affected area) further increases, majority of IPC behaviors achieved improvement. Nevertheless, under the risk of contact with suspected patients, HCWs show worse IPC behaviors. Which may result from higher work load and insufficient supplies and resources among these HCWs. The preparedness system should be improved and medical assistance is urgently needed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Risk Behaviors , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adult , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tertiary Care Centers , Young Adult
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