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2.
Building simulation ; : 1-17, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1989746

ABSTRACT

Respiratory infection is the main route for the transmission of coronavirus pneumonia, and the results have shown that the urban spatial environment significantly influences the risk of infection. Based on the Wells-Riley model of respiratory infection probability, the study determined the human respiratory-related parameters and the effective influence range;extracted urban morphological parameters, assessed the ventilation effects of different spatial environments, and, combined with population flow monitoring data, constructed a method for assessing the risk of Covid-19 respiratory infection in urban-scale grid cells. In the empirical study in Shenyang city, a severe cold region, urban morphological parameters, population size, background wind speed, and individual behavior patterns were used to calculate the distribution characteristics of temporal and spatial concomitant risks in urban areas grids under different scenarios. The results showed that the correlation between the risk of respiratory infection in urban public spaces and the above variables was significant. The exposure time had the greatest degree of influence on the probability of respiratory infection risk among the variables. At the same time, the change in human body spacing beyond 1 m had a minor influence on the risk of infection. Among the urban morphological parameters, building height had the highest correlation with the risk of infection, while building density had the lowest correlation. The actual point distribution of the epidemic in Shenyang from March to April 2022 was used to verify the evaluation results. The overlap rate between medium or higher risk areas and actual cases was 78.55%. The planning strategies for epidemic prevention and control were proposed for the spatial differentiation characteristics of different risk elements. The research results can accurately classify the risk level of urban space and provide a scientific basis for the planning response of epidemic prevention and control and the safety of public activities.

4.
Clinical eHealth ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1936135

ABSTRACT

Background The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic acute infectious disease, especially with the features of possible asymptomatic carriers and high contagiousness. Currently, it is difficult to quickly identify asymptomatic cases or COVID-19 patients with pneumonia due to limited access to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) nucleic acid tests and CT scans. Goal This study aimed to develop a scientific and rigorous clinical diagnostic tool for the rapid prediction of COVID-19 cases based on a COVID-19 clinical case database in China, and to assist doctors to efficiently and precisely diagnose asymptomatic COVID-19 patients and cases who had a false-negative RT-PCR test result. Methods With online consent, and the approval of the ethics committee of Zhongshan Hospital Fudan University (NCT04275947, B2020-032R) to ensure that patient privacy is protected, clinical information has been uploaded in real-time through the New Coronavirus Intelligent Auto-diagnostic Assistant Application of cloud plus terminal (nCapp) by doctors from different cities (Wuhan, Shanghai, Harbin, Dalian, Wuxi, Qingdao, Rizhao, and Bengbu) during the COVID-19 outbreak in China. By quality control and data anonymization on the platform, a total of 3,249 cases from COVID-19 high-risk groups were collected. The effects of different diagnostic factors were ranked based on the results from a single factor analysis, with 0.05 as the significance level for factor inclusion and 0.1 as the significance level for factor exclusion. Independent variables were selected by the step-forward multivariate logistic regression analysis to obtain the probability model. Findings We applied the statistical method of a multivariate regression model to the training dataset (1,624 cases) and developed a prediction model for COVID-19 with 9 clinical indicators that are accessible. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for the model was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.86, 0.89) in the training dataset and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.82, 0.86) in the validation dataset (1,625 cases). Discussion With the assistance of nCapp, a mobile-based diagnostic tool developed from a large database that we collected from COVID-19 high-risk groups in China, frontline doctors can rapidly identify asymptomatic patients and avoid misdiagnoses of cases with false-negative RT-PCR results.

5.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(8): 1077-1083.e4, 2022 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821186

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has evolved into four sub-lineages-BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2, and BA.3-with BA.2 becoming dominant worldwide. We and others have reported antibody evasion of BA.1 and BA.2, but side-by-side comparisons of Omicron sub-lineages to vaccine-elicited or monoclonal antibody (mAb)-mediated neutralization are necessary. Using VSV-based pseudovirus, we report that sera from individuals vaccinated by two doses of an inactivated whole-virion vaccine shows weak to no neutralization activity, while homologous or heterologous boosters markedly improve neutralization titers against all Omicron sub-lineages. We also present neutralization profiles against a 20 mAb panel, including 10 authorized or approved, against the Omicron sub-lineages, along with mAb mapping against single or combinatorial spike mutations. Most mAbs lost neutralizing activity, while some demonstrate distinct neutralization patterns among Omicron sub-lineages, reflecting antigenic differences. Collectively, our results suggest the Omicron sub-lineages threaten the neutralization efficacy of current vaccines and antibody therapeutics, highlighting the importance of vaccine boosters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Inactivated
6.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332033

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has been partitioned into four sub-lineages designated BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2 and BA.3, with BA.2 becoming dominant worldwide recently by outcompeting BA.1 and BA.1.1. We and others have reported the striking antibody evasion of BA.1 and BA.2, but side-by-side comparison of susceptibility of all the major Omicron sub-lineages to vaccine-elicited or monoclonal antibody (mAb)-mediated neutralization are urgently needed. Using VSV-based pseudovirus, we found that sera from individuals vaccinated by two doses of inactivated whole-virion vaccines (BBIBP-CorV) showed very weak to no neutralization activity, while a homologous inactivated vaccine booster or a heterologous booster with protein subunit vaccine (ZF2001) markedly improved the neutralization titers against all Omicron variants. The comparison between sub-lineages indicated that BA.1.1, BA.2 and BA.3 had comparable or even greater antibody resistance than BA.1. We further evaluated the neutralization profile of a panel of 20 mAbs, including 10 already authorized or approved, against these Omicron sub-lineages as well as viruses with different Omicron spike single or combined mutations. Most mAbs lost their neutralizing activity completely or substantially, while some demonstrated distinct neutralization patterns among Omicron sub-lineages, reflecting their antigenic difference. Taken together, our results suggest all four Omicron sub-lineages threaten the efficacies of current vaccines and antibody therapeutics, highlighting the importance of vaccine boosters to combat the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.

7.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 16: 831977, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715021

ABSTRACT

Microglia are intrinsic immune cells of the central nervous system and play a dual role (pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory) in the homeostasis of the nervous system. Neuroinflammation mediated by microglia serves as an important stage of ischemic hypoxic brain injury, cerebral hemorrhage disease, neurodegeneration and neurotumor of the nervous system and is present through the whole course of these diseases. Microglial membrane protein or receptor is the basis of mediating microglia to play the inflammatory role and they have been found to be upregulated by recognizing associated ligands or sensing changes in the nervous system microenvironment. They can then allosterically activate the downstream signal transduction and produce a series of complex cascade reactions that can activate microglia, promote microglia chemotactic migration and stimulate the release of proinflammatory factor such as TNF-α, IL-ß to effectively damage the nervous system and cause apoptosis of neurons. In this paper, several representative membrane proteins or receptors present on the surface of microglia are systematically reviewed and information about their structures, functions and specific roles in one or more neurological diseases. And on this basis, some prospects for the treatment of novel coronavirus neurological complications are presented.

8.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 477-481, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625890

ABSTRACT

The massive and rapid transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has led to the emergence of several viral variants of concern (VOCs), with the most recent one, B.1.1.529 (Omicron), which accumulated a large number of spike mutations, raising the specter that this newly identified variant may escape from the currently available vaccines and therapeutic antibodies. Using VSV-based pseudovirus, we found that Omicron variant is markedly resistant to neutralization of sera from convalescents or individuals vaccinated by two doses of inactivated whole-virion vaccines (BBIBP-CorV). However, a homologous inactivated vaccine booster or a heterologous booster with protein subunit vaccine (ZF2001) significantly increased neutralization titers to both WT and Omicron variant. Moreover, at day 14 post the third dose, neutralizing antibody titer reduction for Omicron was less than that for convalescents or individuals who had only two doses of the vaccine, indicating that a homologous or heterologous booster can reduce the Omicron escape from neutralizing. In addition, we tested a panel of 17 SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Omicron resists seven of eight authorized/approved mAbs, as well as most of the other mAbs targeting distinct epitopes on RBD and NTD. Taken together, our results suggest the urgency to push forward the booster vaccination to combat the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 635677, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156121

ABSTRACT

The outbreak and worldwide pandemic of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have a significant impact on global economy and human health. In order to reduce the disease spread, 16 monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) again SARS-CoV-2 were generated by immunized mice with the spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD), which was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cell (CHO). A colloidal gold-based immunochromatographic strip was developed with two McAbs to detect SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, which can play a potential role in monitoring vaccine quality. The strip is highly specific, detecting only SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, and does not show any non-specific reactions with syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and other coronavirus and influenza viruses. The strip detected subunit vaccine in our laboratory with a detection limit of spike protein of 62.5 ng/mL. This strip provides an effective method in monitoring vaccine quality by detecting the antigen content of spike protein.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19/diagnosis , Gold Colloid , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Reagent Strips , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibody Specificity , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Limit of Detection , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
10.
Clinical eHealth ; 3:7-15, 2020.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-822402

ABSTRACT

The aim is to diagnose COVID-19 earlier and to improve its treatment by applying medical technology, the “COVID-19 Intelligent Diagnosis and Treatment Assistant Program (nCapp)” based on the Internet of Things. Terminal eight functions can be implemented in real-time online communication with the “cloud” through the page selection key. According to existing data, questionnaires, and check results, the diagnosis is automatically generated as confirmed, suspected, or suspicious of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection. It classifies patients into mild, moderate, severe or critical pneumonia. nCapp can also establish an online COVID-19 real-time update database, and it updates the model of diagnosis in real time based on the latest real-world case data to improve diagnostic accuracy. Additionally, nCapp can guide treatment. Front-line physicians, experts, and managers are linked to perform consultation and prevention. nCapp also contributes to the long-term follow-up of patients with COVID-19. The ultimate goal is to enable different levels of COVID-19 diagnosis and treatment among different doctors from different hospitals to upgrade to the national and international through the intelligent assistance of the nCapp system. In this way, we can block disease transmission, avoid physician infection, and epidemic prevention and control as soon as possible.

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