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1.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 830334, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952707

ABSTRACT

Background: Strict quarantines can prevent the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, but also increase the risk of mental illness. This study examined whether the people who have experienced repeated home quarantine performance more negative emotions such as anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a Chinese population. Methods: We collected data from 2,514 participants in Pi County, Chengdu City, and stratified them into two groups. Group 1 comprised 1,214 individuals who were quarantined only once in early 2020, while Group 2 comprised 1,300 individuals who were quarantined in early 2020 and again in late 2020. Both groups were from the same community. The GAD-7, PHQ-9, and PCL-C scales were used to assess symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD between the two groups. Results: Analyses showed that total PHQ-9 scores were significantly higher in Group 2 than in Group 1 (p < 0.001) and the quarantine times and age are independent predictors of symptoms of depression (p < 0.001). The two groups did not differ significantly in total GAD-7 or PCL-C scores. Conclusion: Increasing quarantine times was associated with moderate to severe depression symptoms, but not with an increase in symptoms of anxiety or PTSD.

2.
Chin J Integr Med ; 28(7): 627-635, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1919991

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate how the National Health Commission of China (NHCC)-recommended Chinese medicines (CMs) modulate the major maladjustments of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), particularly the clinically observed complications and comorbidities. METHODS: By focusing on the potent targets in common with the conventional medicines, we investigated the mechanisms of 11 NHCC-recommended CMs in the modulation of the major COVID-19 pathophysiology (hyperinflammations, viral replication), complications (pain, headache) and comorbidities (hypertension, obesity, diabetes). The constituent herbs of these CMs and their chemical ingredients were from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Information Database. The experimentally-determined targets and the activity values of the chemical ingredients of these CMs were from the Natural Product Activity and Species Source Database. The approved and clinical trial drugs against these targets were searched from the Therapeutic Target Database and DrugBank Database. Pathways of the targets was obtained from Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and additional literature search. RESULTS: Overall, 9 CMs modulated 6 targets discovered by the COVID-19 target discovery studies, 8 and 11 CMs modulated 8 and 6 targets of the approved or clinical trial drugs for the treatment of the major COVID-19 complications and comorbidities, respectively. CONCLUSION: The coordinated actions of each NHCC-recommended CM against a few targets of the major COVID-19 pathophysiology, complications and comorbidities, partly have common mechanisms with the conventional medicines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Medicine , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 15(5): 593-600, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915460

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) on the clinical outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was not known. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Only phase 2 and 3 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) from electronic databases that investigated ICS in the treatment of COVID-19 patients were included. The outcomes of interest were the resolution of symptoms, risk of hospitalization or urgent medical visit, mortality, and the incidence of adverse events (AEs). RESULTS: Five RCTs involving 1243 patients who received ICS and 1526 patients with placebo or usual care were included. The ICS group had a higher rate of symptom resolution than the control group at day 14 (risk ratio [RR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.30, p < 0.00001) and day 28 (RR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06-1.18, p < 0.0001). Additionally, the ICS group had a significantly lower risk of needing urgent medical care or hospitalization than the control group (RR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.05-0.50; I2 = 0, p = 0.002). However, no significant difference in the 28-day mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19, ICS therapy improved symptom resolution, and decreased the risk of needing urgent medical care or hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Asthma , COVID-19 , Administration, Inhalation , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
4.
Frontiers in psychiatry ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1888292

ABSTRACT

Background Under the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, a large amount of COVID-19-related information can cause an individual's perceived information overload, further halting the individual's psychological health. As a minor psychological discomfort could develop severe mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder, it is necessary to understand the chain linkage of COVID-19 information overload turn to posttraumatic stress disorder to ensure timely intervention can be offered at each point of mental state transformation. Hence, we examined the negative outcomes of COVID-19 information overload and investigated the direct and indirect effects of COVID-19 on posttraumatic stress disorder. Methods A convenient sample of Chinese adults (n = 1150) was investigated by an online survey from July 2020 to March 2021. The extent of COVID-19 information overload was measured by the information overload severity scale on the text of the COVID-19 pandemic. Psychological distress symptoms were measured using a 7-item anxiety scale (GAD-7), the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression module (PHQ-9), and the psychometric properties of the PTSD Checklist (PCL-C). Structural equation modeling and bootstrap methods were utilized to analyze the relationships between variables. Results COVID-19 information overload is positively related to an individual's anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Furthermore, COVID-19 information overload can indirectly affect an individual's PTSD symptoms by increasing the feeling of depression. R2 values of anxiety, depression, and PTSD were 0.471, 0.324, and 0.795, respectively. Conclusion COVID-19 information overload, anxiety, depression, and PTSD are negative psychological states, and each variable is closely linked with the others, suggesting the need for potential psychological interventions at specific times. Practical public training, such as crisis coping and information filtering, is essential. Regulation of technology companies is also essential.

5.
Frontiers in pharmacology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1876649

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) or its aggravated stage acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common severe clinical syndrome in intensive care unit, may lead to a life-threatening form of respiratory failure, resulting in high mortality up to 30–40% in most studies. Nanotechnology-mediated anti-inflammatory therapy is an emerging novel strategy for the treatment of ALI, has been demonstrated with unique advantages in solving the dilemma of ALI drug therapy. Artesunate (ART), a derivative of artemisinin, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, in the present study, we designed and synthesized PEGylated ART prodrugs and assessed whether ART prodrugs could attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced ALI in vitro and in vivo. All treatment groups were conditioned with ART prodrugs 1 h before challenge with LPS. Significant increased inflammatory cytokines production and decreased GSH levels were observed in the LPS stimulated mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7. Lung histopathological changes, lung W/D ratio, MPO activity and total neutrophil counts were increased in the LPS-induced murine model of ALI via nasal administration. However, these results can be reversed to some extent by treatment of ART prodrugs. The effectiveness of mPEG2k-SS-ART in inhibition of ALI induced by LPS was confirmed. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that the ART prodrugs could attenuate LPS-induced ALI effectively, and mPEG2k-SS-ART may serve as a novel strategy for treatment of inflammation induced lung injury.

6.
Frontiers in psychiatry ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1871837

ABSTRACT

Background Strict quarantines can prevent the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, but also increase the risk of mental illness. This study examined whether the people who have experienced repeated home quarantine performance more negative emotions such as anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a Chinese population. Methods We collected data from 2,514 participants in Pi County, Chengdu City, and stratified them into two groups. Group 1 comprised 1,214 individuals who were quarantined only once in early 2020, while Group 2 comprised 1,300 individuals who were quarantined in early 2020 and again in late 2020. Both groups were from the same community. The GAD-7, PHQ-9, and PCL-C scales were used to assess symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD between the two groups. Results Analyses showed that total PHQ-9 scores were significantly higher in Group 2 than in Group 1 (p < 0.001) and the quarantine times and age are independent predictors of symptoms of depression (p < 0.001). The two groups did not differ significantly in total GAD-7 or PCL-C scores. Conclusion Increasing quarantine times was associated with moderate to severe depression symptoms, but not with an increase in symptoms of anxiety or PTSD.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324478

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia occasionally exacerbates to critical condition that is hard to manage. We aim to describe exacerbations of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia among inpatients. Methods We included confirmed SARS-CoV-2 patients with pneumonia exacerbation admitted to Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital, Hubei Province, China between January 6 and February 17, 2020 and discharged or died before February 25. Their demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, CT manifestations, complications and clinical outcomes were collected. Results A total of 158 patients were collected, among them 107 patients were stable and discharged after recovery, 24 patients were already critically severe at hospital admission. 14 patients were excluded for insufficient clinical data. Eventually, 13 confirmed cases were included. The mean age was 65 (± 9.81) years. Ten of the 13 (76.9%) patients were female. Nine (69.2%) had underlying comorbidities. Fever and cough were the most common symptoms (12/13, 92.3%). 10/13(76.9%) patients had their exacerbation in the second week of disease course. All patients had both negative and positive nucleic acid test (NAT) results during the course. Increased range of ground-glass opacity (GGO) on CT imaging are consistent to disease exacerbation. ARDS, MODS, respiratory failure were found in 5/13(38.5%), 3/13(23.1%), 6/13(46.2%) patients respectively. Five (38.5%) patients did not survive. Conclusions SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia exacerbations often occurs in the second week of disease course. Negative NAT result could not exclude exacerbation. CT manifestation is consistent with disease progression. Early admissions have positive effects on reducing complications and mortality.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323777

ABSTRACT

Background: Taiwan medical centers mainly use "Central Pharmacy" to carry out pharmaceutical operations and human resources management. The pharmacy is a 24-hour medication supply center for all units in the Hospital. Therefore, how to make the pharmacy run continuously in the potential impact of COVID-19 pandemic is an important issue in the epidemic prevention of the medical center. The purpose of this study is to design to reduce the incidence of cross or cluster infection in the event of nosocomial infection and to maintain the continuous operation of pharmaceutical service. Methods: : The planning of "isolation and triage" of pharmaceutical operations is based on the epidemic level of COVID-19, the closing situation of outpatient service, the number of outpatients receiving medicine service and the number of inpatient beds. Results: : After the overall planning, in the case of the low epidemic level (level A1), the emergency pharmacy took advance deployment, and fixed personnel was assigned to work in fixed location in the isolation, while other units started the isolation mode in the case of the moderate epidemic level (level B). Grouping mode was added for the severe epidemic level (level C). Different management measures should be planned according to the different level of risk area evaluated by the infection control center. Conclusions: : In this study, the risk reduction management mechanism of "isolation and triage" was effectively used to make proper manpower allocation and work planning for all pharmaceutical service in Hospital.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315014

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused the suspension of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) production in China, the source of the global largest medication supply chain, resulting in the potential risks of hospital insufficient drug stocks affecting clinical treatment. If all drug inventory of the hospital increased, the short-term drug shortage risk can be reduced, but the inventory costs will be increased. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to establish a risk assessment mechanism for inventory management of APIs from China, to identify the medical priorities affected by drug shortages, and to plan different countermeasures to achieve the best effect of inventory management. Methods In this study, the tables of "Incidence of Drug Shortage" and "Impact Level of Drug Shortage" related to the risk of drug inventory were developed, which were evaluated in four levels respectively, and "Drug Shortage Risk Assessment Matrix" was designed according to the probability of drug shortage and impact according to the model data of Reproductive Number (R 0) value and pandemic prediction. Each drug requiring APIs from China was evaluated and ranked according to the hazard index, so as to increase the different inventory and to find alternatives. Results We have evaluated the inventory risk level of drugs requiring APIs from China through the risk assessment mechanism, and increased the different backup stock according to the levels. The total increasing purchase amount was NTD 4.85 million, which could reduce the stock cost by about 2/3 compared with NTD 14.61 million of the total inventories for three months. Conclusions The study shows that there are significant differences between scientific inventory management and general method during COVID-19 pandemic. It can provide a reliable reference for other hospitals to adjust drug stocks in the face of other emerging infectious diseases or major emergencies by using the innovative mechanism.

11.
Commun Nonlinear Sci Numer Simul ; 109: 106260, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616431

ABSTRACT

Migration plays a crucial role in epidemic spreading, and its dynamic can be studied by metapopulation model. Instead of the uniform mixing hypothesis, we adopt networked metapopulation to build the model of the epidemic spreading and the individuals' migration. In these populations, individuals are connected by contact network and populations are coupled by individuals migration. With the network mean-field and the gravity law of migration, we establish the N-seat intertwined SIR model and obtain its basic reproduction number ℛ 0 . Meanwhile, we devise a non-markov Node-Search algorithm for model statistical simulations. Through the static network migration ansatz and ℛ 0 formula, we discover that migration will not directly increase the epidemic replication capacity. But when ℛ 0 > 1 , the migration will make the susceptive population evolve from metastable state (disease-free equilibrium) to stable state (endemic equilibrium), and then increase the influence area of epidemic. Re-evoluting the epidemic outbreak in Wuhan, top 94 cities empirical data validate the above mechanism. In addition, we estimate that the positive anti-epidemic measures taken by the Chinese government may have reduced 4 million cases at least during the first wave of COVID-19, which means those measures, such as the epidemiological investigation, nucleic acid detection in medium-high risk areas and isolation of confirmed cases, also play a significant role in preventing epidemic spreading after travel restriction between cities.

12.
Phytomedicine ; 96: 153888, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is regarded as a large database containing hundreds to thousands of chemical constituents that can be further developed as clinical drugs, such as artemisinin in Artemisia annua. However, effectively exploring novel candidates is still a challenge faced by researchers. PURPOSE: In this work, an integrated strategy combining chemical profiling, molecular networking, chemical isolation, and activity evaluation (CMCA strategy) was proposed and applied to systematically characterize and screen novel candidates, and Forsythiae fructus (FF) was used as an example. STUDY DESIGN: It contained four parts. First, the chemical compounds in FF were detected by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS) with data-dependent acquisition, and further, the targeted compounds were screened out based on an in-house database. In the meantime, the representative MS/MS fragmentation behaviors of different chemical structure types were summarized. Second, homologous constituents were grouped and organized based on feature-guided molecular networking, and the nontargeted components with homologous mass fragmentation behaviors were characterized. Third, the novel compounds were isolated and unambiguously identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Finally, the anti-angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activities of isolated chemical constituents were further evaluated by in vitro experiments. RESULTS: A total of 278 compounds were profiled in FF, including 151 targeted compounds and 127 nontargeted compounds. Among them, 16 were unambitiously identified by comparison with reference standards. Moreover, 25 were classified into potential novel compounds. Two novel compounds were unambiguously identified by using conventional chromatographic methods, and they were named phillyrigeninside D (peak 254) and forsythenside O (peak 155). Furthermore, the ACE2 activity of the compounds in FF was evaluated by modern pharmacological methods, and among them, suspensaside A was confirmed to present obvious anti-ACE2 activity. CONCLUSION: Our work provides meaningful information for revealing potential FF candidates for the treatment of COVID-19, along with new insight for exploring novel candidates from complex systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Humans , Plant Extracts , SARS-CoV-2 , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
13.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291839

ABSTRACT

Background: Understanding immune memory to COVID-19 vaccines is critical for the design and optimal vaccination schedule for curbing the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we assessed the persistence of humoral and cellular immune responses for 12 months after two-dose CoronaVac.Methods: Participants aged 18–59 years received two doses of 3 μg CoronaVac 14 days apart, and blood samples were collected before vaccination (baseline) and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the second shot. Humoral responses of specific antibodies and neutralising antibodies were measured by using chemiluminescent immunoassay and wild-type SARS-CoV-2 microneutralisation assay, respectively. Cellular responses were measured by immunospot-based and intracellular cytokine staining assays. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05072496.Findings: Total 150 participants were enrolled, and 136 of them completed the study through the 12-month endpoint. At 1 month after vaccination, binding and neutralising antibodies emerged rapidly, the seropositive rate of binding antibodies and seroconversion rate of neutralizing antibodies was 99% and 50%, respectively. From 3 to 12 months, the binding and neutralizing antibodies declined slightly overtime. At 12 months, the binding and neutralizing antibodies were still detectable and significantly higher than the baseline. IFN-γ and IL-2 secretion specifically induced by RBD persisted at high levels until 6 months, and could be observed at 12 months, while the levels of IL-5 and Granzyme B were hardly detected, demonstrating a Th1-biased response. Besides, specific CD4+TCM, CD4+TEMM, CD8+ TEMand CD8+TE cells were all detectable and functional up to 12 months after the second dose, as the cells produced IFN-γ, IL-2, and GzmB in response to stimulation of SARS-CoV-2 RBD.Interpretation: CoronaVac not only induced durable binding and neutralising antibody responses, but also SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells for up to 12 months.Trial Registration: This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05072496.Funding: Beijing Municipal Science & Technology CommissionDeclaration of Interest: None to declare. Ethical Approval: The trial protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Beijing CDC (2020-28)

14.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt A): 127390, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446841

ABSTRACT

The information of plasma technologies applications for environmental clean-up on treating and degrading metals, metalloids, dyes, biomass, antibiotics, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), bacteria, virus and fungi is compiled and organized in the review article. Different reactor configurations of plasma technology have been applied for reactive species generation, responsible for the pollutants removal, hydrogen and methane production and microorganism inactivation. Therefore, in this review article, the reactive species from discharge plasma are presented here to provide the insight into the environmental applications. The combinations of plasma technology with flux agent and photocatalytic are also given in this review paper associated with the setup of the plasma system on the removal process of metals, VOCs, and microorganisms. Furthermore, the potential of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) inactivation via plasma technology is also described in this review paper. Detailed information of plasma parameter configuration is given to support the influence of the critical process in the plasma system to deal with contaminants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Volatile Organic Compounds , Bacteria/genetics , Humans , Metals , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376817

ABSTRACT

Both deontological ethics and utilitarian ethics are important theories that affect decision making in medical and health care. However, it has been challenging to reach a balance between these two ethical theories. When there is a conflict between these two ethical principles in the medical context, the conflict must be addressed in order to reach an appropriate solution for patients and others involved. To demonstrate decisions made in terms of deontological ethics and utilitarian ethics, the study will use the film Outbreak as example to further understand these two ethics in relation to epidemiology and public health. The paper will also analyze film scenarios to examine how deontological ethics and utilitarian ethics are involved and strike a balance with different pearspectives to reach an appropriate public health solution. To reach more just solutions, it is essential to determine how to make wise decisions by balancing deontological ethics and utilitarian ethics. However, the decision-making process is complicated because any solution must consider not only medical ethics but also political, environmental, and military issues. In order to reach an appropriate public health decision, those involved should be inclined toward empathy and contemplate things from different ethical perspectives to deal with ethical/moral dilemmas and create greater beneficence and justice for patients and humanity at large.


Subject(s)
Ethical Theory , Moral Obligations , Beneficence , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Social Justice
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376803

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study intended to construct a scale measuring the catharsis effect on medical professionals or students through illness narratives (ECS-IN). METHODS: After a systematic literature review and panel discussion, the researchers conducted a pilot study with a sample of seven hundred and eighty-two randomly selected healthcare students and providers in Taiwan to examine psychometric properties using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for item derivation and factor extraction. The researchers also tested the validities and reliabilities of the ECS-IN scale to confirm its feasibility. RESULTS: the EFA yielded 29 items and three factors: "emotional identification as self-healing" (12 items; 55.500% of variance explained), "emotional release for compensation" (10 items; 7.465% of variance explained), and "emotional adjustment for intellectual growth" (7 items; 4.839% of variance explained). The CFA yielded an 18-item, three-factor model with satisfactory fit to the data, where the χ2/df ratio = 1.090, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.996, comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.997, and root mean square of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.020. The convergent validity and discriminant validities also demonstrated the feasibility of the ECS-IN scale. For the first version of the ECS-IN scale (29 items), the Cronbach's alphas for the three factors and the overall scale were in the range between 0.912 and 0.971; for the reduced version of the scale (18 items), the Cronbach's alphas and composite reliabilities were in the range of 0.888-0.946 and 0.890-0.968. CONCLUSION: The findings proved that the ECS-IN could be a reliable and valid instrument to assess participants' emotional catharsis through illness narratives.


Subject(s)
Catharsis , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Humans , Pilot Projects , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires , Systematic Reviews as Topic
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(14)2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323248

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to develop an appropriate scale measuring healthcare students' anxiety during the transition from school to work. METHODS: After an extensive literature review and panel discussion to prove the face validity and content validity, the initial item pool was reduced to 52 items. In a pilot study, a sample of four hundred and twenty-four healthcare students participated, and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used. Psychometric properties-construct validity, convergent validity, discriminant validity, goodness of fit, and reliabilities-were also analyzed. RESULTS: After the use of EFA, the 52 items were reduced to 31 items in four factors, with 66.70% of the total variance explained. The Cronbach's alpha values ranged between 0.91 and 0.93. The study also used CFA to validate the EFA model, and the results demonstrated that with the same thirty-one items in a 7-point Likert scale, the model was a better fit in four factors: "inexperience in professional knowledge and skills" (nine items; factor loadings: 0.642-0.867; 43.72% of the variance explained), "fear of death" (eight items; factor loadings: 0.745-0.831; 9.94% of the variance explained), "fear of being infected" (eight items; factor loadings: 0.678-0.866; 7.86% of the variance explained), and "interpersonal interactions" (six items; factor loadings: 0.704-0.913; 5.18% of the variance explained). The CFA model demonstrated a good model fit in the χ2/df ratio (1.17; p = 0.016), CFI (0.99), TFI (0.99), and RMSEA (0.02). The composite reliabilities ranged from 0.89 to 0.92, confirming the StWTA-HS scale's stability and internal consistency. The convergent validity and discriminant validity were also confirmed. The StWTA-HS scale has been proven to be a stable scale to measure healthcare students' school-to-work transition anxiety.


Subject(s)
Schools , Students , Anxiety , China , Delivery of Health Care , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Humans , Pilot Projects , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
J Med Chem ; 64(15): 11554-11569, 2021 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316696

ABSTRACT

The development of a safe and effective COVID-19 vaccine is of paramount importance to terminate the current pandemic. An adjuvant is crucial for improving the efficacy of the subunit COVID19 vaccine. α-Galactosylceramide (αGC) is a classical iNKT cell agonist which causes the rapid production of Th1- and Th2-associated cytokines; we, therefore, expect that the Th1- or Th2-skewing analogues of αGC can better enhance the immunogenicity of the receptor-binding domain in the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 fused with the Fc region of human IgG (RBD-Fc). Herein, we developed a universal synthetic route to the Th1-biasing (α-C-GC) and Th2-biasing (OCH and C20:2) analogues. Immunization of mice demonstrated that αGC-adjuvanted RBD-Fc elicited a more potent humoral response than that observed with Alum and enabled the sparing of antigens. Remarkably, at a low dose of the RBD-Fc protein (2 µg), the Th2-biasing agonist C20:2 induced a significantly higher titer of the neutralizing antibody than that of Alum.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Galactosylceramides/pharmacology , Natural Killer T-Cells/drug effects , Animals , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Natural Killer T-Cells/immunology , Th2 Cells
19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 651545, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278391

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an acute, complex disorder that was caused by a new ß-coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Based on current reports, it was surprising that the characteristics of many patients with COVID-19, who fulfil the Berlin criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), are not always like those of patients with typical ARDS and can change over time. While the mechanisms of COVID-19-related respiratory dysfunction in COVID-19 have not yet been fully elucidated, pulmonary microvascular thrombosis is speculated to be involved. Considering that thrombosis is highly related to other inflammatory lung diseases, immunothrombosis, a two-way process that links coagulation and inflammation, seems to be involved in the pathophysiology of COVID-19, including respiratory dysfunction. Thus, the current manuscript will describe the proinflammatory milieu in COVID-19, summarize current evidence of thrombosis in COVID-19, and discuss possible interactions between these two.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Inflammation/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Thrombosis/virology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/immunology , Thrombosis/pathology
20.
Jie Fang Jun Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 46(5):504-511, 2021.
Article in Chinese | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1270257

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 has made nucleic acid detection widely known. Fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique is the most commonly used nucleic acid detection method in this epidemic control. However, its requirements on operators, instruments and sites limited its application in some scenarios with lower resources or outside laboratories. Isothermal amplification technology, especially recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) technology, has the advantages of mild reaction conditions, high sensitivity, excellent specificity and short reaction time, which let it has a good application prospect in the rapid detection of a variety of pathogenic microorganisms. In this paper, the development and application of RPA technology are reviewed and summarized to provide a reference for the further research and promotion of this technology.

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