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1.
EClinicalMedicine ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-689274

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe ferocious global assault of COVID-19 continues Critically ill patients witnessed significantly higher mortality than severe and moderate ones Herein, we aim to comprehensively delineate clinical features of COVID-19 and explore risk factors of developing critical disease

3.
J Vasc Access ; : 1129729820937484, 2020 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-633922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 is an epidemic disease throughout the world. The management of vascular access during the epidemic is currently unknown. METHODS: In this multicenter cross-sectional study, we collected vascular access data from hemodialysis patients treated at 44 hospitals in Hubei from 22 January to 10 March 2020. We estimated the management of vascular access during the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak. RESULTS: Of the 9231 hemodialysis patients included, 5387 patients (58.4%) were men and 2959 patients (32.1%) were older than 65 years. Arteriovenous fistula was the predominant type of vascular access, accounting for 76.5%; 496 patients (5.4%) developed vascular access complications; catheter flow reduction was the most common vascular access complication, and stenosis was the predominant complication among those with arteriovenous access. Overall, 280 vascular access sites were placed in patients newly diagnosed with uremia, of whom 260 (92.8%) underwent catheter insertion; 149 rescue procedures were carried out to treat the vascular access complications, which consisted of 132 catheters, 7 percutaneous transluminal angioplasties, 6 arteriovenous fistula repairs, and 4 arteriovenous fistulas. Occlusion of the arteriovenous access had the highest rescue rate (92.7%), while many other vascular access complications remained untreated; 69 and 142 patients were diagnosed with confirmed and suspected coronavirus disease 2019, respectively. A total of 146 patients died, of whom 29 patients (19.9%) died due to vascular access complications. CONCLUSION: Catheter flow reduction and stenosis of arteriovenous access were the major vascular access complications. Most of the vascular access sites established were catheters, and many of the vascular access complications remained untreated.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(26): e20965, 2020 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-616562

ABSTRACT

Quantitative studies using validated questionnaires on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) of Nurses exposed to corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China are rare and the baseline PTSD must first be evaluated before prevention. This study aimed to investigate the factors potentially involved in the level of PTSD of Nurses exposed to COVID-19 in China.In this cross-sectional study, male and female Nurses (n = 202) exposed to COVID-19 from HuBei China were included in the final sample. The PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C) questionnaire and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ) were used for evaluation. Multivariate stepwise linear regression analysis and spearman correlation test were performed to assess the association between various factors associated with PTSD.The incidence of PTSD in Nurses exposed to COVID-19 was 16.83%, the PCL-C score was 27.00 (21.00-34.00), and the highest score in the three dimensions was avoidance dimension 9.50 (7.00-13.25); multivariable stepwise linear regression analysis showed that job satisfaction and gender were independently associated with lower PCL-C scores (both P < .001); PCL-C scores were correlated with positive coping (r = -0.151, P = .032), negative coping (r = 0.154, P = .029).Nurses exposed to COVID-19 from HuBei China with job satisfaction, male and positive coping had low PCL-C scores which necessitate reducing the PTSD level by ways of improving job satisfaction, positive response, and strengthening the psychological counseling of female nurses in order to reduce the risk of psychological impairment.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/nursing , Pneumonia, Viral/nursing , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Adult , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
5.
Aerosol Air Qual. Res. ; 6(20): 1204-1221, 2020.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-602156

ABSTRACT

Both the air quality index (AQI) and indicatory air pollutants of Anqing, Hefei, and Suzhou near central China from 2017 to 2019, and the impact of COVID-19 epidemic prevention and control actions on air quality were investigated. The combined data for the three cities from 2017 to 2019 indicated that the lowest AQI (averaged 78.1) occurred in the summer season, for which the AQI proportions for classes I, II, III, IV, V, and VI were 25.6%, 49.9%, 21.9%, 2.7%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. The highest (AQI average of 112.6) was in winter, for which the proportions were 7.4%, 39.5%, 33.3%, 12.5%, 7.2%, and 0.1%, respectively. PM 2.5, PM 10, and NO 2in order were the most important indicatory air pollutants for AQI classes IV, V, and VI, which all prevailed in winter and spring, while O 3was the indicatory air pollutant that occurred most in summer. The COVID-19 event, which triggered global attention, broke out at the end of 2019. This study also investigated and compared the air quality levels in the three cities from January to March 2017–2019 with those in 2020. The results showed that during February 2020, in the three cities, the average ambient air concentrations of PM 2.5, PM 10, SO 2, CO, and NO 2were 41.9 µg m –3, 50.1 µg m –3, 2.18 ppb, 0.48 ppm, and 8.97 ppb, and were 46.5%, 48.9%, 52.5%, 36.2%, and 52.8%, respectively, lower than those in the same month in 2017–2019, respectively. However, the O 3average concentration (80.6 ppb) did not show significant fluctuations and even slightly increased by 3.6%. This is because a lower concentration of NO 2resulted in constraints on the reaction of NO + O 3, so the O 3level could not be effectively further reduced. In addition, this study also analyzed and compared the five highest daily AQIs from February 2017–2019 with those of 2020 for the three cities. The mean AQI for the 5 days with the highest daily AQI (averaged 122.6) in February 2020 was 45.1% lower than that for February 2017–2019 (averaging 223.2), and the indicatory air pollutant was always PM 2.5, which decreased by 46.7% (from 173.6 to 92.6 µg m –3). It is clear that during the COVID-19 epidemic prevention and control action periods, the air quality near central China improved significantly.

6.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci ; 2020 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597188
7.
Biomed J ; 2020 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-549109

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Highly pathogenic emerging and re-emerging viruses continuously threaten lives worldwide. In order to provide prophylactic prevention from the emerging and re-emerging viruses, vaccine is suggested as the most efficient way to prevent individuals from the threat of viral infection. Nonetheless, the highly pathogenic viruses need to be handled in a high level of biosafety containment, which hinders vaccine development. To shorten the timeframe of vaccine development, the pseudovirus system has been widely applied to examine vaccine efficacy or immunogenicity in the emerging and re-emerging viruses. METHODS: We developed pseudovirus systems for emerging SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and re-emerging avian influenza virus H5 subtypes which can be handled in the biosafety level 2 facility. Through the generated pseudovirus of SARS-CoV-2 and avian influenza virus H5 subtypes, we successfully established a neutralization assay to quantify the neutralizing activity of antisera against the viruses. RESULTS: The result of re-emerging avian influenza virus H5Nx pseudoviruses provided valuable information for antigenic evolution and immunogenicity analysis in vaccine candidate selection. Together, our study assessed the potency of pseudovirus systems in vaccine efficacy, antigenic analysis, and immunogenicity in the vaccine development of emerging and re-emerging viruses. CONCLUSION: Instead of handling live highly pathogenic viruses in a high biosafety level facility, using pseudovirus systems would speed up the process of vaccine development to provide community protection against emerging and re-emerging viral diseases with high pathogenicity.

8.
Curr Med Sci ; 40(3): 480-485, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-437068

ABSTRACT

The efficient transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome-2 coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) from patients to health care workers or family members has been a worrisome and prominent feature of the ongoing outbreak. On the basis of clinical practice and in-vitro studies, we postulated that post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) using Arbidol is associated with decreased infection among individuals exposed to confirmed cases of COVID-19 infection. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on family members and health care workers who were exposed to patients confirmed to have SARS-CoV-2 infection by real-time RT-PCR and chest computed tomography (CT) from January 1 to January 16, 2020. The last follow-up date was Feb. 26, 2020. The emergence of fever and/or respiratory symptoms after exposure to the primary case was collected. The correlations between post-exposure prophylaxis and infection in household contacts and health care workers were respectively analyzed. A total of 66 members in 27 families and 124 health care workers had evidence of close exposure to patients with confirmed COVID-19. The Cox regression based on the data of the family members and health care workers with Arbidol or not showed that Arbidol PEP was a protective factor against the development of COVID-19 (HR 0.025, 95% CI 0.003-0.209, P=0.0006 for family members and HR 0.056, 95% CI 0.005-0.662, P=0.0221 for health care workers). Our findings suggest Arbidol could reduce the infection risk of the novel coronavirus in hospital and family settings. This treatment should be promoted for PEP use and should be the subject of further investigation.

9.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 55(6): 106001, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-133395

ABSTRACT

In addition to the absolute case number, a rapid increase in the number of COVID-19 cases within a short time results in insufficiency of healthcare systems and further negatively affects patient outcomes. This study was conducted to investigate the association between the outcomes of COVID-19 patients and daily cumulative index (DCI), which was defined as the average daily number of new cases of COVID-19 and calculated by cumulative cases/number of days between the first reported case and March 6, 2020, by country. Spearman's rank correlation analyses were conducted to evaluate the relationship between mortality, incidence, and DCI. In this study, DCI was positively correlated with incidence (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00-1.02, P < 0.01). Higher correlation was observed between mortality and DCI (mortality rate: r = 0.397, P = 0.018; mortality per 1 000 000 people: r = 0.0.428, P = 0.004) than between disease incidence and DCI. DCI remained statistically significantly associated with mortality per 1 000 000 people after adjustment of Health Care Index (aRR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.01-1.03, P < 0.001) or Healthcare Access and Quality Index (aRR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.01-1.04, P < 0.01. Reducing DCI through strict infection control measures can help slow the number of new COVID-19 cases and further improve outcomes in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Treatment Outcome
10.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 55(4): 105946, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-30949

ABSTRACT

It has been 2 months since the first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported in Wuhan, China. So far, COVID-19 has affected 85 403 patients in 57 countries/territories and has caused 2924 deaths in 9 countries. However, epidemiological data differ between countries. Although China had higher morbidity and mortality than other sites, the number of new daily cases in China has been lower than outside of China since 26 February 2020. The incidence ranged from 61.44 per 1 000 000 people in the Republic of Korea to 0.0002 per 1 000 000 people in India. The daily cumulative index (DCI) of COVID-19 (cumulative cases/no. of days between the first reported case and 29 February 2020) was greatest in China (1320.85), followed by the Republic of Korea (78.78), Iran (43.11) and Italy (30.62). However, the DCIs in other countries/territories were <10 per day. Several effective measures including restricting travel from China, controlling the distribution of masks, extensive investigation of COVID-19 spread, and once-daily press conferences by the government to inform and educate people were aggressively conducted in Taiwan. This is probably the reason why there was only 39 cases (as of 29 February 2020) with a DCI of 1 case per day in Taiwan, which is much lower than that of nearby countries such as the Republic of Korea and Japan. In addition, the incidence and mortality were correlated with the DCI. However, further study and continued monitoring are needed to better understand the underlying mechanism of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Geography, Medical , Health Resources , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Iran/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics/economics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Taiwan/epidemiology
11.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 55(4): 105946, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-11723

ABSTRACT

It has been 2 months since the first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported in Wuhan, China. So far, COVID-19 has affected 85 403 patients in 57 countries/territories and has caused 2924 deaths in 9 countries. However, epidemiological data differ between countries. Although China had higher morbidity and mortality than other sites, the number of new daily cases in China has been lower than outside of China since 26 February 2020. The incidence ranged from 61.44 per 1 000 000 people in the Republic of Korea to 0.0002 per 1 000 000 people in India. The daily cumulative index (DCI) of COVID-19 (cumulative cases/no. of days between the first reported case and 29 February 2020) was greatest in China (1320.85), followed by the Republic of Korea (78.78), Iran (43.11) and Italy (30.62). However, the DCIs in other countries/territories were <10 per day. Several effective measures including restricting travel from China, controlling the distribution of masks, extensive investigation of COVID-19 spread, and once-daily press conferences by the government to inform and educate people were aggressively conducted in Taiwan. This is probably the reason why there was only 39 cases (as of 29 February 2020) with a DCI of 1 case per day in Taiwan, which is much lower than that of nearby countries such as the Republic of Korea and Japan. In addition, the incidence and mortality were correlated with the DCI. However, further study and continued monitoring are needed to better understand the underlying mechanism of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Geography, Medical , Health Resources , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Iran/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics/economics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Taiwan/epidemiology
12.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 53(3): 404-412, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-4530

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (formerly known as the 2019 novel coronavirus [2019-nCoV]) in Wuhan, China in December 2019, which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), more than 75,000 cases have been reported in 32 countries/regions, resulting in more than 2000 deaths worldwide. Despite the fact that most COVID-19 cases and mortalities were reported in China, the WHO has declared this outbreak as the sixth public health emergency of international concern. The COVID-19 can present as an asymptomatic carrier state, acute respiratory disease, and pneumonia. Adults represent the population with the highest infection rate; however, neonates, children, and elderly patients can also be infected by SARS-CoV-2. In addition, nosocomial infection of hospitalized patients and healthcare workers, and viral transmission from asymptomatic carriers are possible. The most common finding on chest imaging among patients with pneumonia was ground-glass opacity with bilateral involvement. Severe cases are more likely to be older patients with underlying comorbidities compared to mild cases. Indeed, age and disease severity may be correlated with the outcomes of COVID-19. To date, effective treatment is lacking; however, clinical trials investigating the efficacy of several agents, including remdesivir and chloroquine, are underway in China. Currently, effective infection control intervention is the only way to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Young Adult
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