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1.
Frontiers in pharmacology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1876649

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) or its aggravated stage acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common severe clinical syndrome in intensive care unit, may lead to a life-threatening form of respiratory failure, resulting in high mortality up to 30–40% in most studies. Nanotechnology-mediated anti-inflammatory therapy is an emerging novel strategy for the treatment of ALI, has been demonstrated with unique advantages in solving the dilemma of ALI drug therapy. Artesunate (ART), a derivative of artemisinin, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, in the present study, we designed and synthesized PEGylated ART prodrugs and assessed whether ART prodrugs could attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced ALI in vitro and in vivo. All treatment groups were conditioned with ART prodrugs 1 h before challenge with LPS. Significant increased inflammatory cytokines production and decreased GSH levels were observed in the LPS stimulated mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7. Lung histopathological changes, lung W/D ratio, MPO activity and total neutrophil counts were increased in the LPS-induced murine model of ALI via nasal administration. However, these results can be reversed to some extent by treatment of ART prodrugs. The effectiveness of mPEG2k-SS-ART in inhibition of ALI induced by LPS was confirmed. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that the ART prodrugs could attenuate LPS-induced ALI effectively, and mPEG2k-SS-ART may serve as a novel strategy for treatment of inflammation induced lung injury.

2.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(3): e0195621, 2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846337

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory infectious disease responsible for many infections worldwide. Differences in respiratory microbiota may correlate with disease severity. Samples were collected from 20 severe and 51 mild COVID-19 patients. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to analyze the bacterial community composition of the upper and lower respiratory tracts. The indices of diversity were analyzed. When one genus accounted for >50% of reads from a sample, it was defined as a super dominant pathobiontic bacterial genus (SDPG). In the upper respiratory tract, uniformity indices were significantly higher in the mild group than in the severe group (P < 0.001). In the lower respiratory tract, uniformity indices, richness indices, and the abundance-based coverage estimator were significantly higher in the mild group than in the severe group (P < 0.001). In patients with severe COVID-19, SDPGs were detected in 40.7% of upper and 63.2% of lower respiratory tract samples. In patients with mild COVID-19, only 10.8% of upper and 8.5% of lower respiratory tract samples yielded SDPGs. SDPGs were present in both upper and lower tracts in seven patients (35.0%), among which six (30.0%) patients possessed the same SDPG in the upper and lower tracts. However, no patients with mild infections had an SDPG in both tracts. Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, and Acinetobacter were the main SDPGs. The number of SDPGs identified differed significantly between patients with mild and severe COVID-19 (P < 0.001). SDPGs in nasopharyngeal microbiota cause secondary bacterial infection in COVID-19 patients and aggravate pneumonia. IMPORTANCE The nasopharyngeal microbiota is composed of a variety of not only the true commensal bacterial species but also the two-face pathobionts, which are one a harmless commensal bacterial species and the other a highly invasive and deadly pathogen. In a previous study, we found that the diversity of nasopharyngeal microbiota was lost in severe influenza patients. We named the genus that accounted for over 50% of microbiota abundance as super dominant pathobiontic genus, which could invade to cause severe pneumonia, leading to high fatality. Similar phenomena were found here for SARS-CoV-2 infection. The diversity of nasopharyngeal microbiota was lost in severe COVID-19 infection patients. SDPGs in nasopharyngeal microbiota were frequently detected in severe COVID-19 patients. Therefore, the SDPGs in nasopharynx microbiota might invade into low respiratory and be responsible for secondary bacterial pneumonia in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Microbiota , Bacteria/genetics , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Humans , Microbiota/genetics , Nasopharynx , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Infect Drug Resist ; 15: 2091-2100, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817634

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Vaccination reduces the incidence of severe COVID-19 and death and effectively limits viral spread. Concerns have been raised about COVID-19 vaccine responses in the large population of HIV-infected patients. This study aims to explore the safety and immunogenicity of the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine in people living with HIV (PLWH). Patients and Methods: All participants in this study already had their second dose of an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine at least 14 days earlier, without a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The primary safety outcomes were the incidence of adverse reactions and changes in CD4+ T-cell counts. SARS-CoV-2 IgG and neutralizing antibody responses to the D614G variant and delta variant were measured for immune response assessment. Results: Forty-seven HIV-infected patients and 18 healthy donors (HDs) were enrolled in this study. Adverse reactions were mild or self-limiting and were reported in 19.1% of HIV-infected patients. Most PLWH developed antibody responses against the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. The longitudinal analysis of antibody responses in PLWH (median interval between detection and complete vaccination, 59 days) showed that antibodies were maintained for at least three months, though their titers were reduced. However, the antibody-positive rates in PLWH were significantly lower than those in HDs. Additionally, compared to HDs (Geomean titers (GMT) of 165 for D614G and GMT of 72 for delta), the neutralizing antibody titers against the two variants in PLWH (GMT of 43 for D614G and GMT 13 for delta) were decreased significantly (p = 0.018 and p < 0.001, respectively). HIV-infected patients with CD4+T-cell counts ≤350 cells/µL appeared to exhibit a poor antibody response to inactivated vaccination. Conclusion: Inactivated COVID-19 vaccines appear to be efficacious in PLWH. However, antibody responses in HIV-infected patients are inferior to those in healthy individuals, especially PLWH with lower CD4+T-cell counts.

4.
Theranostics ; 12(6): 2519-2534, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771697

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Mutations of SARS-CoV-2, which is responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), could impede drug development and reduce the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines. Here, we developed a multiplexed Spike-ACE2 Inhibitor Screening (mSAIS) assay that can measure the neutralizing effect of antibodies across numerous variants of the coronavirus's Spike (S) protein simultaneously. Methods: The SARS-CoV-2 spike variant protein microarrays were prepared by printing 72 S variants onto a chemically-modified glass slides. The neutralization potential of purified anti-S antibodies and serum from convalescent COVID-19 patients and vaccinees to S variants were assessed with the mSAIS assay. Results: We identified new S mutations that are sensitive and resistant to neutralization. Serum from both infected and vaccinated groups with a high titer of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) displayed a broader capacity to neutralize S variants than serum with low titer NAbs. These data were validated using serum from a large vaccinated cohort (n = 104) with a tiled S peptide microarray. In addition, similar results were obtained using a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus neutralization assay specific for wild-type S and five prevalent S variants (D614G, B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, B.1.617.2), thus demonstrating that high antibody diversity is associated with high NAb titers. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the utility of the mSAIS platform in screening NAbs. Moreover, we show that heterogeneous antibody populations provide a more protective effect against S variants, which may help direct COVID-19 vaccine and drug development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324224

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the pathogen of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), not only infects the respiratory tract, but also other organs. About a third of the inpatients of COVID-19 have neurological symptoms and in vitro experiments revealed that SARS-CoV-2 could infect human neural progenitor cells and brain organoids. However, the traditional test often reports negative owing to the low number of virus in the cerebrospinal fluid. To date, timely diagnosis of central nervous system infection of SARS-CoV-2 remains a challenge. Case presentation: On day 14 of COVID-19, seizures , maxillofacial convulsions, intractable hiccups and significant increase in intracranial pressure developed in a 56-year-old man. The RT-PCR of SARS-CoV-2 was negative. SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid were detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by ultrahigh depth sequencing. The patient was successfully treated after 14 days of mechanical ventilation and treatment of pneumonia and neurological dysfunction. Conclusions: : This case suggests SARS-CoV-2 can invade the central nervous system and relevant examinations with CSF including ultrahigh depth sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 are needed among COVID-19 patients with neurological dysfunction.

6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 107: 242-246, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208961

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test is recommended for the diagnosis of COVID-19 and provides a powerful tool to identify new infections and facilitate contact tracing. In fact, as the prevalence of COVID-19 decreases, this RT-PCR testing remains as the main preventive measure to avoid rebound. However, inconsistent results can lead to misdiagnoses in the clinic. These inconsistencies are due to the variability in (1) the collection times of biological samples post infection, and (2) sampling procedures. METHODS: We applied the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate logistic regression on RT-PCR results from 258 confirmed patients with COVID-19 to evaluate the factors associated with negative conversion. We also estimated the proportion (%) of negative conversion among patients who had tested twice or more, and compared the proportions arising from oropharyngeal swabs, sputum, and combined double testing, respectively. MAIN RESULTS: The proportion of negative conversion was 6.7% on day 4, 16.4% on day 7, 41.0% at 2 weeks, and 61.0% at 3 weeks post-admission. We also found that 34.1% and 60.3% of subjects had at least one negative RT-PCR result on days 7 and 14 after the onset of symptoms, respectively. The proportion of negative conversions following sputum testing was higher than that from oropharyngeal swabs in the early stages but this declined after the onset of symptoms. CONCLUSION: In the absence of effective treatments or vaccines, efficient testing strategies are critical if we are to control the COVID-19 epidemic. According to this study, early, consecutive and combined double testing, will be the key to identify infected patients, particularly for asymptomatic and mild symptomatic cases. These strategies will minimize misdiagnosis and the ineffective isolation of infected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Oropharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sputum/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
7.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 629828, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127988

ABSTRACT

We reported that the complete genome sequence of SARS-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was obtained from a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample by ultrahigh-depth sequencing. Fourteen days after onset, seizures, maxillofacial convulsions, intractable hiccups and a significant increase in intracranial pressure developed in an adult coronavirus disease 2019 patient. The complete genome sequence of SARS-CoV-2 obtained from the cerebrospinal fluid indicates that SARS-CoV-2 can invade the central nervous system. In future, along with nervous system assessment, the pathogen genome detection and other indicators are needed for studying possible nervous system infection of SARS-CoV-2.

8.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(5): 620-627, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1074829

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Many individuals test positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA after recovering from the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), but the incidence of reactivation is unknown. We, therefore, estimated the incidence of reactivation among individuals who had recovered from COVID-19 and determined its predictors. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, patients with COVID-19 were followed up for at least 14 days after two consecutive negative SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction test results obtained ≥24 h apart, and the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 reactivation was assessed. RESULTS: Of the 109 patients, 29 (27%) experienced reactivation, and seven (24%) of these were symptomatic. The mean period for the real-time PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2 from negative to positive results was 17 days. Compared with patients without reactivation, those with reactivation were significantly younger and more likely to have a lymphocyte count of <1500/µL (odds ratio [OR]: 0.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.12-0.94) and two or fewer symptoms (OR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.07-0.55) during the initial episode. CONCLUSION: Risk-stratified surveillance should be conducted among patients who have recovered from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(24): 6053-6064, 2020 Dec.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005246

ABSTRACT

Corona virus disease 2019(COVID-19) has brought untold human sufferings and economic tragedy worldwide. It causes acute myocardial injury and chronic damage of cardiovascular system, which has attracted much attention from researchers. For the immediate strategy for COVID-19, "drug repurposing" is a new opportunity for developing drugs to fight COVID-19. Artemisinin and its derivatives have a wide range of pharmacological activities. Recent studies have shown that artemisinin has clear cardiovascular protective effects. This paper summarizes the research progress on the pathogenesis the pathogenesis of COVID-19 in cardiovascular damage by 2019 novel coronavirus(2019-nCoV) virus from myocardial cell injury directly by 2019-nCoV virus,viral ligands competitively bind to ACE2 and then reduce the protective effect of ACE2 on cardiovascular disease, "cytokine storm" related myocardial damage, arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death induced by the infection and stress, myocardial injury by hypoxemia, heart damage side effects from COVID-19 drugs and summarizing the cardiovascular protective effects of artemisinin and its derivatives have activities of anti-arrhythmia, anti-myocardial ischemia, anti-atherosclerosis and plaque stabilization. Then analyzed the possible multi-pathway intervention effects of artemisinin-based drugs on multiple complications of COVID-19 based on its specific immunomodulatory effects, protective effects of tissue and organ damage and broad-spectrum antiviral effect, to provide clues for the treatment of cardiovascular complications of COVID-19, and give a new basis for the therapy of COVID-19 through "drug repurposing".


Subject(s)
Artemisinins , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Heart Diseases , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(10): ofaa379, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-952938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few studies have compared the yield of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays in nasopharyngeal swabs, oropharyngeal swabs, and sputum for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection. METHODS: We conducted an observational study in Beijing Ditan Hospital, China. Specimens including nasopharyngeal swabs, oropharyngeal swabs, and sputum from confirmed coronavirus 2019 patients were collected for RT-PCR testing. Disease duration was calculated from the date of symptom onset to the date of specimen collection and divided into 3 groups: ≤14 days, 14-21 days, and >21 days. We compared positive rates across the 3 specimens collected. The kappa coefficient was used to evaluate the consistency of RT-PCR results between different specimens. RESULTS: A total of 291 specimens were collected and tested from 43 confirmed patients. Among specimens collected with a disease duration of ≤14 days, the positive rate was highest in sputum (79.2%); this rate was significantly higher than that in nasopharyngeal swabs (37.5%; P = .003) and oropharyngeal swabs (20.8%; P < .001). Similar findings were observed with the disease durations of 14-21 days and >21 days. The consistency of testing results between nasopharyngeal swabs and oropharyngeal swabs was low with the disease durations of ≤14 days and >21 days. The consistency between the sputum and oropharyngeal swabs and between the sputum and nasopharyngeal swabs was very low across all 3 disease durations, with statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with nasopharyngeal swabs and oropharyngeal swabs, sputum had the highest yield of SARS-CoV-2 detection. Nasopharyngeal swabs and oropharyngeal swabs had a similar yield. If sputum is not feasible, a nasopharyngeal swab can be recommended for the detection of SARS-CoV-2, and early testing is needed.

11.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 8: 577032, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-918121

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become the largest health threat worldwide, with more than 34.40 million positive cases and over 1.02 million deaths confirmed. In this study, we confirmed that significantly differentially expressed genes in COVID-19 patients were mainly involved in the regulation of immune and inflammation-related signaling pathways. It is worth noting that many infected COVID-19 patients have malignant tumors, and their prognosis is poor. To explore the susceptibility factors of cancer patients, we assessed the expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2, and the endocytic regulator AAK1 in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) patients and explored their effects on immune infiltration. We found that the expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in LUAD patients was significantly increased, which may explain why LUAD patients are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, and the patients with high-expression genes presented increased infiltration of immune cells such as B cells and CD4 T cells. In addition, we also identified miR-432-5p as a potential targeted molecule and bexarotene as a potential targeted drug of the three genes through bioinformatic analysis and further verified the anti-inflammatory effect of bexarotene, providing new ideas for the treatment of COVID-19.

12.
Future Virol ; 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895275

ABSTRACT

Aim: The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has had serious repercussions worldwide. This study was aimed to evaluate the accuracy of a new kit for detection of SARS-CoV-2 compared with similar detection kit. Materials & methods: A total of 500 subjects were included and tested with both the new test and control kits. Clinical diagnosis results were taken as the reference standard. Results: Compared with clinical diagnosis, the sensitivity of the test kit was 82.64%, specificity was 98.45% and total coincidence rate was 90.80%. The total coincidence rate, sensitivity and specificity between control kit and clinical diagnosis were 89.20%, 78.10% and 99.61%, respectively. Conclusions: The new kit was comparable to the similar detection kit for detection of SARS-CoV-2 in sensitivity, specificity and total coincidence rate.

13.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 522729, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-853997

ABSTRACT

Besides pathogen evading, Acute Lung Injury (ALI), featuring the systematic inflammation and severe epithelial damages, is widely believed to be the central non-infectious factor controlling the progression of infectious diseases. ALI is partly caused by host immune responses. Under the inspiration of unsuccessful treatment in COVID-19, recent insights into pathogen-host interactions are leading to identification and development of a wide range of host-directed therapies with different mechanisms of action. The interaction unit consisting of macrophages and the alveolar epithelial cells has recently revealed as the therapeutic basis targeting ALI. Lian Hua Qing Wen capsule is the most effective and commonly-used clinical formula in treating respiratory infection for thousands of years in China. However, little is known about its relevance with ALI, especially its protective role against ALI-induced alveolar tissue damages. Aiming to evaluate its contribution in antibiotics-integrating therapies, this study pharmacologically verified whether LHQW could alleviate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI and explore its potential mechanisms in maintaining the physiology of macrophage-epithelial unit. In ALI mouse model, the pathological parameters, including the anal temperature, inflammation condition, lung edema, histopathological structures, have all been systematically analyzed. Results consistently supported the effectiveness of the combined strategy for LHQW and low-dose antibiotics. Furthermore, we established the macrophages-alveolar epithelial cells co-culture model and firstly proved that LHQW inhibited LPS-induced ER stress and TRAIL secretion in macrophages, thereby efficiently protected epithelial cells against TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Mechanistically, results showed that LHQW significantly deactivated NF-κB and reversed the SOCS3 expression in inflammatory macrophages. Furthermore, we proved that the therapeutic effects of LHQW were highly dependent on JNK-AP1 regulation. In conclusion, our data proved that LHQW is an epithelial protector in ALI, implying its promising potential in antibiotic alternative therapy.

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