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1.
PLOS global public health ; 2(11), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2170094

ABSTRACT

HIV testing continues to be a challenge among the young population in Tanzania. As of 2017, only 30% of 15–19-year-olds reported getting tested and receiving their results. This study will examine the demographic and socio-behavioral characteristics associated with HIV testing among adolescents and young adults in Tanzania. Interview data from the 2016–2017 Tanzania HIV Impact Survey (THIS) were analyzed on 10,128 adolescents and young adults 15–24 years of age, representing 10.5 million youth in Tanzania. Weighted logistic regression was used to model the relationship of HIV testing with demographic and socio-behavioral characteristics. Half (50%) of respondents reported ever having been tested for HIV. HIV testing was significantly lower among males compared with females (AOR = 0.5;95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.5–0.6;p<0.001), 15–19 year olds compared with 20–24 year olds (AOR = 0.4;95% CI = 0.4–0.5;p<0.001), no education compared with secondary or post-secondary education (AOR = 0.4;95% CI = 0.3–0.6;p<0.001), rural residents compared with urban residents (AOR = 0.7;95% CI = 0.6–0.9;p<0.001) and those who don't use condoms during sexual intercourse compared with those who do (AOR = 0.6;95% CI = 0.5–0.8;p<0.001). Among HIV-infected youth, younger age group, rural residents, education less than primary, single, high income, and sex workers were significantly associated with never testing for HIV. This study highlights the majority of characteristics affecting HIV testing among young people in Tanzania have not changed over the years, thus it is necessary to re-examine the current approaches to HIV testing. The COVID-19 pandemic will add to this challenge as it collides with the ongoing HIV epidemic and competes for needed medical supplies and health care provider resources. In light of this current situation, intensified and targeted HIV testing programs for at risk young populations in Tanzania should be prioritized.

2.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology ; : 116016, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2159252

ABSTRACT

Ethnopharmacological relevance Jinhongtang, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula consisting of dry stems of Rheum palmatum L. (Polygonaceae) and Sargentodoxa cuneata (Oliv.) Rehder & E.H.Wilson (Lardizabalaceae) and whole plant of Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz. (Asteraceae), is widely used for the treatment of infection diseases including severe sepsis and COVID-19. Aim of the study The present study aimed to explore the compatibility mechanism in the prescription of Jinhongtang based on the pharmacokinetic interaction. Materials and methods CLP-induced sepsis mice and LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells were used to explore the anti-inflammatory effect of Jinhongtang and herbs in this clinical prescription. Pharmacokinetics of active components in Jinhongtang (Rhein, Emodin and Aloe emodin) was studied in rats. In vitro analysis of metabolic pathways and interactions mediated by metabolic enzymes were conducted using human liver microsomes (HLMs) and recombinant UGT isoforms. Results Jinhongtang exhibited much more potent anti-inflammatory effect than its single herbs on CLP-induced sepsis mice and LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. Next, the bioavailability of active ingredients (Rhein, Emodin and Aloe emodin) in R. palmatum was significantly improved through reduced metabolic clearance when co-administered with S. cuneata and T. mongolicum as Jinhongtang during the in vivo pharmacokinetic study, which presented the rational herbal compatibility mechanism. In detailed, the components in S. cuneata and T. mongolicum including Sargentodoxoside A, Chanitracin Ia, Quercetin and Luteolin inhibited the UGT1A9-mediated glucuronidation of active ingredients in R. palmatum, with Ki values of 2.72 μM, 1.25 μM, 2.84 μM and 0.83 μM, respectively. Conclusion T. mongolicum and S. cuneata, the adjuvant herbs of Jinhongtang, could reduce the metabolic clearance of key active components of R. palmatum, prolong their action time and further enhance their anti-inflammatory activity via inhibition of UGTs. Our findings provided deep insight for the rational compatibility of TCMs and useful guidance for the development of TCM formula.

3.
Complementary Therapies in Medicine ; 72:102907, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2149611

ABSTRACT

Background The Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues, and the death toll continues to surge. Ozone therapy has long been used in the treatment of a variety of infectious diseases, probably through its antioxidant properties and the supply of oxygen to hypoxic tissues. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the efficacy of ozone on mortality in patients with COVID-19. Methods A systematic search was made of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and clinicaltrials.gov, without language restrictions. Prospective controlled trials on treatment of COVID-19 with ozone, compared with placebo or blank, were reviewed. Studies were pooled to risk ratios (RRs) and weighted mean differences (WMDs), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Eight trials (enrolling 371 participants) met the inclusion criteria. Ozone therapy showed significant effects on mortality (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.17–0.85;P = 0.02), length of hospital stay (WMD −1.63 days, 95% CI −3.05 to −0.22 days;P = 0.02), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positivity (RR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01–0.34;P = 0.001). Conclusions Ozone therapy significantly reduced mortality, PCR positivity, and length of stay in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Ozone therapy should be considered for COVID-19 patients.

4.
COVID ; 2(12):1787-1805, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2163259

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, COVID-19 outbreaks occurred one after another in countries worldwide. Managing the outbreak efficiently and stably is an essential public health issue facing countries worldwide. In this paper, based on the SEIR model, we propose a SCEIR model that incorporates close contacts (C) and self-protectors (P). Firstly, the epidemic data of China, the USA, and Italy are predicted and compared with the actual data. Secondly, sensitivity analysis of each parameter in the SCEIR model was conducted using Anylogic. The study shows that the SCEIR model established in this paper has a certain validity. The infection rate in contact with E (𝛽) etc., has positive effects on the basic regeneration number (R0);the self-isolation rate (phi) etc., has a negative effect on the basic regeneration number (R0). Emergency management measures are proposed according to the influencing factors corresponding to the model parameters. These can provide theoretical guidance for developing effective epidemic prevention and control measures in areas where the epidemic has not yet been controlled. It also provides some reference for formulating prevention and control policies for similar epidemics that may occur in the future.

5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(11)2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143750

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A comparative analysis was performed to investigate the potential risk factors of Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI) after receiving different booster vaccines. METHODS: From 18 January 2021 to 21 January 2022, the Health Care Workers (HCWs) of Guizhou Provincial Staff Hospital (Guizhou Province, China) who received a third Booster vaccine, that was either homologous (i.e., (i) a total of three doses of Vero cell vaccine or (ii) three doses of CHO cell vaccine) or (iii) heterologous with two first doses of Vero cell vaccine, being either CHO cell vaccine or adenovirus type-5 (Ad5) vectored COVID-19 vaccine, were asked to complete a self-report questionnaire form to provide information on any AEFI that may have occurred in the first 3 days after vaccination with the booster. The frequency of AEFI corresponding to the three different booster vaccines was compared, and the risk factors for predicting AEFI were determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 904 HCWs who completed the survey, 792 met the inclusion criteria. The rates of AEFI were 9.8% (62/635) in the homologous Vero cell booster group, 17.3% (13/75) in the homologous CHO cell booster group, and 20.7% (17/82) in the heterologous mixed vaccines booster group, and the rates were significantly different (c2 = 11.5, p = 0.004) between the three groups of vaccines. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that: (1) compared to the homologous Vero cell booster group, the risk of AEFI was about 2.1 times higher (OR = 2.095, 95% CI: 1.056-4.157, p = 0.034) in the CHO cell booster group and 2.5 times higher (OR = 2.476, 95% CI: 1.352-4.533, p = 0.003) in the mixed vaccines group; (2) the odds for women experiencing AEFI were about 2.8 times higher (OR = 2.792, 95% CI: 1.407-5.543, p = 0.003) than men; and (3) compared to the non-frontline HCWs, the risk of AEFI was about 2.6 times higher (OR = 2.648, 95% CI: 1.473-4.760, p = 0.001) in the doctors. CONCLUSION: The AEFI in all three booster groups are acceptable, and serious adverse events are rare. The risk of AEFI was higher in doctors, which may be related to the high stress during the COVID-19 epidemic. Support from government and non-governmental agencies is important for ensuring the physical and mental health of HCWs.

6.
Allergy ; 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2136633

ABSTRACT

There has been an important change in the clinical characteristics and immune profile of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients during the pandemic thanks to the extensive vaccination programs. Here, we highlight recent studies on COVID-19, from the clinical and immunological characteristics to the protective and risk factors for severity and mortality of COVID-19. The efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccines and potential allergic reactions after administration are also discussed. The occurrence of new variants of concerns such as Omicron BA.2, BA.4 and BA.5 and the global administration of COVID-19 vaccines have changed the clinical scenario of COVID-19. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) may cause severe and heterogeneous disease but with a lower mortality rate. Perturbations in immunity of T cells, B cells, and mast cells, as well as autoantibodies and metabolic reprogramming may contribute to the long-term symptoms of COVID-19. There is conflicting evidence about whether atopic diseases, such as allergic asthma and rhinitis, are associated with a lower susceptibility and better outcomes of COVID-19. At the beginning of pandemic, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) developed guidelines that provided timely information for the management of allergic diseases and preventive measures to reduce transmission in the allergic clinics. The global distribution of COVID-19 vaccines and emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants with reduced pathogenic potential dramatically decreased the morbidity, severity, and mortality of COVID-19. Nevertheless, breakthrough infection remains a challenge for disease control. Hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) to COVID-19 vaccines are low compared to other vaccines, and these were addressed in EAACI statements that provided indications for the management of allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis to COVID-19 vaccines. We have gained a depth knowledge and experience in the over 2 years since the start of the pandemic, and yet a full eradication of SARS-CoV-2 is not on the horizon. Novel strategies are warranted to prevent severe disease in high-risk groups, the development of MIS-C and long COVID-19.

7.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences ; 23(23):14601, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2123699

ABSTRACT

The outbreaks caused by RNA and DNA viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2 and monkeypox, pose serious threats to human health. The RLR and cGAS-STING pathways contain major cytoplasmic sensors and signaling transduction axes for host innate antiviral immunity. In physiological and virus-induced pathological states, the activation and inactivation of these signal axes are tightly controlled, especially post-translational modifications (PTMs). E3 ubiquitin ligases (E3s) are the direct manipulator of ubiquitin codons and determine the type and modification type of substrate proteins. Therefore, members of the E3s family are involved in balancing the host's innate antiviral immune responses, and their functions have been extensively studied over recent decades. In this study, we overviewed the mechanisms of different members of three E3s families that mediate the RLR and cGAS-STING axes and analyzed them as potential molecular targets for the prevention and treatment of virus-related diseases.

8.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116814

ABSTRACT

The high infection rate of SARS-CoV-2 makes it urgent to promote vaccination among the public. Previous studies found that people tend to follow the behaviors desired in descriptive social norms, which exist in both social media (e.g., Twitter) and physical-world communities. However, it remains unclear whether and to what extent the descriptive social norms from the cyber and physical communities affect people's attitude change. This study, focusing on COVID-19 vaccination, developed a Directed Acyclic Graphs model to investigate the causal effects of the descriptive social norms of (i) Twitterverse and (ii) physical-world communities on people's attitude change as well as the temporal scales of the effects. It used a Long Short-Term Memory classifier to extract expressed attitudes and changes from relevant tweets posted by 843 sample users. We found that a people's attitude change toward the vaccination receives a more significant impact from Twitter-based descriptive social norms over the prior week, whereas the norms in the physical-world communities tend to be less influential but still notable with the time gap between 2 weeks and 1 month. The findings revealed the potential of using online social norm approaches to proactively motivate behavioral changes toward a culture of health.

9.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 442, 2022 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 containment strategy has been successful in mainland China prior to the emergence of Omicron. However, in the era of highly transmissible variants, whether it is possible for China to sustain a local containment policy and under what conditions China could transition away from it are of paramount importance at the current stage of the pandemic. METHODS: We developed a spatially structured, fully stochastic, individual-based SARS-CoV-2 transmission model to evaluate the feasibility of sustaining SARS-CoV-2 local containment in mainland China considering the Omicron variants, China's current immunization level, and nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). We also built a statistical model to estimate the overall disease burden under various hypothetical mitigation scenarios. RESULTS: We found that due to high transmissibility, neither Omicron BA.1 nor BA.2 could be contained by China's pre-Omicron NPI strategies which were successful prior to the emergence of the Omicron variants. However, increased intervention intensity, such as enhanced population mobility restrictions and multi-round mass testing, could lead to containment success. We estimated that an acute Omicron epidemic wave in mainland China would result in significant number of deaths if China were to reopen under current vaccine coverage with no antiviral uptake, while increasing vaccination coverage and antiviral uptake could substantially reduce the disease burden. CONCLUSIONS: As China's current vaccination has yet to reach high coverage in older populations, NPIs remain essential tools to maintain low levels of infection while building up protective population immunity, ensuring a smooth transition out of the pandemic phase while minimizing the overall disease burden.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Feasibility Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology
10.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; : 1-73, 2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107218

ABSTRACT

How much the vaccine contributes to the induction and development of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) of breakthrough cases relative to those unvaccinated-infected cases is not fully understood. We conducted a prospective cohort study and collected serum samples from 576 individuals who were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 Delta strain infection, including 245 breakthrough cases and 331 unvaccinated-infected cases. NAbs were analyzed by live virus microneutralization test and transformation of NAb titer. NAbs titers against SARS-CoV-2 ancestral and Delta variant in breakthrough cases were 7.8-fold and 4.0-fold higher than in unvaccinated-infected cases, respectively. NAbs titers in breakthrough cases peaked at the second week after onset/infection. However, the NAbs titers in the unvaccinated-infected cases reached their highest levels during the third week. Compared to those with higher levels of NAbs, those with lower levels of NAbs had no difference in viral clearance duration time (P>0.05), did exhibit higher viral load at the beginning of infection/maximum viral load of infection. NAb levels were statistically higher in the moderate cases than in the mild cases (P<0.0001). Notably, in breakthrough cases, NAb levels were highest longer than 4 months after vaccination (Delta strain: 53118.2 U/mL), and lowest in breakthrough cases shorter than 1 month (Delta strain: 7551.2 U/mL). Cross-neutralization against the ancestral strain and the current circulating isolate (Omicron BA.5) was significantly lower than against the Delta variant in both breakthrough cases and unvaccinated-infected cases. Our study demonstrated that vaccination could induce immune responses more rapidly and greater which could be effective in controlling SARS-CoV-2.

11.
Life (Basel) ; 12(11)2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090267

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious and pathogenic disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Early in this epidemic, the herbal formulas used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) were widely used for the treatment of COVID-19 in China. According to Venn diagram analysis, we found that Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma is a frequent herb in TCM formulas against COVID-19. The extract of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma exhibits an anti-SARS-CoV-2 replication activity in vitro, but its pharmacological mechanism remains unclear. We here demonstrate that glycyrrhizin, the main active ingredient of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, prevents the coronavirus from entering cells by targeting angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Glycyrrhizin inhibited the binding of the spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2 to ACE2 in our Western blot-based assay. The following bulk RNA-seq analysis showed that glycyrrhizin down-regulated ACE2 expression in vitro which was further confirmed by Western blot and quantitative PCR. Together, we believe that glycyrrhizin inhibits SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells by targeting ACE2.

12.
Med Image Anal ; 83: 102664, 2022 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2083230

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia can be difficult to diagnose since its symptoms are too variable, and the radiographic signs are often very similar to those seen in other illnesses such as a cold or influenza. Deep neural networks have shown promising performance in automated pneumonia diagnosis using chest X-ray radiography, allowing mass screening and early intervention to reduce the severe cases and death toll. However, they usually require many well-labelled chest X-ray images for training to achieve high diagnostic accuracy. To reduce the need for training data and annotation resources, we propose a novel method called Contrastive Domain Adaptation with Consistency Match (CDACM). It transfers the knowledge from different but relevant datasets to the unlabelled small-size target dataset and improves the semantic quality of the learnt representations. Specifically, we design a conditional domain adversarial network to exploit discriminative information conveyed in the predictions to mitigate the domain gap between the source and target datasets. Furthermore, due to the small scale of the target dataset, we construct a feature cloud for each target sample and leverage contrastive learning to extract more discriminative features. Lastly, we propose adaptive feature cloud expansion to push the decision boundary to a low-density area. Unlike most existing transfer learning methods that aim only to mitigate the domain gap, our method instead simultaneously considers the domain gap and the data deficiency problem of the target dataset. The conditional domain adaptation and the feature cloud generation of our method are learning jointly to extract discriminative features in an end-to-end manner. Besides, the adaptive feature cloud expansion improves the model's generalisation ability in the target domain. Extensive experiments on pneumonia and COVID-19 diagnosis tasks demonstrate that our method outperforms several state-of-the-art unsupervised domain adaptation approaches, which verifies the effectiveness of CDACM for automated pneumonia diagnosis using chest X-ray imaging.

13.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12894, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066479

ABSTRACT

With the rapid development of the digital economy, the level of Internet development has become increasingly important to the national economy. The development and application of the Internet have brought new impetus to economic development. At present, China’s economic growth is slowing down. Finding new support points to maintain high-quality economic growth has become the focus of current research. Therefore, at the moment of Internet economic development, it is of great significance to study whether the Internet development level can promote economic development, how to promote economic development and the size of its influence on economic development. Based on this, this paper constructs an indicator system for evaluating the Internet development level from four dimensions: Internet popularization level, information infrastructure development level, scientific and cultural development level, and industrial development and application level. With the Internet development level as the core explanatory variable, this paper establishes a fixed effect model based on the Hausman test by analyzing China’s provincial panel data from 2010 to 2019. The research results show that the Internet development level in all regions of China has risen from 2010 to 2019. The Internet development level has a promoting effect on economic growth, and there are regional differences. The promoting effect on the eastern region is higher than that in the central and western regions. The Internet development level has a significantly higher role in promoting the per capital GDP in the eastern region than in the central and western regions. It is expected to provide valuable ideas for the government to fully harness the role of the Internet in promoting economic development.

14.
Frontiers in neurology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2058617

ABSTRACT

Objective This study analyzed the impact of the improved stroke green channel process on the delay of intravenous thrombolysis in patients with acute cerebral infarction under coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prevention and control measures. Methods We included 57 patients from the stroke center of the Seventh People's Hospital of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine before the improvement of the stroke green channel process (March–July 2019), as well as 94 patients during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak (March–July 2020) and 68 patients during the Omicron variant outbreak (March–July 2022) after the improvement of stroke green channel process. The door-to-needle time (DNT), door-to-imaging time (DIT), and door-to-test completion time were compared among the three groups. We analyzed the impact of this process improvement in the emergency green channel during the pandemic on the delay of intravenous thrombolysis. Results This study included a total of 229 patients with acute cerebral infarction who went through the green channel for intravenous thrombolysis (57 in the pre-pandemic group, 94 in the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak group, and 68 in the Omicron outbreak group). The percentages of patients undergoing intravenous thrombolysis in the pre-pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, and Omicron outbreak groups differed significantly (19.32%, 22.27%, and 28.94%, respectively, P = 0.029). Compared to the pre-pandemic group, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score at admission was significantly higher in the Omicron outbreak group (7.71 ± 7.36 in the Omicron outbreak group vs. 5.00 ± 4.52 in the pre-pandemic group) (P = 0.026) but not in the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak group (4.79 ± 5.94 in the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak group vs. 5.00 ± 4.52 in the pre-pandemic group, P = 0.970). Significantly higher proportions of patients undergoing emergency intravenous thrombolysis came to the hospital by ambulance in the SARS-CoV-2 and Omicron outbreak groups compared to the pre-pandemic group (38.6% in the pre-pandemic group, 51.1% in the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak group, and 82.4% in the Omicron outbreak group, P < 0.001). Compared to the pre-pandemic group, the DIT was significantly higher in the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak group (22.42 ± 7.62 min in the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak group vs. 18.91 ± 8.23 min in the pre-pandemic group, P =0.031) but not the Omicron outbreak group (20.35 ± 10.38 min in the Omicron outbreak group vs. 18.91 ± 8.23 min in the pre-pandemic group, P = 0.543). The door-to-test completion time was significantly longer in the SARS-CoV-2 and Omicron outbreak groups compared to that in the pre-pandemic group (78.37 ± 25.17 min in the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak group, 92.60 ± 25.82 min in the Omicron outbreak group vs. 65.11 ± 22.35 min in the pre-pandemic group, P < 0.001);however, the DNT in the SARS-CoV-2 and Omicron outbreak groups did not differ significantly from those in the pre-pandemic group (both P > 0.05). Conclusion During the two periods of the COVID-19 outbreak (SARS-CoV-2 and Omicron), after the improvement of the green channel for intravenous thrombolysis, there might be some delay in in-hospital DIT during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, however, the in-hospital delay indicator DNT for intravenous thrombolysis were not affected.

15.
World J Gastrointest Surg ; 14(9): 1072-1081, 2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055790

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tailgut cysts are defined as congenital cysts that develop in the rectosacral space from the residue of the primitive tail. As a congenital disease, caudal cysts are very rare, and their canceration is even rarer, which makes the disease prone to misdiagnosis and delayed treatment. We describe a case of caudal cyst with adenocarcinogenesis and summarize in detail the characteristics of cases with analytical value reported since 1990. CASE SUMMARY: A 35-year-old woman found a mass in her lower abdomen 2 mo ago. She was asymptomatic at that time and was not treated because of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Two weeks ago, the patient developed abdominal distension and right waist discomfort and came to our hospital. Except for the high level of serum carcinoembryonic antigen, the medical history and laboratory tests were not remarkable. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a well-defined, slightly lobulated cystic-solid mass with a straight diameter of approximately 10 cm × 9 cm in the presacral space, slightly high signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging, and moderate signal intensity on T1-weighted imaging. The mass was completely removed by laparoscopic surgery. Histopathological examination showed that the lesion was an intestinal mucinous adenocarcinoma, and the multidisciplinary team decided to implement postoperative chemotherapy. The patient recovered well, the tumor marker levels returned to normal, and tumor-free survival has been achieved thus far. CONCLUSION: The case and literature summary can help clinicians and researchers develop appropriate examination and therapeutic methods for diagnosis and treatment of this rare disease.

16.
Nat Metab ; 4(10): 1229-1231, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050559

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fasting , Humans
17.
Math Methods Appl Sci ; 2022 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047841

ABSTRACT

For all humanity, the sudden outbreak of Corona Virus Disease 2019 has been an important problem. Timely and effective media coverage is considered to be one of the effective approaches to control the spread of epidemic in early stage. In this paper, a Sentiment-enabled Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered (SEIR) model is established to reveal the relationship between the propagation of the epidemic and media coverage. The authors take the positive and negative media coverage into consideration when implementing the Sentiment-enabled SEIR model. This model is constructed by parameterizing the number of current confirmed cases, cumulative cured cases, cumulative deaths, and media coverage. The numerical simulation and sensitivity analysis are conducted based on the Sentiment-enabled SEIR model. The numerical analysis confirms the rationality of the Sentiment-enabled SEIR model. The sensitivity analysis shows that positive media coverage acts a pivotal part in reducing the figure for confirmed cases. Negative media coverage has an effect on the figure for confirmed cases is not as significant as that of positive media coverage, but it is not negligible.

18.
Front Public Health ; 10: 983571, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043539

ABSTRACT

A national study was conducted in Brunei to assess and compare the immunogenicity of the various brands of COVID-19 vaccines administered to the population as part of the National COVID-19 Vaccination Programme. Most of the population have had received at least 2 doses of BBIBP-CorV, AZD1222 or MRNA-1273 vaccines. Neutralising antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 induced by these vaccines will be analysed to infer population-level immune protection against COVID-19. During the 5-week recruitment period, 24,260 eligible individuals were invited to the study via SMS, out of which 2,712 participants were enrolled into the study. This paper describes the novel adaptive strategy used to recruit the study participants. Digital technology was leveraged to perform targeted online recruitment to circumvent the limitations of traditional recruitment methods. Technology also enabled stratified random selection of these eligible individuals who were stratified based on age, gender and vaccine brand. Data was extracted from the electronic health records, the national mobile health application and a third-party survey platform and integrated into a dedicated research platform called EVYDResearch. The instant availability and access to up-to-date data on EVYDResearch enabled the study team to meet weekly and adopt an adaptive recruitment strategy informed by behavioural science, where interventions could be quickly implemented to improve response rates. Some examples of these include incorporating nudge messaging into SMS invitations, involving the Minister of Health to make press announcements on this study, media coverage, setting up an enquiries hotline and reaching out to foreign language speaking expatriates of a local multinational company to participate in this study. Data integration from various data sources, real time information sharing and a strong teamwork led to good outcomes adaptable to the progress of recruitment, compared to the more time-consuming and static traditional recruitment methods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Brunei , COVID-19/prevention & control , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology
19.
Front Oncol ; 12: 902301, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043505

ABSTRACT

Chimeric antigen receptor-T (CAR-T) cell therapy is a breakthrough for B-cell hematological malignancies but is commonly associated with cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity and is occasionally complicated by neurological symptoms, such as cognitive disturbances. Currently, no effective treatments for CAR-T therapy-related cognitive impairment are available. Here, we present a 22-year-old patient with cognitive impairment who was treated with CAR-T cells as a salvage therapy for Burkitt lymphoma. One month after CAR-T cell infusion, he experienced memory loss that mainly manifested as forgetting recent-onset events. Two months of rehabilitation and hyperbaric oxygen therapy failed to provide clinical improvement. Subsequently, the patient improved with oral oxiracetam for 5 months. However, after 10 months of withdrawal, he showed significantly worse memory decline. Then, he began to take sodium oligomannate (22 February 2021). Follow-up testing at 6 and 12 months revealed maintenance of memory gains with sodium oligomannate alone or in combination with rivastigmine. Our case shows that CAR-T therapy may compromise cognitive function and that sodium oligomannate may have partial efficacy in restoring cognitive performance and activities of daily living. This may provide insights for further applications of sodium oligomannate for neurological symptoms, especially cognitive deficits following CAR-T cell therapy.

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