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1.
J Chromatogr Sci ; 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244822

ABSTRACT

Jinhongtang granule (JHT) is a traditional Chinese medicine formula used for treatment of infection diseases including severe COVID-19. However, pharmacokinetics of JHT was unknown, especially in infection condition. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to simultaneously quantify ten active components form JHT in rat plasma. MS detection was performed by MRM scanning operating in the negative ionization mode. The method showed good linearity (r > 0.997). The accuracy, precision, matrix effect, recovery and stability were all satisfactory with current criterion. The method was successfully applied to compare the pharmacokinetic difference between normal and sepsis rats. The pharmacokinetic behaviors of analytes in sepsis rats were significantly different from those in normal rats. Cmax and AUC of rhein, emodin, aloe emodin, rhein-8-glucoside, aloe emodin 8-glucoside, protocatechuic acid, epicatechin and salidroside, were significantly increased in sepsis rats, except for 4-hydroxycinnamic acid and ferulic acid. In vitro intestinal absorption study using everted intestinal sac preparations indicated that the intestinal permeability was altered under sepsis. In conclusion, pharmacokinetic difference of JHT between normal and sepsis rats were evaluated for the first time, which provided useful information for the clinical application of JHT as an integrative therapy for severe and critical COVID-19.

2.
J Leukoc Biol ; 109(1): 91-97, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235799

ABSTRACT

Regulatory T cell can protect against severe forms of coronaviral infections attributable to host inflammatory responses. But its role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is still unclear. In this study, frequencies of total and multiple subsets of lymphocytes in peripheral blood of COVID-19 patients and discharged individuals were analyzed using a multicolor flow cytometry assay. Plasma concentration of IL-10 was measured using a microsphere-based immunoassay kit. Comparing to healthy controls, the frequencies of total lymphocytes and T cells decreased significantly in both acutely infected COVID-19 patients and discharged individuals. The frequencies of total lymphocytes correlated negatively with the frequencies of CD3- CD56+ NK cells. The frequencies of regulatory CD8+ CD25+ T cells correlated with CD4+ /CD8+ T cell ratios positively, while the frequencies of regulatory CD4+ CD25+ CD127- T cells correlated negatively with CD4+ /CD8+ T cell ratios. Ratios of CD4+ /CD8+ T cells increased significantly in patients beyond age of 45 years. And accordingly, the frequencies of regulatory CD8+ CD25+ T cells were also found significantly increased in these patients. Collectively, the results suggest that regulatory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells may play distinct roles in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Moreover, the data indicate that NK cells might contribute to the COVID-19 associated lymphopenia.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Adult , Aged , Antigens, CD/blood , Antigens, CD/immunology , CD4-CD8 Ratio , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/pathology
3.
Applied Sciences ; 13(11):6515, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20244877

ABSTRACT

With the advent of the fourth industrial revolution, data-driven decision making has also become an integral part of decision making. At the same time, deep learning is one of the core technologies of the fourth industrial revolution that have become vital in decision making. However, in the era of epidemics and big data, the volume of data has increased dramatically while the sources have become progressively more complex, making data distribution highly susceptible to change. These situations can easily lead to concept drift, which directly affects the effectiveness of prediction models. How to cope with such complex situations and make timely and accurate decisions from multiple perspectives is a challenging research issue. To address this challenge, we summarize concept drift adaptation methods under the deep learning framework, which is beneficial to help decision makers make better decisions and analyze the causes of concept drift. First, we provide an overall introduction to concept drift, including the definition, causes, types, and process of concept drift adaptation methods under the deep learning framework. Second, we summarize concept drift adaptation methods in terms of discriminative learning, generative learning, hybrid learning, and others. For each aspect, we elaborate on the update modes, detection modes, and adaptation drift types of concept drift adaptation methods. In addition, we briefly describe the characteristics and application fields of deep learning algorithms using concept drift adaptation methods. Finally, we summarize common datasets and evaluation metrics and present future directions.

4.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 25(5): 516-520, 2023 May 15.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244503

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To summarize the clinical features of neonates infected with Omicron variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: The medical data of 23 neonates with Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to the City North Campus of Urumqi First People's Hospital from October to December 2022 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: All 23 infants had a history of exposure to confirmed caregivers with SARS-CoV-2 infection after birth, and none of them was vertically transmitted. Clinical classification: 5 cases of asymptomatic infection, 18 cases of mild infection, and no cases of moderate, severe, or critically ill. The first symptoms were fever in 13 cases, cough in 3 cases, nasal congestion in 1 case, and diarrhea in 1 case. Blood white blood cell counts decreased in 2 cases, and C-reactive protein increased in 1 case. Seven infants underwent chest X-ray examination due to cough or shortness of breath, and one of which showed focal exudative changes, while the rest showed no abnormal changes. All infants were discharged after symptomatic treatment and the median hospital stay was 6 days. The duration of nucleic acid positivity of SARS-CoV-2 was negatively correlated with N gene Ct values and ORF1ab gene Ct values (rs=-0.719 and -0.699, respectively; P<0.05). One month after discharge, all infants had no symptoms or signs of nucleic acid re-positivity. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical manifestations are usually mild or asymptomatic in neonates infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. The lower the Ct values of the N and ORF1ab genes of SARS-CoV-2, the longer the duration of nucleic acid positivity. Neonates infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant can have a good prognosis after symptomatic treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Cough , Retrospective Studies
5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 13: 1191936, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244447

ABSTRACT

Numerous studies have demonstrated that gut microbiota plays an important role in the development and treatment of different cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, heart failure, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, and atherosclerosis. Furthermore, evidence from recent studies has shown that gut microbiota contributes to the development of myocarditis. Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease that often results in myocardial damage. Myocarditis is a common cause of sudden cardiac death in young adults. The incidence of myocarditis and its associated dilated cardiomyopathy has been increasing yearly. Myocarditis has gained significant attention on social media due to its association with both COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccinations. However, the current therapeutic options for myocarditis are limited. In addition, little is known about the potential therapeutic targets of myocarditis. In this study, we review (1) the evidence on the gut-heart axis, (2) the crosslink between gut microbiota and the immune system, (3) the association between myocarditis and the immune system, (4) the impact of gut microbiota and its metabolites on myocarditis, (5) current strategies for modulating gut microbiota, (6) challenges and future directions for targeted gut microbiota in the treatment of myocarditis. The approach of targeting the gut microbiota in myocarditis is still in its infancy, and this is the study to explore the gut microbiota-immune system-myocarditis axis. Our findings are expected to pave the way for the use of gut microbiota as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of myocarditis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Myocarditis , Young Adult , Humans , Myocarditis/therapy , Myocardium
6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 13: 1155293, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327276

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The constantly mutating SARS-CoV-2 has been infected an increasing number of people, hence the safe and efficacious treatment are urgently needed to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. Currently, neutralizing antibodies (Nabs), targeting the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein are potentially effective therapeutics against COVID-19. As a new form of antibody, bispecific single chain antibodies (BscAbs) can be easily expressed in E. coli and exhibits broad-spectrum antiviral activity. Methods: In this study, we constructed two BscAbs 16-29, 16-3022 and three single chain variable fragments (scFv) S1-16, S2-29 and S3022 as a comparison to explore their antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. The affinity of the five antibodies was characterized by ELISA and SPR and the neutralizing activity of them was analyzed using pseudovirus or authentic virus neutralization assay. Bioinformatics and competitive ELISA methods were used to identify different epitopes on RBD. Results: Our results revealed the potent neutralizing activity of two BscAbs 16-29 and 16-3022 against SARS-CoV-2 original strain and Omicron variant infection. In addition, we also found that SARS-CoV RBD-targeted scFv S3022 could play a synergistic role with other SARS-CoV-2 RBD-targeted antibodies to enhance neutralizing activity in the form of a BscAb or in cocktail therapies. Discussion: This innovative approach offers a promising avenue for the development of subsequent antibody therapies against SARSCoV-2. Combining the advantages of cocktails and single-molecule strategies, BscAb therapy has the potential to be developed as an effective immunotherapeutic for clinical use to mitigate the ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Single-Chain Antibodies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Escherichia coli , Pandemics , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Single-Chain Antibodies/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents
7.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1153820, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327164

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the end of 2019, Corona Virus Disease 2019, also known as COVID-19, has broken out in various countries. However, the change of China's COVID-19 prevention and control policy and the sharp increase in the number of infected people are making the teenagers have post-traumatic reactions. Negative post-traumatic reactions include: post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety. Positive post-traumatic reaction mainly refers to post-traumatic growth (PTG). The purpose of this study is to explore the post-traumatic reaction, which refers to PTSD, depression, anxiety and the co-occurrence pattern of growth after trauma and to further explore the influence of family function on different categories of Post-traumatic Reactions. Methods: Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to explore the co-occurrence of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and PTG. Multiple logistics regression was used to analyze the influence of family function on different categories of post-traumatic response. Results: There were three categories of post-traumatic reactions in adolescents infected with COVID-19 adolescents infected with COVID-19, namely: growth class, struggling class, and pain class. Multivariate Logistic regression showed that the growth class and struggling class were affected by problem solving and behavior control in family function, while the growth class and pain class were affected by problem solving, roles, behavior control, and general functioning. Multiple logistic regression showed that the growth class and struggling class were affected by problem solving and roles. Conclusions: The findings of this study provide evidence for the identification of high-risk individuals and the provision of effective interventions in clinical practice, as well as the influence of family functioning on the different categories of PTSD among adolescents infected with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , East Asian People , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders , Pain
8.
Mol Biomed ; 4(1): 16, 2023 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327004

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 and its variants, with the Omicron subvariant XBB currently prevailing the global infections, continue to pose threats on public health worldwide. This non-segmented positive-stranded RNA virus encodes the multi-functional nucleocapsid protein (N) that plays key roles in viral infection, replication, genome packaging and budding. N protein consists of two structural domains, NTD and CTD, and three intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) including the NIDR, the serine/arginine rich motif (SRIDR), and the CIDR. Previous studies revealed functions of N protein in RNA binding, oligomerization, and liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS), however, characterizations of individual domains and their dissected contributions to N protein functions remain incomplete. In particular, little is known about N protein assembly that may play essential roles in viral replication and genome packing. Here, we present a modular approach to dissect functional roles of individual domains in SARS-CoV-2 N protein that reveals inhibitory or augmented modulations of protein assembly and LLPS in the presence of viral RNAs. Intriguingly, full-length N protein (NFL) assembles into ring-like architecture whereas the truncated SRIDR-CTD-CIDR (N182-419) promotes filamentous assembly. Moreover, LLPS droplets of NFL and N182-419 are significantly enlarged in the presence of viral RNAs, and we observed filamentous structures in the N182-419 droplets using correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM), suggesting that the formation of LLPS droplets may promote higher-order assembly of N protein for transcription, replication and packaging. Together this study expands our understanding of the multiple functions of N protein in SARS-CoV-2.

9.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 16(5): 755-761, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324530

ABSTRACT

AIM: To describe the clinical characteristics of eyes using multimodal imaging features with acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN) lesions following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: Retrospective case series study. From December 18, 2022 to February 14, 2023, previously healthy cases within 1-week infection with SARS-CoV-2 and examined at Tianjin Eye Hospital to confirm the diagnosis of AMN were included in the study. Totally 5 males and 9 females [mean age: 29.93±10.32 (16-49)y] were presented for reduced vision, with or without blurred vision. All patients underwent best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure, slit lamp microscopy, indirect fundoscopy. Simultaneously, multimodal imagings fundus photography (45° or 200° field of view) was performed in 7 cases (14 eyes). Near infrared (NIR) fundus photography was performed in 9 cases (18 eyes), optical coherence tomography (OCT) in 5 cases (10 eyes), optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in 9 cases (18 eyes), and fundus fluorescence angiography (FFA) in 3 cases (6 eyes). Visual field was performed in 1 case (2 eyes). RESULTS: Multimodal imaging findings data from 14 patients with AMN were reviewed. All eyes demonstrated different extent hyperreflective lesions at the level of the inner nuclear layer and/or outer plexus layer on OCT or OCTA. Fundus photography (45° or 200° field of view) showed irregular hypo-reflective lesion around the fovea in 7 cases (14 eyes). OCTA demonstrated that the superficial retinal capillary plexus (SCP) vascular density, deep capillary plexus (DCP) vascular density and choriocapillaris (CC) vascular density was reduced in 9 case (18 eyes). Among the follow-up cases (2 cases), vascular density increased in 1 case with elevated BCVA; another case has vascular density decrease in one eye and basically unchanged in other eye. En face images of the ellipsoidal zone and interdigitation zone injury showed a low wedge-shaped reflection contour appearance. NIR image mainly show the absence of the outer retinal interdigitation zone in AMN. No abnormal fluorescence was observed in FFA. Corresponding partial defect of the visual field were visualized via perimeter in one case. CONCLUSION: The morbidity of SARS-CoV-2 infection with AMN is increased. Ophthalmologists should be aware of the possible, albeit rare, AMN after SARS-CoV-2 infection and focus on multimodal imaging features. OCT, OCTA, and infrared fundus phase are proved to be valuable tools for detection of AMN in patients with SARS-CoV-2.

10.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 2023 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320960

ABSTRACT

AIMS: We hypothesized left atrial (LA) stiffness may serve as a surrogate marker in children to differentiate elevated pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) from normal and help detect diastolic dysfunction in myocardial injury due to multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). METHODS AND RESULTS: We validated LA stiffness in 76 patients (median age 10.5 years), 33 had normal PCWP (<12 mmHg) and 43 had elevated PCWP (≥12 mmHg). LA stiffness was applied to 42 MIS-C patients [28 with myocardial injury (+) and 14 without myocardial injury (-)], defined by serum biomarkers. The validation group consisted of a group with and without cardiomyopathies, whose PCWP values ranged from normal to severely elevated. Peak LA strain was measured by speckle-tracking and E/e' from apical four chamber views. Noninvasive LA stiffness was calculated as: LAStiffness=E/e'LAPeakStrain (%-1). Patients with elevated PCWP showed significantly elevated LA stiffness [median 0.71%-1 vs. 0.17%-1, P < 0.001]. Elevated PCWP group showed significantly decreased LA strain (median: 15.0% vs. 38.2%, P < 0.001). Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve for LA stiffness yielded an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.88 and cutoff value of 0.27%-1. In MIS-C group, ROC curve yielded an AUC of 0.79 and cutoff value of 0.29%-1 for identifying myocardial injury. CONCLUSION: In children with elevated PCWP, LA stiffness was significantly increased. When applied to children with MIS-C, LA stiffness classified myocardial injury accurately. LA stiffness and strain may serve as noninvasive markers of diastolic function in the pediatric population.

11.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 7263, 2023 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320843

ABSTRACT

The immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines is poor in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). The factors related to poor immunogenicity to vaccination in KTRs are not well defined. Here, observational study demonstrated no severe adverse effects were observed in KTRs and healthy participants (HPs) after first or second dose of SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine. Different from HPs with excellent immunity against SARS-CoV-2, IgG antibodies against S1 subunit of spike protein, receptor-binding domain, and nucleocapsid protein were not effectively induced in a majority of KTRs after the second dose of inactivated vaccine. Specific T cell immunity response was detectable in 40% KTRs after the second dose of inactivated vaccine. KTRs who developed specific T cell immunity were more likely to be female, and have lower levels of total bilirubin, unconjugated bilirubin, and blood tacrolimus concentrations. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that blood unconjugated bilirubin and tacrolimus concentration were significantly negatively associated with SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell immunity response in KTRs. Altogether, these data suggest compared to humoral immunity, SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell immunity response are more likely to be induced in KTRs after administration of inactivated vaccine. Reduction of unconjugated bilirubin and tacrolimus concentration might benefit specific cellular immunity response in KTRs following vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Female , Humans , Male , Tacrolimus , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunity, Cellular , Bilirubin , Immunity, Humoral , Transplant Recipients , Vaccination , Antibodies, Viral
12.
BMC Microbiol ; 23(1): 123, 2023 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320384

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has emerged as a global pandemic, challenging the world's economic and health systems. Human oral microbiota comprises the second largest microbial community after the gut microbiota and is closely related to respiratory tract infections; however, oral microbiomes of patients who have recovered from COVID-19 have not yet been thoroughly studied. Herein, we compared the oral bacterial and fungal microbiota after clearance of SARS-CoV-2 in 23 COVID-19 recovered patients to those of 29 healthy individuals. Our results showed that both bacterial and fungal diversity were nearly normalized in recovered patients. The relative abundance of some specific bacteria and fungi, primarily opportunistic pathogens, decreased in recovered patients (RPs), while the abundance of butyrate-producing organisms increased in these patients. Moreover, these differences were still present for some organisms at 12 months after recovery, indicating the need for long-term monitoring of COVID-19 patients after virus clearance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Mycobiome , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Bacteria/genetics
13.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1077938, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311566

ABSTRACT

Contagious ecthyma (Orf), an acute and highly contagious zoonosis, is prevalent worldwide. Orf is caused by Orf virus (ORFV), which mainly infects sheep/goats and humans. Therefore, effective and safe vaccination strategies for Orf prevention are needed. Although immunization with single-type Orf vaccines has been tested, heterologous prime-boost strategies still need to be studied. In the present study, ORFV B2L and F1L were selected as immunogens, based on which DNA, subunit and adenovirus vaccine candidates were generated. Of note, heterologous immunization strategies using DNA prime-protein boost and DNA prime-adenovirus boost in mice were performed, with single-type vaccines as controls. We have found that the DNA prime-protein boost strategy induces stronger humoral and cellular immune responses than DNA prime-adenovirus boost strategy in mice, which was confirmed by the changes in specific antibodies, lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine expression. Importantly, this observation was also confirmed when these heterologous immunization strategies were performed in sheep. In summary, by comparing the two immune strategies, we found that DNA prime-protein boost strategy can induce a better immune response, which provides a new attempt for exploring Orf immunization strategy.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Vaccines , Orf virus , Humans , Animals , Mice , Sheep , Orf virus/genetics , Immunization , Vaccination , Adenoviridae/genetics
14.
Global health & medicine ; 5(2):112-117, 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2306431

ABSTRACT

Summary On December 7, 2022, China's National Health Commission issued the Ten New Covid Rules lifting the dynamic zero-COVID policy. In the interim, vaccination campaigns continue to be promoted. We assessed the potential impacts on the status, perceptions, and attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccines via an online self-administered questionnaire. Among 1,170 participants, 1,142 (97.6%) participants were vaccinated against COVID-19, and 51.8% (591/1,142) have already received the booster. More than half of the participants who were vaccinated were ages 31 to 50 (51.8%). Participants believed the following strategies could improve the vaccination rate: timely feedback of the vaccination data (such as safety, efficacy, and other issues of public concern) from authoritative media (95.6%), increasing the number of vaccination sites and availability of vaccines and using more convenient methods of making appointment (95.2%), recommendations from friends and relatives (94.8%), and presenting the qualifications of the staff performing vaccination (89.1%). More measures, including targeted measures for different age groups and timely feedback on the vaccination data including safety and efficacy from authoritative media, are likely to help improve vaccination rates.

15.
Academic Journal of Naval Medical University ; 43(6):709-714, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2296680

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the psychological characteristics of college students during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), so as to provide a basis for psychological intervention. Methods: From May 17, 2020 to Jun. 17, 2020, the adjusted psychological questionnaires for emergent events of public health (PQEEPH) was surveyed among the college students of Beijing Union University. The questionnaire included 5 dimensions:depression, neurasthenia, fear, obsessive-compulsive anxiety, and hypochondriasis. Four grades were scored according to the degree and frequency of emotional responses:0 means no symptoms, 1 means mild symptoms, 2 means moderate symptoms, and 3 means severe symptoms. Results: A total of 3 019 valid questionnaires were collected. During the COVID-19 epidemic, the emotional responses of college students, from the most serious to the least, were fear, neurasthenia, depression, obsessive-compulsive anxiety, and hypochondriasis, with the incidences being 87.7% (2 648/3 019), 44.8% (1 353/3 019), 37.4% (1 129/3 019), 17.3% (522/3 019), and 11.6% (350/3 019), respectively. The fear scores of female students were higher than those of male students (P < 0.001), the fear scores of college students from towns/suburbs were higher than those from rural and urban areas (both P < 0.017), the scores of depression, neurasthenia and obsessivecompulsive anxiety of college students with confirmed COVID-19 cases around them or their relatives participated in the epidemic prevention and control as medical staff or logistics support personnel were higher than those without such conditions (all P < 0.017), and the scores of depression, obsessive-compulsive anxiety and hypochondriasis of college students with suspected COVID-19 cases around them were higher than those without such condition (all P < 0.017). Females were more likely to have moderate to severe fear than males (odds ratio[OR]=1.53, 95% confidence interval[CI] 1.25-1.88, P < 0.001), those with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 cases around them were more likely to have moderate to severe fear than those without such conditions (OR=2.03, 95% CI 1.29-3.20, P=0.002), and those living in towns/suburbs were more likely to have moderate to severe fear than those living in rural and urban areas (OR=0.72, 95% CI 0.56-0.94, P=0.015;OR=0.78, 95% CI 0.63-0.97, P=0.025). Conclusion: COVID-19 epidemic has impact on the psychology of college students. It is necessary to pay attention to the mental health of college students and provide targeted psychological counseling for them.

16.
EBioMedicine ; : 104330, 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298955

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Co-encapsulated antiretrovirals (ARVs) with ingestible sensor (IS) has the capacity to monitor adherence in real-time using a sensor patch, a mobile device, and supporting software. We evaluated the acceptability, effectiveness, and sustainability of the IS system with real-time text reminders. METHODS: Participants were recruited from HIV clinics in Los Angeles and were randomised 1:1 to IS or usual care (UC) group. Adherence to ARVs (primary outcome) was measured by IS system (IS group only), plasma ARV concentration, and self-report. IS-measured adherence was clustered by group-based trajectory model and was validated by ARV concentration summarized by integrated pharmacokinetic adherence measure (IPAM) score. HIV RNA viral load (VL) was compared between IS and UC group. FINDINGS: A total of 112 (IS = 54, UC = 58) participants who completed baseline with at least one follow-up data collection were included in analyses. Overall satisfaction rate for the IS system was >90%. The IPAM score was higher (0.018, 95% CI: -0.098-0.134, p = 0.75) and VL decayed faster (-0.020, 95% CI: -0.042-0.002, p = 0.08) in the IS group compared with the UC group. The ingestible sensor system was well tolerated by study participants. INTERPRETATION: The IS system was well accepted by participants and its use was associated with improved adherence and lower HIV RNA VL. The findings provide a potentially effective strategy for improving adherence. FUNDING: This work was supported by grant R01-MH110056 from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)/National Institutes of Health (NIH). Y. Wang was in part supported by the NIMH/NIH award T32MH080634. E. Daar was in part supported by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences through UCLACTSI Grant UL1TR001881. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH.

17.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 13(8)2023 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294971

ABSTRACT

Chest X-rays (CXRs) are essential in the preliminary radiographic assessment of patients affected by COVID-19. Junior residents, as the first point-of-contact in the diagnostic process, are expected to interpret these CXRs accurately. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of a deep neural network in distinguishing COVID-19 from other types of pneumonia, and to determine its potential contribution to improving the diagnostic precision of less experienced residents. A total of 5051 CXRs were utilized to develop and assess an artificial intelligence (AI) model capable of performing three-class classification, namely non-pneumonia, non-COVID-19 pneumonia, and COVID-19 pneumonia. Additionally, an external dataset comprising 500 distinct CXRs was examined by three junior residents with differing levels of training. The CXRs were evaluated both with and without AI assistance. The AI model demonstrated impressive performance, with an Area under the ROC Curve (AUC) of 0.9518 on the internal test set and 0.8594 on the external test set, which improves the AUC score of the current state-of-the-art algorithms by 1.25% and 4.26%, respectively. When assisted by the AI model, the performance of the junior residents improved in a manner that was inversely proportional to their level of training. Among the three junior residents, two showed significant improvement with the assistance of AI. This research highlights the novel development of an AI model for three-class CXR classification and its potential to augment junior residents' diagnostic accuracy, with validation on external data to demonstrate real-world applicability. In practical use, the AI model effectively supported junior residents in interpreting CXRs, boosting their confidence in diagnosis. While the AI model improved junior residents' performance, a decline in performance was observed on the external test compared to the internal test set. This suggests a domain shift between the patient dataset and the external dataset, highlighting the need for future research on test-time training domain adaptation to address this issue.

18.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2023 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305593

ABSTRACT

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) chemical composition has strong and diverse impacts on the planetary environment, climate, and health. These effects are still not well understood due to limited surface observations and uncertainties in chemical model simulations. We developed a four-dimensional spatiotemporal deep forest (4D-STDF) model to estimate daily PM2.5 chemical composition at a spatial resolution of 1 km in China since 2000 by integrating measurements of PM2.5 species from a high-density observation network, satellite PM2.5 retrievals, atmospheric reanalyses, and model simulations. Cross-validation results illustrate the reliability of sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), and chloride (Cl-) estimates, with high coefficients of determination (CV-R2) with ground-based observations of 0.74, 0.75, 0.71, and 0.66, and average root-mean-square errors (RMSE) of 6.0, 6.6, 4.3, and 2.3 µg/m3, respectively. The three components of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIAs) account for 21% (SO42-), 20% (NO3-), and 14% (NH4+) of the total PM2.5 mass in eastern China; we observed significant reductions in the mass of inorganic components by 40-43% between 2013 and 2020, slowing down since 2018. Comparatively, the ratio of SIA to PM2.5 increased by 7% across eastern China except in Beijing and nearby areas, accelerating in recent years. SO42- has been the dominant SIA component in eastern China, although it was surpassed by NO3- in some areas, e.g., Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region since 2016. SIA, accounting for nearly half (∼46%) of the PM2.5 mass, drove the explosive formation of winter haze episodes in the North China Plain. A sharp decline in SIA concentrations and an increase in SIA-to-PM2.5 ratios during the COVID-19 lockdown were also revealed, reflecting the enhanced atmospheric oxidation capacity and formation of secondary particles.

19.
Shandong Medical Journal ; 62(21):26-29, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2288669

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze IgG test results of serum SARS-CoV-2 antibody in people after booster vaccinations against SARS-CoV-2, and to provide a basis for the booster vaccination. Methods There were 314 healthy individuals who had been vaccinated with the COVID-19 vaccine. Depending on their inoculation situation, they were divided into three groups:the booster injection group(1 week to 2 months after booster vaccination)of 205 cases, <180 days after two doses group(<180 days after two doses of COVID-19 vaccine)of 49 cases, and >180 days after two doses group(>180 days after two doses of COVID-19 vaccine)of 60 cases. The positive rate of IgG in serum of the three groups was measured using the colloidal gold method. Results The serum COVID-19 antibody IgG positive rates were 83.9% in the booster injection group, 18.4% in the <180 days after two doses group, and 5.0% in the >180 days after two doses group, with statistically significant difference between any two groups(all P < 0.05). In the booster injection group, the serum COVID-19 antibody IgG positive rate was 85.2% in people who received a booster injection more than a month, while those who received a booster injection less than a month had a positive rate of 75.9%, and there was no significant difference between these two groups(P > 0.05). In the booster injection group, the positive rates of serum COVID-19 antibody IgG were 85.1% in males and 82.4% in females, with no significant difference(P > 0.05). In the booster injection group, people at the age of 18 and 50 had a positive serum COVID-19 antibody IgG rate of 86.0%, while those over 50 had a positive rate of 58.3%, and there was significant difference between them(P < 0.05). Conclusions Compared with two injections of the COVID-19 vaccine, the booster injection can significantly increase the positive rate of the antibody IgG of COVID-19, which results in a stronger immune response. There is a lower IgG positive rate of COVID-19 antibodies in those aged over 50 years following the booster dose of COVID-19 vaccine than in those aged 18- 50 years.

20.
Journal of Building Engineering ; 69:106273-106273, 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2286279

ABSTRACT

Biosafety issues have aroused global concern, especially after the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron strain of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused incalculable human and property losses. Laboratory-acquired infections (LAIs) caused by improper operations or accidents are frequently reported. Research is urgently needed for a mobile biosafety level-4 (BSL-4) laboratory with a high risk for exposure. Deposition characteristics and the spatial distribution of bioaerosols under two typical cases were studied in this paper. Based on the age of air and simulation of airflow pattern, a detailed analysis of infection risk and the distribution of bioaerosols was conducted. The deposition characteristics of particles on different surfaces were analyzed based on particle tracking technology. The results showed that the removal rate of bioaerosols was lower in the space area of the laboratory from 1.6 m above the ground. The distribution of high-risk areas is affected by the coupling of equipment layout and pollution sources, mainly located downstream of the main airflow in the laboratory, and the particle concentration was eight times that of the low-risk areas. More than half of bioaerosol particles are deposited on laboratory equipment and walls. The number of particles deposited on the wall was the largest, accounting for 25.02% of the total. The unit area deposition ratio of the experimental table was the highest, which was 6.14

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