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1.
Tourism Economics ; : 13548166211058497, 2021.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1582615

ABSTRACT

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on tourism has received general attention in the literature, while the role of news during the pandemic has been ignored. Using a time-frequency connectedness approach, this paper focuses on the spillover effects of COVID-19-related news on the return and volatility of four regional travel and leisure (T&L) stocks. The results in the time domain reveal significant spillovers from news to T&L stocks. Specifically, in the return system, T&L stocks are mainly affected by media hype, while in the volatility system, they are mainly affected by panic sentiment. This paper also finds two risk contagion paths. The contagion index and Global T&L stock are the sources of these paths. The results in the frequency domain indicate that the shocks in the T&L industry are mainly driven by short-term fluctuations. The spillovers from news to T&L stocks and among these T&L stocks are stronger within 1 month.

2.
Curr Opin Virol ; 53: 101199, 2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588012

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is a continuing worldwide threat to human health and social economy. Historically, SARS-CoV-2 follows SARS and MERS as the third coronavirus spreading across borders and continents, but far more dangerous with long-lasting symptomatic consequences. The current situation is strong evidence that coronaviruses will continue to be pathogens of consequence in the future, thus calling for the development of neutralizing antibody-based prophylactics and therapeutics for prevention and treatment of COVID-19 and other human coronavirus diseases. This review summarized the progresses of developing neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against infection of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV, and discussed their potential applications in prevention and treatment of COVID-19 and other human coronavirus diseases.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24318, 2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585786

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic presents a unique challenge to the healthcare community due to the high infectivity rate and need for effective personal protective equipment. Zinc oxide nanoparticles have shown promising antimicrobial properties and are recognized as a safe additive in many food and cosmetic products. This work presents a novel nanocomposite synthesis approach, which allows zinc oxide nanoparticles to be grown within textile and face mask materials, including melt-blown polypropylene and nylon-cotton. The resulting nanocomposite achieves greater than 3 log10 reduction (≥ 99.9%) in coronavirus titer within a contact time of 10 min, by disintegrating the viral envelope. The new nanocomposite textile retains activity even after 100 laundry cycles and has been dermatologist tested as non-irritant and hypoallergenic. Various face mask designs were tested to improve filtration efficiency and breathability while offering antiviral protection, with Claros' design reporting higher filtration efficiency than surgical masks (> 50%) for particles ranged 200 nm to 5 µm in size.


Subject(s)
Masks/virology , Nanocomposites/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Filtration/methods , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Nylons/chemistry , Polypropylenes/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Textiles/analysis , Zinc Oxide/chemistry
4.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 2021 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568353

ABSTRACT

Antigenic characterization of emerging and re-emerging viruses is necessary for the prevention of and response to outbreaks, evaluation of infection mechanisms, understanding of virus evolution, and selection of strains for vaccine development. Primary analytic methods, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent/lectin assays, hemagglutination inhibition, neuraminidase inhibition, micro-neutralization assays, and antigenic cartography, have been widely used in the field of influenza research. These techniques have been improved upon over time for increased analytical capacity, and some have been mobilized for the rapid characterization of the SARS-CoV-2 virus as well as its variants, facilitating the development of highly effective vaccines within 1 year of the initially reported outbreak. While great strides have been made for evaluating the antigenic properties of these viruses, multiple challenges prevent efficient vaccine strain selection and accurate assessment. For influenza, these barriers include the requirement for a large virus quantity to perform the assays, more than what can typically be provided by the clinical samples alone, cell- or egg-adapted mutations that can cause antigenic mismatch between the vaccine strain and circulating viruses, and up to a 6-month duration of vaccine development after vaccine strain selection, which allows viruses to continue evolving with potential for antigenic drift and, thus, antigenic mismatch between the vaccine strain and the emerging epidemic strain. SARS-CoV-2 characterization has faced similar challenges with the additional barrier of the need for facilities with high biosafety levels due to its infectious nature. In this study, we review the primary analytic methods used for antigenic characterization of influenza and SARS-CoV-2 and discuss the barriers of these methods and current developments for addressing these challenges.

5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(23)2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561608

ABSTRACT

Epidemic spreading causes severe challenges to the global public health system, and global and local interventions are considered an effective way to contain such spreading, including school closures (local), border control (global), etc. However, there is little study on comparing the efficiency of global and local interventions on epidemic spreading. Here, we develop a new model based on the Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model with an additional compartment called "quarantine status". We simulate various kinds of outbreaks and interventions. Firstly, we predict, consistent with previous studies, interventions reduce epidemic spreading to 16% of its normal level. Moreover, we compare the effect of global and local interventions and find that local interventions are more effective than global ones. We then study the relationships between incubation period and interventions, finding that early implementation of rigorous intervention significantly reduced the scale of the epidemic. Strikingly, we suggest a Pareto optimal in the intervention when resources were limited. Finally, we show that combining global and local interventions is the most effective way to contain the pandemic spreading if initially infected individuals are concentrated in localized regions. Our work deepens our understandings of the role of interventions on the pandemic, and informs an actionable strategy to contain it.

6.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295328

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) is a highly infectious and fatal pneumonia-type disease that poses a great threat to the public safety of society. A fast and efficient method for screening COVID19-positive patients is essential. At present, the main detection methods are nucleic acid detection of manual diagnosis and medical imaging (CT image/X-ray image), both of which take a long time to obtain the diagnosis result. This paper discusses the common processing methods for the problem of insufficient medical image data. Then, transfer learning and convolutional neural network were used to construct the screening and diagnosis model of COVID-19, and different migration models were analyzed and compared to select a better pre-training model, which was trained and analyzed under small data sets. Finally, it analyzes and discusses how to train a highly reliable model to quickly help doctors provide advice in the critical moment of epidemic prevention and control when only a small sample data set is available.

7.
EPMA J ; : 1-18, 2021 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544595

ABSTRACT

Aims: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly spreading worldwide. Drug therapy is one of the major treatments, but contradictory results of clinical trials have been reported among different individuals. Furthermore, comprehensive analysis of personalized pharmacotherapy is still lacking. In this study, analyses were performed on 47 well-characterized COVID-19 drugs used in the personalized treatment of COVID-19. Methods: Clinical trials with published results of drugs use for COVID-19 treatment were collected to evaluate drug efficacy. Drug-to-Drug Interactions (DDIs) were summarized and classified. Functional variations in actionable pharmacogenes were collected and systematically analysed. "Gene Score" and "Drug Score" were defined and calculated to systematically analyse ethnicity-based genetic differences, which are important for the safer use of COVID-19 drugs. Results: Our results indicated that four antiviral agents (ritonavir, darunavir, daclatasvir and sofosbuvir) and three immune regulators (budesonide, colchicine and prednisone) as well as heparin and enalapril could generate the highest number of DDIs with common concomitantly utilized drugs. Eight drugs (ritonavir, daclatasvir, sofosbuvir, ribavirin, interferon alpha-2b, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and ceftriaxone had actionable pharmacogenomics (PGx) biomarkers among all ethnic groups. Fourteen drugs (ritonavir, daclatasvir, prednisone, dexamethasone, ribavirin, HCQ, ceftriaxone, zinc, interferon beta-1a, remdesivir, levofloxacin, lopinavir, human immunoglobulin G and losartan) showed significantly different pharmacogenomic characteristics in relation to the ethnic origin of the patient. Conclusion: We recommend that particularly for patients with comorbidities to avoid serious DDIs, the predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine (PPPM, 3 PM) strategies have to be applied for COVID-19 treatment, and genetic tests should be performed for drugs with actionable pharmacogenes, especially in some ethnic groups with a higher frequency of functional variations, as our analysis showed. We also suggest that drugs associated with higher ethnic genetic differences should be given priority in future pharmacogenetic studies for COVID-19 management. To facilitate translation of our results into clinical practice, an approach conform with PPPM/3 PM principles was suggested. In summary, the proposed PPPM/3 PM attitude should be obligatory considered for the overall COVID-19 management. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13167-021-00247-0.

8.
Life (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534144

ABSTRACT

The discovery of new drugs is required in the time of global aging and increasing populations. Traditional drug development strategies are expensive, time-consuming, and have high risks. Thus, drug repurposing, which treats new/other diseases using existing drugs, has become a very admired tactic. It can also be referred to as the re-investigation of the existing drugs that failed to indicate the usefulness for the new diseases. Previously published literature used maximum flow approaches to identify new drug targets for drug-resistant infectious diseases but not for drug repurposing. Therefore, we are proposing a maximum flow-based protein-protein interactions (PPIs) network analysis approach to identify new drug targets (proteins) from the targets of the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) drugs and their associated drugs for chronic diseases (such as breast cancer, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)) treatment. Experimental results showed that we have successfully turned the drug repurposing into a maximum flow problem. Our top candidates of drug repurposing, Guanidine, Dasatinib, and Phenethyl Isothiocyanate for breast cancer, IBD, and COPD were experimentally validated by other independent research as the potential candidate drugs for these diseases, respectively. This shows the usefulness of the proposed maximum flow approach for drug repurposing.

9.
J Affect Disord ; 292: 89-94, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to explore the association between perceived stress and depression among medical students and the mediating role of insomnia in this relationship during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from March to April 2020 in medical university. Levels of perceived stress, insomnia and depression were measured using Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9). The descriptive analyses of the demographic characteristics and correlation analyses of the three variables were calculated. The significance of the mediation effect was obtained using a bootstrap approach with SPSS PROCESS macro. RESULTS: The mean age of medical students was 21.46 years (SD=2.50). Of these medical students, 10,185 (34.3%) were male and 19,478 (65.7%) were female. Perceived stress was significantly associated with depression (ß=0.513, P < 0.001). Insomnia mediated the association between perceived stress and depression (ß=0.513, P < 0.001). The results of the non-parametric bootstrapping method confirmed the significance of the indirect effect of perceived stress through insomnia (95% bootstrap CI =0.137, 0.149). The indirect effect of insomnia accounted for 44.13% of the total variance in depression. CONCLUSIONS: These findings contribute to a better understanding of the interactive mechanisms underlying perceived stress and depression, and elucidating the mediating effects of insomnia on the association. This research provides a useful theoretical and methodological approach for prevention of depression in medical students. Findings from this study indicated that it may be effective to reduce depression among medical students by improving sleep quality and easing perceived stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Students, Medical , Adult , Anxiety , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
Mol Biomed ; 2(1): 1, 2021 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515457

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2). COVID-19 can spread to the entire body and cause multiple organ failure. It is a daunting challenge to control the fast growing worldwide pandemic because effective prevention and treatment strategies are unavailable currently. Generally, the immune response of the human body triggered by viral infection is essential for the elimination of the virus. However, severe COVID-19 patients may manifest dysregulated immune responses, such as lymphopenia, lymphocyte exhaustion, exacerbated antibody response, cytokine release syndrome (CRS), etc. Understanding of these immunological characteristics may help identify better approaches for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of COVID-19 patients. As specific anti-viral agents are notoriously difficult to develop, strategies for modulating the immune responses by either developing novel vaccines or using immunotherapy hold great promise to improve the management of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

11.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292331

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has spread worldwide and has attracted considerable attention. This study aims to investigate the sleep quality of the public during the normalization of COVID-19 pandemic prevention and control in China, as well as related factors that affect sleep quality. Methods: : A web-based cross-sectional survey was implemented from Feb 2 nd to Feb 9 th , 2021 in China. A total of 613 subjects from 27 provinces and 4 municipalities participated in this study. Questionnaire including Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), COVID Stress Scale (CSS), COVID-19 Worry Scale and 14-item Resilience Scale (the RS-14) as well as demographic characteristics and pandemic-related information was used to measure sleep quality, stress, worries and resilience of Chinese population. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to explore the associated factors of sleep quality. Results: : The prevalence of poor sleep quality among 613 participants was 41.1% (95%CI=37.2%-45%). Regression analysis indicated that chronic diseases, medical visits, occupation, and negative life events were factors affecting sleep quality. Stress and worries were positively associated with score of sleep quality, while resilience was negatively associated with score of sleep quality. Conclusions: : During the normalization of COVID-19 pandemic prevention and control, Chinese public has poor sleep quality. Effective interventions should be taken to decrease people’s COVID-19 stress and worries. Resilience enhancement is also an important factor to be considered to improve people’s sleep quality.

12.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 678703, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505766

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by SARS-CoV-2 spread rapidly worldwide. Portable nucleic acid tests of SARS-CoV-2 are critically important for diagnostics. In this study, we used an isothermal amplification method-Multienzyme Isothermal Rapid Amplification (MIRA)-for rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2. We designed the primers and probes in ORF1ab and N gene of SARS-CoV-2. The amplicons could be monitored by lateral flow dipsticks (LFDs). The reaction temperature, time, concentrations of primers and probes, and working volume were optimized. Four commercial swab collection buffers were used to test the amplification efficacy of our assay without RNA extraction. Our assay was able to amplify duplex targets of SARS-CoV-2 in one single reaction using one-step RT-MIRA. The assay worked well in a low volume of 10 µl at 38°C for 20 min. Using three collection buffers without guanidinium, our assay was able to amplify efficaciously without RNA extraction. The 95% limit of detection (LoD) of the RT-MIRA assay was 49.5 (95% CI, 46.8-52.7) copies/ml for ORF1ab gene and 48.8 (95% CI, 46.5-52.6) copies/ml for N gene. There is no cross-reaction with other human respiratory pathogens, such as SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, influenza A virus, influenza B virus, human adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, human parainfluenza virus, and coronavirus 229E in our assay. The precision evaluation revealed that the C50-20% to C50+20% range bounds the C5-C95 interval. This assay also showed high anti-interference ability. The extraction-free RT-MIRA and qPCR detection results of 243 nucleic acid specimens from suspected patients or national references showed a 100.0% (95% confidence interval, 94.2%-100.0%) positive predictive value and a 100.0% (95% confidence interval, 92.7%-100.0%) negative predictive value. Compared with qPCR, the kappa value of the two assays was 1.00 (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, we provide a portable and visualized method for detection of SARS-CoV-2 without RNA extraction, allowing its application in SARS-CoV-2 on-site detection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Point-of-Care Testing , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcription
13.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; 42(2):260-263, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1502913

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the current situation and influencing factors of Internet addiction among college students after returning to school during the COVID-19 epidemic, and to provide scientific basis for timely intervention measures to adjust the risk factors of Internet addiction.

14.
Protein Sci ; 2021 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469553

ABSTRACT

Applying simulations with structure-based G o ¯ - like models has proven to be an effective strategy for investigating the factors that control biomolecular dynamics. The common element of these models is that some (or all) of the intra/inter-molecular interactions are explicitly defined to stabilize an experimentally determined structure. To facilitate the development and application of this broad class of models, we previously released the SMOG 2 software package. This suite allows one to easily customize and distribute structure-based (i.e., SMOG) models for any type of polymer-ligand system. The force fields generated by SMOG 2 may then be used to perform simulations in highly optimized MD packages, such as Gromacs, NAMD, LAMMPS, and OpenMM. Here, we describe extensions to the software and demonstrate the capabilities of the most recent version (SMOG v2.4.2). Changes include new tools that aid user-defined customization of force fields, as well as an interface with the OpenMM simulation libraries (OpenSMOG v1.1.0). The OpenSMOG module allows for arbitrary user-defined contact potentials and non-bonded potentials to be employed in SMOG models, without source-code modifications. To illustrate the utility of these advances, we present applications to systems with millions of atoms, long polymers and explicit ions, as well as models that include non-structure-based (e.g., AMBER-based) energetic terms. Examples include large-scale rearrangements of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein, the HIV-1 capsid with explicit ions, and crystallographic lattices of ribosomes and proteins. In summary, SMOG 2 and OpenSMOG provide robust support for researchers who seek to develop and apply structure-based models to large and/or intricate biomolecular systems.

15.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 498, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468051

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global public health emergency that has caused worldwide concern. The mental health of medical students under the COVID-19 epidemic has attracted much attention. This study aims to identify subgroups of medical students based on depression and anxiety and explore the influencing factors during the COVID-19 epidemic in China. METHODS: A total of 29,663 medical students were recruited during the epidemic of COVID-19 in China. Depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed using Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD7) respectively. Latent class analysis was performed based on depression and anxiety symptoms in medical students. The latent class subtypes were compared using the chi-square test. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine associations between identified classes and related factors. RESULTS: In this study, three distinct subgroups were identified, namely, the poor mental health group, the mild mental health group and the low symptoms group. The number of medical students in each class is 4325, 9321 and 16,017 respectively. The multinomial logistic regression results showed that compared with the low symptoms group, the factors influencing depression and anxiety in the poor mental health group and mild mental health group were sex, educational level, drinking, individual psychiatric disorders, family psychiatric disorders, knowledge of COVID-19, fear of being infected, and participate in mental health education on COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that latent class analysis can be used to categorize different medical students according to their depression and anxiety symptoms during the outbreak of COVID-19. The main factors influencing the poor mental health group and the mild mental health group are basic demographic characteristics, disease history, COVID-19 related factors and behavioural lifestyle. School administrative departments can carry out targeted psychological counseling according to different subgroups to promote the physical and mental health of medical students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Students, Medical , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Latent Class Analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Resources Policy ; 74:102393, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1458826

ABSTRACT

The emergence of Covid-19 has created a global panic that affects global economic performance and causes natural resources commodity price volatility. In this regard, the current research study investigated the nexus of natural resource commodity price volatility and global economic performance from January 01, 2019, to July 01, 2021. Using the wavelet power spectrum and wavelet coherence approaches, the empirical findings reveal that only the natural resource commodity prices are vulnerable. However, no vulnerability has been observed for the global economic performance. Additionally, the wavelet coherence reveals that there is no long-run or the short run causal association between these two variables. Moreover, the Breitung-Candelon spectral Granger causality test confirms no causal relationship between natural resource commodity price volatility and global economic performance. Based on the empirical findings, this study provides some relevant policy implications.

18.
Ther Adv Neurol Disord ; 13: 1756286420967828, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455864

ABSTRACT

Background and Purpose: The Pipeline Embolization Device (PED, Covidien/Medtronic) is widely used to treat intracranial aneurysms. This PED in China post-market multi-center registry study (PLUS) investigated safety and effectiveness of the PED for intracranial aneurysms in the Chinese population. Methods: This was a panoramic, consecutive, real-world cohort registry study. Patients treated with PED with or without coils between November 2014 and October 2019 at 14 centers in China were included, and those treated by parent vessel occlusion or other stents were excluded. Study outcomes included angiographic evaluation of aneurysm occlusion, complications, in-stent stenosis, and predictors of aneurysm occlusion. A central committee reviewed all imaging and endpoint events. Results: In total, 1171 patients with 1322 intracranial aneurysms were included. The total occlusion rate was 81.4% (787/967) at mean follow-up of 8.96 ± 7.50 months, with 77.1% (380/493) occlusion in the PED alone and 85.9% (407/474) in the PED plus coiling group. On multi-variate analysis, female sex, hyperlipidemia, vertebral aneurysms, PED plus coiling, and blood flow detained to venous phase were significant predictors of aneurysm occlusion. In posterior circulation cohort, there was no variable associated with aneurysm occlusion. In-stent stenosis predictors included current smoking and cerebral sclerosis/stenosis. Conclusion: In the largest series on PED of multi-center date of China, data suggest that treatment with the flow-diverting PED in intracranial aneurysms was efficacious. The treatment of PED combined coiling and blood flow detained to venous phase after PED implant were associated with aneurysmal occlusion. The occlusion rate of vertebral aneurysms was higher than other location aneurysms. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03831672.

19.
Sci Total Environ ; 807(Pt 1): 150786, 2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454513

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 genetic material has been detected in raw wastewater around the world throughout the COVID-19 pandemic and has served as a useful tool for monitoring community levels of SARS-CoV-2 infections. SARS-CoV-2 genetic material is highly detectable in a patient's feces and the household wastewater for several days before and after a positive COVID-19 qPCR test from throat or sputum samples. Here, we characterize genetic material collected from raw wastewater samples and determine recovery efficiency during a concentration process. We find that pasteurization of raw wastewater samples did not reduce SARS-CoV-2 signal if RNA is extracted immediately after pasteurization. On the contrary, we find that signal decreased by approximately half when RNA was extracted 24-36 h post-pasteurization and ~90% when freeze-thawed prior to concentration. As a matrix control, we use an engineered enveloped RNA virus. Surprisingly, after concentration, the recovery of SARS-CoV-2 signal is consistently higher than the recovery of the control virus leading us to question the nature of the SARS-CoV-2 genetic material detected in wastewater. We see no significant difference in signal after different 24-hour temperature changes; however, treatment with detergent decreases signal ~100-fold. Furthermore, the density of the samples is comparable to enveloped retrovirus particles, yet, interestingly, when raw wastewater samples were used to inoculate cells, no cytopathic effects were seen indicating that wastewater samples do not contain infectious SARS-CoV-2. Together, this suggests that wastewater contains fully intact enveloped particles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viruses , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Waste Water
20.
Pain Rep ; 6(3): e958, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443161

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The unknown and uncontrollable situation of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may have triggered changes in pain, anxiety, and depression along with a perception of nonspecific COVID-19 symptoms. Objectives: We determined how anxiety, depression, and pain outcomes varied during the "Stay-at-Home" order compared with the prepandemic period and whether nonspecific COVID-19 symptoms would occur. Methods: We conducted an online survey to opportunistically reassess clinical anxiety, depression, pain intensity, and pain interference while controlling for somatic symptom severity during the prepandemic and Stay-at-Home order period. During the Stay-at-Home period, anxiety, depression, pain intensity, and pain interference were reassessed. Coping strategies were assessed as a critical factor influencing pain behaviors. In addition, we explored the occurrence of nonspecific COVID-19 symptoms with an ad hoc survey referencing the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention publicly available COVID-19 symptoms. Results: We observed a significant increase in depression and anxiety levels during the Stay-at-Home period. Coping strategy changes (eg, increased exercise) were linked to lower pain severity and interference which improved overall. Participants who self-reported nonspecific COVID-19 symptoms had higher prepandemic depression. Among the 72 participants not diagnosed with COVID-19, 70.8% of the participants experienced symptoms resembling those associated with COVID-19. Conclusion: We suggest the parallel between pain outcome improvement and worsening anxiety and depression during the Stay-at-Home order might reflect a shift in symptoms, indicating that those patients with underlying mood disorders may require more help than they did before the pandemic.

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