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1.
Vet Microbiol ; 275: 109599, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2132637

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a re-emerging pathogen that causes severe economic loss in the pig industry. The host's innate immune system is the first line of defense on virus invasion of the small intestinal epithelial cells. Chemokines, as a part of the innate immune system, play an important role in host immunity against infection, however, and their expression and chemotactic effect on key immune cells in PEDV infection remains unclear. In this study, cDNA microarray was firstly performed to analyzed ileum tissue of piglets on the third day after PEDV infection. The differentially expressed genes mainly involved in multiple biological processes, chemokine signaling pathway and cytokine receptor interaction signaling pathway had the highest enrichment according to GO and KEGG enrichment analysis. The expression levels of chemokines MCP-1, MIP-1ß, IL-8, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL13 in ileum of PEDV- infected piglets were significantly higher than those in the control group. The expression of chemokines in vivo experiment was further verified by RT-qPCR and ELISA using PEDV-infected IPEC-J2 cells. The results showed that the PEDV-infected IPEC-J2 cells had significantly induced protein expression of MCP-1, MIP-1ß, IL-8, CXCL9, CXCL-10 and CXCL13. These results indicated that the changes of chemokines expressed in the ileum of piglets (in vivo) were consistent with those in IPEC-J2 cells (in vitro) after PEDV infection. Finally, the role of chemokines in immune cell migration during PEDV infection was illustrated by siRNA-mediated knock down method and the co-culture model of IPEC-J2 cells with peripheral blood leukocyte cells (PBLCs). The FACS analysis showed that MCP-1 induced by PEDV infection played a chemotactic effect on CD14+ cells, CXCL9 on CD3+CD4-CD8-γδ T, CD3+CD4-CD8+ Tc, CD3+CD4+CD8- Th and CD3+CD4+CD8+ Tm subsets, and CXCL13 on CD19+ B cells. Collectively, our findings first indicate that PEDV-induced chemokines MCP-1, CXCL-9 and CXCL-13 attracted CD14+ cells, T cells and B cells, respectively. These results provide a theoretical basis for studying the mechanism of anti-PEDV infection in piglets.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Swine , Monocytes , Chemokine CCL4/pharmacology , Interleukin-8/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Cell Line
2.
Industrial Crops & Products ; 184:N.PAG-N.PAG, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1889507

ABSTRACT

Camelina [ Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz] has gained extensive attention in Europe and North America as a potential dietary oil and biofuel feedstock. It is a relatively new crop in Asia (e.g., China, Korea). There is great potential for the cropping of camelina in eastern China on marginal lands where the climatic conditions (e.g., cooler temperature) may be suitable for cultivating this crop. However, little has been done to evaluate its agronomic performance in eastern China. To address this, a three-year (2019–2021) field study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fall and spring seeding dates on seed yield and quality of sixteen spring camelina genotypes across the three different growing environments in eastern China and to select potentially high-yielding genotypes for fall or spring seeding with the suitable seeding dates for each growing environment. The study showed that fall seeding camelina between late Oct. and the third week of Nov. in eastern China, including Anyang, Qingdao, and Yangzhou, produced a sustainable and satisfactory seed and oil yield (mean across genotypes, locations, and years: 2372 and 921 kg ha−1, respectively). While spring seeding between mid- and the end of April at Qingdao showed a lower productive performance (mean seed and oil yield across genotypes: 1081 and 373 kg ha−1, respectively), it still provides an alternative option for the production of high-quality edible oil compared to other oilseed crops such as soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Although the strong genotype × environment interactions showed, among the tested camelina genotypes, fall seeding camelina accessions of CamK9, CamC2, and CamC4 at the suitable seeding dates showed a consistently greater mean seed yield (range: 1648–3170 kg ha−1) and oil yield (747–1368 kg ha−1) in all test locations compared to other genotypes. At the suitable fall seeding dates, mean seed oil content and yield across the tested genotypes and locations were 43.5% (range: 39.0–48.9%) and 856 kg ha−1 (range: 161–1489 ha−1), respectively, with the highest mean oil content of 45.9% determined at Yangzhou (range: 43.6–48.9%) and the highest mean seed yield of 2539 kg ha−1 at Qingdao (range: 1365–3501 kg ha−1). The camelina genotypes indicated would be good candidates for large-scale cropping in eastern China and other parts of the world with similar climatic conditions. • Sixteen spring camelina genotypes selected for fall and spring seeding were evaluated. • Three camelina genotypes best adapted to fall seeding in eastern China compared to other genotypes. • Suitable seeding date for fall seeding camelina in eastern China: late Oct.–third week of Nov. • Two camelina genotypes were suitable for spring seeding in mid-April at Qingdao. • Camelina has the potential for large-scale on marginal lands of eastern China. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Industrial Crops & Products is the property of Elsevier B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 715519, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477836

ABSTRACT

Background: Secondary infections pose tremendous challenges in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment and are associated with higher mortality rates. Clinicians face of the challenge of diagnosing viral infections because of low sensitivity of available laboratory tests. Case Presentation: A 66-year-old woman initially manifested fever and shortness of breath. She was diagnosed as critically ill with COVID-19 using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) and treated with antiviral therapy, ventilator and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). However, after the condition was relatively stabled for a few days, the patient deteriorated with fever, frequent cough, increased airway secretions, and increased exudative lesions in the lower right lung on chest X-rays, showing the possibility of a newly acquired infection, though sputum bacterial and fungal cultures and smears showed negative results. Using metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS), we identified a reactivation of latent human herpes virus type 1 (HHV-1) in the respiratory tract, blood and gastrointestinal tract, resulting in a worsened clinical course in a critically ill COVID-19 patient on ECMO. Anti-HHV-1 therapy guided by these sequencing results effectively decreased HHV-1 levels, and improved the patient's clinical condition. After 49 days on ECMO and 67 days on the ventilator, the 66-year-old patient recovered and was discharged. Conclusions: This case report demonstrates the potential value of mNGS for evidence-based treatment, and suggests that potential reactivation of latent viruses should be considered in critically ill COVID-19 patients.

4.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 702472, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394794

ABSTRACT

In the past two decades, pandemics of several fatal coronaviruses have posed enormous challenges for public health, including SARS-CoV (2003), MERS-CoV (2012), and SARS-CoV-2 (2019). Among these, SARS-CoV-2 continues to ravage the world today and has lead to millions of deaths and incalculable economic damage. Till now, there is no clinically proven antiviral drug available for SARS-CoV-2. However, the bioactive molecules of natural origin, especially medicinal plants, have been proven to be potential resources in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2, acting at different stages of the viral life cycle and targeting different viral or host proteins, such as PLpro, 3CLpro, RdRp, helicase, spike, ACE2, and TMPRSS2. They provide a viable strategy to develop therapeutic agents. This review presents fundamental biological information on SARS-CoV-2, including the viral biological characteristics and invasion mechanisms. It also summarizes the reported natural bioactive molecules with anti-coronavirus properties, arranged by their different targets in the life cycle of viral infection of human cells, and discusses the prospects of these bioactive molecules for the treatment of COVID-19.

5.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 18(1): 33, 2021 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207601

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hong Kong is a densely populated city with a low incidence and mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The city imposed different levels of social distancing including, the closure of sports venues and restrictions on eateries. This inevitably affects the eating behaviour and physical activities of the population. We examined the changes in eating behavior and physical activities before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, and identified sociodemographic factors associated with the behavioral changes. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study via a random telephone survey of Chinese adults conducted in Hong Kong from May to June, 2020 - a period in which social distancing measures were being imposed. We measured the physical activity habits from four aspects and dietary consumption patterns from seven aspects before and during the pandemic based on the World Health Organization's guidelines and previous publications. RESULTS: In total, 724 participants were recruited. Individuals were found to cook more frequently at home (p < 0.001) and order take-out (p < 0.001) during the COVID-19 pandemic. While no significant change in the frequency of fast food consumption was observed, we found significant increases in the frequency of eating fruits (p < 0.001) and vegetables (p = 0.004). The frequencies of walking, moderate-intensive sports, and high-intensity sports were significantly reduced (p < 0.001). We found that healthy lifestyle behaviors during the pandemic were negatively associated with participants' economic status. CONCLUSIONS: Social distancing measures likely provided an opportunity for individuals to stay home and thus eat healthier. However, in a prolonged period of social restrictions, a lower physical activity level poses a risk to public health. Public health officials are thus advised to monitor physical health on a population-wide basis. The findings highlighted the importance of interventions tailored to individuals who have prolonged home stays - particularly for individuals in the low economic group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise , Feeding Behavior , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Behavior , Hong Kong , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telephone
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(2): e0009056, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099914

ABSTRACT

While many studies have focused on identifying the association between meteorological factors and the activity of COVID-19, we argue that the contribution of meteorological factors to a reduction of the risk of COVID-19 was minimal when the effects of control measures were taken into account. In this study, we assessed how much variability in COVID-19 activity is attributable to city-level socio-demographic characteristics, meteorological factors, and the control measures imposed. We obtained the daily incidence of COVID-19, city-level characteristics, and meteorological data from a total of 102 cities situated in 27 provinces/municipalities outside Hubei province in China from 1 January 2020 to 8 March 2020, which largely covers almost the first wave of the epidemic. Generalized linear mixed effect models were employed to examine the variance in the incidence of COVID-19 explained by different combinations of variables. According to the results, including the control measure effects in a model substantially raised the explained variance to 45%, which increased by >40% compared to the null model that did not include any covariates. On top of that, including temperature and relative humidity in the model could only result in < 1% increase in the explained variance even though the meteorological factors showed a statistically significant association with the incidence rate of COVID-19. In conclusion, we showed that very limited variability of the COVID-19 incidence was attributable to meteorological factors. Instead, the control measures could explain a larger proportion of variance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Environment , Infection Control/methods , Meteorological Concepts , China/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
7.
J Leukoc Biol ; 109(1): 13-22, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1095316

ABSTRACT

Excessive monocyte/macrophage activation with the development of a cytokine storm and subsequent acute lung injury, leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), is a feared consequence of infection with COVID-19. The ability to recognize and potentially intervene early in those patients at greatest risk of developing this complication could be of great clinical utility. In this study, we performed flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood samples from 34 COVID-19 patients in early 2020 in an attempt to identify factors that could help predict the severity of disease and patient outcome. Although we did not detect significant differences in the number of monocytes between patients with COVID-19 and normal healthy individuals, we did identify significant morphologic and functional differences, which are more pronounced in patients requiring prolonged hospitalization and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Patients with COVID-19 have larger than normal monocytes, easily identified on forward scatter (FSC), side scatter analysis by routine flow cytometry, with the presence of a distinct population of monocytes with high FSC (FSC-high). On more detailed analysis, these CD14+ CD16+ , FSC-high monocytes show features of mixed M1/M2 macrophage polarization with higher expression of CD80+ and CD206+ compared with the residual FSC-low monocytes and secretion of higher levels of IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α, when compared with the normal controls. In conclusion, the detection and serial monitoring of this subset of inflammatory monocytes using flow cytometry could be of great help in guiding the prognostication and treatment of patients with COVID-19 and merits further evaluation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Macrophages , Monocytes , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Antigens, CD/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/blood , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/pathology , Macrophages/metabolism , Macrophages/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/metabolism , Monocytes/pathology , Young Adult
8.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 98(8): 859-863, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260153

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current outbreak of COVID-19 has spread rapidly all over the world. Respiratory droplets and contaction with infected patients are the two major transmission routes. However, the value of tear virus nucleic acid is still not clear. We dynamic detected the SARS-CoV-2 in eye sample of one COVID-19 patient with obstruction of common lacrimal ducts. METHODS: Besides the routine examination, nasopharyngeal and eye swab were continuously measured by polymerase chain reaction assay and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Gene detection was performed for drug use guidance, and flow cytometry was performed to analyse the lymphocyte subsets. RESULTS: Nasopharyngeal swabs were positive for 22 days, but eye swabs were still continuously positive for 2 weeks after nasopharyngeal swabs turned negative. The low level of lymphocyte and the high level IL-6 lasted for almost 4 weeks, then became near normal. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) confirmed the existing of SARS-CoV-2, HSV1 and HHV6B virus nucleic acid. The gene detection for drug use guidance showed the genetic locus ABCB1 (3435T>C) rs1045642 belonged to type CC and it mean the efficiency of lopinavir-ritonavir would be significantly decreased. The flow cytometry of lymphocyte subsets showed PD-1+  CD95+ cells was accounting for 94.8% in CD3+  CD8+ T subset and for 94.8% in CD3+  TCRγδ+ T subset. CONCLUSIONS: As obstruction of common lacrimal duct, positively detection in one eye for 2 weeks more after nasopharyngeal swab became negative. More eye swabs should be collected from COVID-19 patients, especially from those immunocompromised, those with eye symptoms and those had a history of ocular diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Conjunctiva/virology , Eye Infections, Viral/diagnosis , Herpesvirus 1, Human/isolation & purification , Herpesvirus 6, Human/isolation & purification , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tears/virology , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Conjunctivitis, Viral/diagnosis , Drug Therapy, Combination , Eye Infections, Viral/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Viral/virology , Flow Cytometry , HIV Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Herpes Simplex/virology , Herpesvirus 1, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 6, Human/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/drug therapy , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/virology , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Moxifloxacin/therapeutic use , Nasopharynx/virology , Nucleic Acids/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/genetics , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Roseolovirus Infections/diagnosis , Roseolovirus Infections/drug therapy , Roseolovirus Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
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