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1.
Journal of nursing management ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1816609

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of gong meditation on nurses' perceived stress and occupational burnout during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nurses play an important role in hospitals, and they currently encounter additional stress due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In this experimental study, participants were provided intervention with seven sections of gong meditation, and each session lasted for approximately 50-60 min. Data were collected from July 2020 to February 2021. Eighty nurses were randomly assigned to the experimental or control group, and 79 completed all the processes of our protocol. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used in data analysis. Compared with the control group, the experimental group experienced significant improvements in stress and occupational burnout. Gong meditation can effectively alleviate stress and occupational burnout among nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic. Gong meditation can be provided by hospital managers to all nurses to reduce their stress, occupational burnout, and subsequent mental health problems. Additionally, we suggest that gong meditation can be used as an effective intervention for individuals in other occupational fields, as it is accessible and inexpensive intervention.

2.
Sustainability ; 14(9):5215, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1810189

ABSTRACT

Effective recovery of rural tourism in the post-COVID-19 era could consolidate achievements in poverty alleviation and promote rural revitalization in China. In order to explore the factors influencing the rural tourism recovery from the COVID-19 crisis, this explorative–qualitative study chose Tianxi village in Hunan province of China as a typical case, as it has been officially selected as one of the key national villages for developing rural tourism. It was found that the process of rural tourism recovery in the post-COVID-19 era consists substantially of the development and evolutionary resilience in rural tourism. In the proposed theoretical model, the governance capability of local governments, robustness of rural social networks, activeness of rural talent, innovativeness of development mechanisms, and persistence of resilience cultivation are all essential factors throughout this process. Evolutionary resilience of rural tourism could enable destinations to manage unpredictable crises and even to seize novel development opportunities.

4.
Environmental Pollution ; : 119308, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1796874

ABSTRACT

Numerous epidemiological studies have shown a close relationship between outdoor air pollution and increased risks for cancer, infection, and cardiopulmonary diseases. However, very few studies have investigated the potential health effects of coexposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) and bioaerosols through the transmission of infectious agents, particularly under the current circumstances of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. In this study, we aimed to identify urinary metabolite biomarkers that might serve as clinically predictive or diagnostic standards for relevant diseases in a real-time manner. We performed an unbiased gas/liquid chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC/LC-MS) approach to detect urinary metabolites in 92 samples from young healthy individuals collected at three different time points after exposure to clean air, polluted ambient, or purified air, as well as two additional time points after air repollution or repurification. Subsequently, we compared the metabolomic profiles between the two time points using an integrated analysis, along with Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes-enriched pathway and time-series analysis. We identified 33 and 155 differential metabolites (DMs) associated with PM and bioaerosol exposure using GC/LC–MS and follow-up analyses, respectively. Our findings suggest that 16-dehydroprogesterone and 4-hydroxyphenylethanol in urine samples may serve as potential biomarkers to predict or diagnose PM- or bioaerosol-related diseases, respectively. The results indicated apparent differences between PM- and bioaerosol-associated DMs at five different time points and revealed dynamic alterations in the urinary metabolic profiles of young healthy humans with cyclic exposure to clean and polluted air environments. Our findings will help in investigating the detrimental health effects of short-term coexposure to airborne PM and bioaerosols in a real-time manner and improve clinically predictive or diagnostic strategies for preventing air pollution-related diseases.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758700

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To combat the COVID-19 pandemic, nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPI) were implemented worldwide, which impacted a broad spectrum of acute respiratory infections (ARI). METHODS: Etiologically diagnostic data from 142 559 cases with ARIs, who were tested for eight viral pathogens (influenza virus, IFV; respiratory syncytial virus, RSV; human parainfluenza virus, HPIV; human adenovirus; human metapneumovirus; human coronavirus, HCoV; human bocavirus, HBoV, and human rhinovirus, HRV) between 2012 and 2021, were analyzed to assess the changes of respiratory infections in China during the first COVID-19 pandemic year compared to pre-pandemic years. RESULTS: Test positive rates of all respiratory viruses decreased during 2020, compared to the average levels during 2012-2019, with changes ranging from -17·2% for RSV to -87·6% for IFV. Sharp decreases mostly occurred between February and August when massive NPIs remained active, although HRV rebounded to the historical level during the summer. While IFV and HMPV were consistently suppressed year round, RSV, HPIV, HCoV, HRV HBov resurged and went beyond historical levels during September, 2020-January, 2021, after NPIs were largely relaxed and schools reopened. Resurgence was more prominent among children younger than 18 years and in Northern China. These observations remain valid after accounting for seasonality and long-term trend of each virus. CONCLUSIONS: Activities of respiratory viral infections were reduced substantially in the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, and massive NPIs were likely the main driver. Lifting of NPIs can lead to resurgence of viral infections, particularly in children.

6.
J Bus Psychol ; : 1-15, 2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748464

ABSTRACT

Businesses are gradually reopening as lockdown measures for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic are being relieved in many places across the globe. It is challenging but imperative for businesses to manage the risk of infection in the workplace and reopen safely. Drawing on risky decision-making theory and the job demands-resource model of workplace safety, we examined the influences of employees' COVID-19 risk perception on their safety performance at work. On the one hand, COVID-19 risk perception motivates employees to perform safely; on the other hand, COVID-19 risk perception could also undermine safety performance through triggering anxiety. In an effort to find ways that alleviate the negative implications of risk perception, we also tested a cross-level interaction model where the risk perception-anxiety relation is weakened with a favorable team safety climate as well as low abusive supervision. Our data were collected from car dealership employees located in China in March 2020, when businesses just started to reopen in locations where these data were collected. Results showed that COVID-19 risk perception was positively related to anxiety, which in turn undermined safety performance. This negative effect canceled out the direct positive effects of COVID-19 risk perception on safety performance. In addition, cross-level interaction results showed that the buffering effect of team safety climate on the risk perception-anxiety relation was diminished with an abusive supervisor. Our findings provide valuable and timely implications on risk management and workplace safety during a public health crisis such as the COVID-19 pandemic.

7.
Sci China Life Sci ; 2022 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739404

ABSTRACT

Signaling pathway alterations in COVID-19 of living humans as well as therapeutic targets of the host proteins are not clear. We analyzed 317 urine proteomes, including 86 COVID-19, 55 pneumonia and 176 healthy controls, and identified specific RNA virus detector protein DDX58/RIG-I only in COVID-19 samples. Comparison of the COVID-19 urinary proteomes with controls revealed major pathway alterations in immunity, metabolism and protein localization. Biomarkers that may stratify severe symptoms from moderate ones suggested that macrophage induced inflammation and thrombolysis may play a critical role in worsening the disease. Hyper activation of the TCA cycle is evident and a macrophage enriched enzyme CLYBL is up regulated in COVID-19 patients. As CLYBL converts the immune modulatory TCA cycle metabolite itaconate through the citramalyl-CoA intermediate to acetyl-CoA, an increase in CLYBL may lead to the depletion of itaconate, limiting its anti-inflammatory function. These observations suggest that supplementation of itaconate and inhibition of CLYBL are possible therapeutic options for treating COVID-19, opening an avenue of modulating host defense as a means of combating SARS-CoV-2 viruses.

8.
Wireless Communications & Mobile Computing (Online) ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1731355

ABSTRACT

Data integrity verification mechanisms play an important role in cloud environments. Recently, a lightweight identity-based cloud storage audit scheme has been proposed;this paper points out security vulnerabilities of their OffTagGen algorithm. That is, the attackers such as malicious cloud servers can forge the tags, which can destroy data integrity. By improving the construction of OffTagGen algorithm, an improved security cloud auditing protocol is proposed in this work to better protect user’s privacy. The analysis shows that the new protocol is effective and resistant to attacks.

9.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329405

ABSTRACT

Antibody therapeutics for the treatment of COVID-19 has been highly successful while faces a challenge of the recent emergence of the Omicron variant which escapes the majority of existing SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). Here, we successfully generated a panel of SARS-CoV-2/SARS-CoV cross-neutralizing antibodies by sequential immunization of the two pseudoviruses. Of which, nAbs X01, X10 and X17 showed broadly neutralizing breadths against most variants of concern (VOCs) and X17 was further identified as a Class 5 nAb with undiminished neutralization against the Omicron variant. Cryo-EM structures of three-antibody in complex with the spike proteins of prototyped SARS-CoV-2, Delta, Omicron and SARS-CoV defined three non-overlapping conserved epitopes on the receptor-binding domain (RBD). The triple antibody cocktail exhibited enhanced resistance to viral escape and effective protection against the infection of Beta variant in hamsters. Our finding will aid the development of both antibody therapeutics and broad vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants.

10.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 49, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692636

ABSTRACT

In recent decades, respiratory infections, including SARS, HINI and the currently spreading COVID-19, caused by various viruses such as influenza and coronavirus have seriously threatened human health. It has generated inconsistent recommendations on the mandatory use of facemasks across countries on a population level due to insufficient evidence on the efficacy of facemask use among the general population. This meta-analysis aimed to explore (1) the efficacy of facemask use on preventing respiratory infections, and (2) the perceptions, intentions, and practice about facemask use among the general population worldwide. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane, bioRxiv, and medRxiv databases since inception to August 17, 2020. From 21,341 records identified, eight RCTs on facemask in preventing infections and 78 studies on perception, intention, and practice of facemask use among the general population were included in the analysis. The meta-analysis of RCTs found a significant protective effect of facemask intervention (OR = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.71-0.99; I2 = 0%). This protective effect was even more pronounced when the intervention duration was more than two weeks (OR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.66-0.88; I2 = 0%). The meta-analysis of observational studies on perception, intention, and practice on facemask use showed that 71% of respondents perceived facemasks to be effective for infection prevention, 68% of respondents would wear facemasks, and 54% of respondents wore facemasks for preventing respiratory infections. Differences in perception, intention, and practice behavior of facemask use in different regions may be related to the impact of respiratory infections, regional culture, and policies. The governments and relevant organizations should make effort to reduce the barriers in the use of facemasks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Masks , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
11.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327325

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant is highly transmissible and extensive morbidity, which has raised concerns for antiviral therapy. In addition, the molecular basis for the attenuated pathogenicity and replication capacity of Omicron remains elusive. Here, we report for the first time that a high-frequency mutation T9I on 2-E of SARS-CoV-2 variant Omicron forms a non-selective ion channel with abolished calcium permeability and reduced acid sensitivity compared to the WT channel. In addition, T9I caused less cell death and a weaker cytokine production. The channel property changes might be responsible for the Omicron variant releases less efficiently and induces a comparatively lower level of cell damage in the infected cells. Our study gives valuable insights into key features of the Omicron variant, further supporting 2-E is a promising drug target against SARS-CoV-2 and providing critical information for the COVID-19 treatment.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325194

ABSTRACT

Background: Current information is not enough to recognize the risk factors of clinical deterioration and to make medical decisions in COVID-19 patients. Methods: : A retrospective study was performed, with collecting data from medical records of COVID-19 patients in three designated hospitals from January 8, 2020 to May 6, 2020. Clinical data were analyzed between the deteriorated and the non-deteriorated patients, which was defined as either a increase of 2 categories on the modified 6-category ordinal scale, or a decline of PaO 2 -to-FIO 2 ratio more than 100mmHg. Results: : Total 238 patients with COVID-19 were selected, where 31 were deteriorated and 207 were non-deteriorated. In the deterioration group, the case fatality rate was up to 41.9%. Compared with non-deteriorated patients, the deteriorated were older (65.8[IQR 54.3-72.3] vs 54.4[41.0-66.1], p=0.004) and were more likely to have chronic medical illnesses (17[54.8%]) vs 92[44.4%]). Multivariable regression showed that three variables, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR)≥3.66 (OR, 9.85;95% CI, 1.68-57.57), hyponatremia (OR, 8.35;95% CI, 1.74-40.16), and presence of ground-glass opacities with consolidation (OR, 5.84;95% CI, 1.24-27.49) were associated with increased odds of clinical deterioration. The variable that inspiring air or traditional oxygen therapy only within 72 hours after admission, indicated a decreased odd of illness progression (OR, 0.075;95% CI, 0.012–0.465). Conclusions: : COVID-19 patients with clinical deterioration had more common extra-pulmonary organ impair in early stage and high case fatality rate. Three factors, NLR ≥3.66, hyponatremia and presence of ground-glass opacities with consolidation were determined as high risk factors in deterioration.

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324782

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, a novel corona virus disease named COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China and spread worldwide then. Active prevention and control measures have been carried out in China, such as vigorous publicity, active screening and rapid isolation. As the major epidemic area, the passages in and out of Wuhan were temporarily closed since January 23. We aimed to demonstrate the effectiveness of rigorous measures by comparing the characteristics of patients hospitalized before and after implementation of vital measures. Methods Clinical data of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 during January 17-23 (Phase I) and February 3-9 (Phase II) were collected and compared. The cut-off date for follow-up was March 13, 2020. Results Of 176 patients with COVID-19, 97 were admitted in Phase I (43 [44.3%] male;mean age: 47.7), and 79 were in Phase II (33 [41.8%] male;mean age: 50.1). The proportions of severe cases were 21.6% and 10.1% respectively. Fewer patients had comorbidities (13 [16.5%] vs. 7 [7.2%]) and more asymptomatic patients were in Phase II (27.8% vs. 13.9%). Patients in Phase II had less fever (53.2% vs. 70.1%), cough (34.2% vs. 52.6%) and myalgia (11.4% vs.28.9%), while more diarrhea (11.4% vs. 2.1%). Lymphopenia and elevated CRP, as well as eosinopenia and elevated SAA were common in two groups, but all of that were significantly better in Phase II. More patients in Phase II preformed normal CT image on admission (10 [12.7%] vs. 7 [7.2%]). And lower CT scores (3 [2-4] vs. 2 [1-3]) were observed in Phase II. Up to cut-off date, average response time on CT image were 11.2 and 8.1 days in Phase I and II respectively. Shorter average hospitalized days were in Phase II (18.9 vs. 23.3 days). Four patients (4.1%) in Phase I and two (2.5%) in Phase II died. Conclusions Various actions (including vigorous publicity, active screening and rapid isolation) prompted more early patients with COVID-19 found, diagnosed and remedied, leading to good prognosis. Call for pretty attention to the epidemics of COVID-19 and timely measures around the world.

14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324319

ABSTRACT

Background: Due to the increased risk of viral infection and the severe shortage of medical resources during the pandemic of COVID-19, most hospitals in the epidemic areas significantly reduced non-emergency admissions and services, if not closed. As a result, it has been difficult to treat cancer patients on time, which adversely affects their prognosis. To address this problem, cancer centers must develop a strategic plan to manage both inpatients and outpatients during the pandemic, provide them with the necessary treatment, and at the same time prevent the spread of the virus among patients, visitors and medical staff. Methods: : Based upon the epidemic situation in Zhejiang Province, China, the number of running non-emergency medical wards in the Zhejiang Cancer Hospital was gradually increased in a controlled manner. All staff of the hospital received COVID-19 preventive training and was provided with three different levels of protection according to the risks of their services. Only patients without a known history of SARS-CoV-2 contact were eligible to schedule an appointment. Body temperature was measured on all patients upon their arrival at the hospital. Chest CT image, blood cell counting and travel/contact history were investigated in patients with fever. Respiratory tract samples, such as sputum and throat swabs, from all patients, including those clinically suspected of SARS-CoV-2 infection, were collected for nucleic acid detection of SARS-CoV-2 before treatment. Results: : A total of 3697 inpatients and 416 outpatients seeking cancer treatment were enrolled from February 1 to April 3, 2020, in compliance with the hospital’s infection-control interventions. The clinicopathological parameters of the patients were summarized herein. 4237 samples from 4101 patients produced negative RNA testing results. Four clinically suspected patients all presented negative RNA test results and were excluded from the SARS-CoV-2 infection through follow-up retesting and monitoring. Seven patients with only N-gene positive results were retested, followed by CT scan and SARS-CoV-2 contact history investigation. All of them were finally diagnosed as non-infected patients. There was one outpatient who was confirmed positive by virus RNA test and then followed up. She might be an asymptomatic laboratory-confirmed case. During the study period, there was no SARS-CoV-2 infection among staff, patients and escorts of patients in the Zhejiang Cancer Hospital. Conclusion: This study suggested our infection-control interventions, including viral nucleic acid test, could be used as a reliable method to screen cancer patients in the area with moderate COVID-19 prevalence. Cancer may not be a high-risk factor of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

15.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323771

ABSTRACT

Background: Sudden exacerbations and respiratory failure are major causes of death in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) pneumonia, but indicators for the prediction and treatment of severe patients are still lacking.MethodsA retrospective analysis of 67 collected cases was conducted and included approximately 67 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who were admitted to the Suzhou Fifth People’s Hospital from January 1, 2020 to February 8, 2020. The epidemiological, clinical and imaging characteristics as well as laboratory data of the 67 patients were analyzed.ResultsThe study found that fibrinogen(FIB) was increased in 45 (65.2%) patients, and when FIB reached a critical value of 4.805 g/L, the sensitivity and specificity、DA, helping to distinguish general and severe cases, were 100% and 14%、92.9%, respectively, which were significantly better than those for lymphocyte count and myoglobin. Chest CT images indicated that the cumulative number of lung lobes with lesions in severe patients was significantly higher than that in general patients (P<0.05), and the cumulative number of lung lobes with lesions was negatively correlated with lymphocyte count and positively correlated with myoglobin and FIB. Our study also found that there was no obvious effect of hormone therapy in patients with severe COVID-19.ConclusionsBased on the retrospective analysis, FIB was found to be increased in severe patients and was better than lymphocyte count and myoglobin in distinguishing general and severe patients. The study also suggested that hormone treatment has no significant effect on COVID-19.

16.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323766

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronaviruses cause respiratory diseases in many animals, including humans. Spike protein is an important component of coronavirus structure and the formation of ACE2 (angiotensin converting enzyme 2)–spike complex mediates virus entry to host cells. C–type lectin family are widely distribute on the surface of human cells and have been shown to activate the immune system. In this article, we first illustrate why we can “learn from SARS” with phylogenetic analysis. Then, we use SARS spike protein structure, to inferring our molecular docking experiment, revealing the potential capacity of C–type lectin to directly interact with spike protein obstructs the formation of spike–ACE2 complex. Considering the expression profile of C–type lectin family changing significantly during infection, we predict certain members of this kind of protein as potential therapeutic target and verify their assumed function by inferring an C–type lectin–dependent CD4/CD28 T cell survival molecular network with endogenous molecular network theory (EMT) and comparing the predicted expression trend corresponding to each molecular with experiment data. Methods Alignments are inferred by MAFFT V7 ( G–ins–i, Blosom). Maximum likelihood analyses and bootstrap test carried out by RAXML V8.2 ML+BP online platform. Protein structure is predicted by SWISSMODELLING online platform. Molecular docking experiment is carried out by Z–dock Version 3.0.2. C–type lectin–dependent CD4/CD28 T cell Network is inferred by EMT theory. Result Our molecular docking experiment revealing the potential capacity of C–type lectin to directly interact with spike protein obstructs the formation of spike–ACE2 complex. Based on the expression profile of C–type lectin family during infection, we predicting certain member of this kind of protein as potential therapeutic target such as Clec7a, Clec12a and Clec11a, corresponding immune cell types such as CD4/CD28 T cell simulated by EMT theory and verified by experiment data, antigen adjuvant with similar C–type lectin receptor–TDM and some immune–boosting drugs–radix sophorae, lactoferrin and Astragalus membranaceus, for future testing. Conclusions C–type lectin and their corresponding immune cells predicted in this work may be the potential therapeutic targets for the disease caused by COVID–19. C–lectin with the capacity of directly interact with spike protein inhibiting the formation of ACE2–spike complex may be the way they execute anti–virus function. The corresponding cell type such as CD4/CD28 T cell may participate and against virus while Clec7a, Clec12a and Clec11a presumed capacity for facilitating CD4/CD28 T cell survival during infection being verified by EMT combining with experiment data. Our prediction at least suggest the possibility of activating organ’s immunizing power to prevent from COVID–19 and the drugs we suggested are all need to be further tested. Trial registration Retrospectively registered. Keywords C–type lectin, spike protein, coronavirus, COVID–19, TDM.

17.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323746

ABSTRACT

Background: Emerging evidence shows that periodontal disease (PD) may increase the risk of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) complications. Here, we undertook a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study, and investigated for the first time the possible causal impact of PD on host susceptibility to COVID-19 and its severity.Methods: Summary statistics of COVID-19 susceptibility and severity was retrieved from the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative and used as outcomes in this study. As for exposures, Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) with genome-wide significant variants from genome wide association study (GWAS) of PD were included in the MR analysis. Inverse-variance weighted (IVW) method was employed as the main approach to analyzing the causal relationships between PD and COVID-19. Three additional methods were adopted, allowing the existence of horizontal pleiotropy including MR-Egger regression, weighted median and weighted mode methods. Comprehensive sensitivity analyses were also conducted for estimating the robustness of the identified associations.Findings: The MR estimates showed that PD was markedly associated with a higher susceptibility to COVID-19 using IVW (OR = 1.024, P = 0.017) and weighted median method (OR = 1.029, P = 0.024). Furthermore, it revealed that PD was significantly linked to COVID-19 severity based on the comparison of hospitalization versus population controls (IVW: OR = 1.025, P = 0.039;weighted median, OR = 1.030, P = 0.027). No such association was observed in the cohort of highly severe cases confirmed versus those not hospitalized due to COVID-19.Interpretation: This study provides genetic evidence on the possible causality of periodontal disease accounting for the host susceptibility to COVID-19 and its severity, thereby highlighting the importance of disease prevention and oral/periodontal healthcare for general wellbeing during the pandemic and beyond.Funding Information: This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province (LY18H160050, LQ20H140002), Medical and Health Science and Technology Planning Project of Zhejiang Province (2018KY518), National Natural Science Foundation of China (31771390, 81972261, 32070151), Wenzhou Science and Technology Bureau (ZY2020007, 2020Y0536, Y20190147).Declaration of Interests: The authors declare that no competing interests exist.Ethics Approval Statement: This study only used publicly available data and the relevant ethical approval can be found in the corresponding studies referenced in the Methods section.

18.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323638

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly impacted people's life around the world, including how they interact with mobile technologies. In this paper, we seek to develop an understanding of how the dynamic trajectory of a pandemic shapes mobile phone users' experiences. Through the lens of app popularity, we approach this goal from a cross-country perspective. We compile a dataset consisting of six-month daily snapshots of the most popular apps in the iOS App Store in China and the US, where the pandemic has exhibited distinct trajectories. Using this longitudinal dataset, our analysis provides detailed patterns of app ranking during the pandemic at both category and individual app levels. We reveal that app categories' rankings are correlated with the pandemic, contingent upon country-specific development trajectories. Our work offers rich insights into how the COVID-19, a typical global public health crisis, has influence people's day-to-day interaction with the Internet and mobile technologies.

19.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315258

ABSTRACT

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the transition to online-course learning mode has put school-aged children at an increased risk of asthenopia. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of asthenopia in relation to the total screen or online-course time and other related risk factors among school-aged children during this period. Methods: A total of 25 781 children aged 8-20 from one municipality and four provinces in eastern China were recruited for this cross-sectional study. An online version of a validated computer vision syndrome questionnaire (CVS-Q) was used to collect the frequency and intensity of 16 visual fatigue-related eye symptoms from March 28 to May 1, 2020. Additional information, including demographic features, eye care habits, visual disorders, lifestyle factors, psychological and environmental factors, was also collected. Findings: The overall prevalence of asthenopia in the 21 966 participants included in the final analysis was 12 · 1%. A 100-hour increment of total screen and online-course time was associated with an increase of 9% (95% CI 7-12%) and 11% (6-17%) risk of asthenopia, respectively, which were partially mediated by psychological stress. Age, female sex, having myopia or astigmatism, bad habits when watching screens were also risk factors. Conversely, keeping a distance of 34-65 cm between individual’s eyes and the screen, increased rest time between classes, and increased eye exercise frequency was associated with a decreased risk. Interpretation: Long total screen or online-course time, having eye disease, bad eye care habits, and keeping eyes a greater distance from the screen were significant risk factors for asthenopia. Scheduling the frequency and duration of online courses properly and incorporating these into educational policies are essential for protecting children’s eye health. Funding: National Natural Science Foundation for Young Scholars of China, National Natural Science Foundation of China, Shanghai Youth Eastern Scholar Grant, and Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai.Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: This study protocol was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of Shanghai Ninth Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SH9H-2020-T304-1). Electronic informed consent was obtained from each participant.

20.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315184

ABSTRACT

Background: Numerous epidemiological studies showed close relationships of outdoor air pollution with increased risk of cancer, infection, and cardiopulmonary diseases. However, a very limited number of studies investigate the potential biomarkers of the co-exposures of particle matters (PM) and bioaerosols, especially under current circumstances of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In the present study, we aimed to identify metabolic candidate biomarkers that are associated with co-exposure to PM and bioaerosols.Methods: We performed an unbiased gas/liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/LC-MS) approach to detect urinary metabolites of 92 samples from young healthy individuals collected at three different time points with exposure to clean, polluted ambient, and purified air , followed by a cycling test after air re-pollution and re-purification with two additional time points. Subsequently, we compared metabolomic profiles in between two-time points via an integrated analysis, plus KEGG enriched pathway and time series analysis.Findings: We identified 33 and 155 differential metabolites (DMs) associated with PM and bioaerosol exposure, respectively. The results from KEGG data and time series analysis indicated significantly enriched pathways and dynamic alterations of metabolomic profiles, respectively. 16-Dehydroprogesterone and 4-Hydroxyphenylethanol in urine might be used as biomarkers for diagnosis of PM- or bioaerosol-relevant diseases.Interpretation: The present studies revealed dynamic alterations in urinary metabolites of young healthy humans with the cycling of the clean and polluted air environment. Our findings help to investigate detrimental health effects of airborne PM and bioaerosols in a real-time manner and improve clinically diagnostic tools for PM- and bioaerosol-related diseases.Funding Information: This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China [NSFC Grant no. 81673958, 82074262, and 81828010];CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences [CIFMS 2016-I2M-3-013];The Drug Innovation Major Project of China [2018ZX09711001-007-002].Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no conflicts of interest in this work.Ethics Approval Statement: Our study was approved by the Ethical Committee of Guang'anmen Hospital. All recruited subjects provided written informed consent.

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