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1.
Lancet ; 401(10393): e21-e33, 2023 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236983

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The long-term health consequences of COVID-19 remain largely unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the long-term health consequences of patients with COVID-19 who have been discharged from hospital and investigate the associated risk factors, in particular disease severity. METHODS: We did an ambidirectional cohort study of patients with confirmed COVID-19 who had been discharged from Jin Yin-tan Hospital (Wuhan, China) between Jan 7 and May 29, 2020. Patients who died before follow-up; patients for whom follow-up would be difficult because of psychotic disorders, dementia, or readmission to hospital; those who were unable to move freely due to concomitant osteoarthropathy or immobile before or after discharge due to diseases such as stroke or pulmonary embolism; those who declined to participate; those who could not be contacted; and those living outside of Wuhan or in nursing or welfare homes were all excluded. All patients were interviewed with a series of questionnaires for evaluation of symptoms and health-related quality of life, underwent physical examinations and a 6-min walking test, and received blood tests. A stratified sampling procedure was used to sample patients according to their highest seven-category scale during their hospital stay as 3, 4, and 5-6, to receive pulmonary function test, high resolution CT of the chest, and ultrasonography. Enrolled patients who had participated in the Lopinavir Trial for Suppression of SARS-CoV-2 in China received SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests. Multivariable adjusted linear or logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between disease severity and long-term health consequences. FINDINGS: In total, 1733 of 2469 discharged patients with COVID-19 were enrolled after 736 were excluded. Patients had a median age of 57·0 years (IQR 47·0-65·0) and 897 (52%) were male and 836 (48%) were female. The follow-up study was done from June 16 to Sept 3, 2020, and the median follow-up time after symptom onset was 186·0 days (175·0-199·0). Fatigue or muscle weakness (52%, 855 of 1654) and sleep difficulties (26%, 437 of 1655) were the most common symptoms. Anxiety or depression was reported among 23% (367 of 1616) of patients. The proportions of 6-min walking distance less than the lower limit of the normal range were 17% for those at severity scale 3, 13% for severity scale 4, and 28% for severity scale 5-6. The corresponding proportions of patients with diffusion impairment were 22% for severity scale 3, 29% for scale 4, and 56% for scale 5-6, and median CT scores were 3·0 (IQR 2·0-5·0) for severity scale 3, 4·0 (3·0-5·0) for scale 4, and 5·0 (4·0-6·0) for scale 5-6. After multivariable adjustment, patients showed an odds ratio (OR) of 1·61 (95% CI 0·80-3·25) for scale 4 versus scale 3 and 4·60 (1·85-11·48) for scale 5-6 versus scale 3 for diffusion impairment; OR 0·88 (0·66-1·17) for scale 4 versus scale 3 and OR 1·76 (1·05-2·96) for scale 5-6 versus scale 3 for anxiety or depression, and OR 0·87 (0·68-1·11) for scale 4 versus scale 3 and 2·75 (1·61-4·69) for scale 5-6 versus scale 3 for fatigue or muscle weakness. Of 94 patients with blood antibodies tested at follow-up, the seropositivity (96·2% vs 58·5%) and median titres (19·0 vs 10·0) of the neutralising antibodies were significantly lower compared with at the acute phase. 107 of 822 participants without acute kidney injury and with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 90 mL/min per 1·73 m2 or more at acute phase had eGFR less than 90 mL/min per 1·73 m2 at follow-up. INTERPRETATION: At 6 months after acute infection, COVID-19 survivors were mainly troubled with fatigue or muscle weakness, sleep difficulties, and anxiety or depression. Patients who were more severely ill during their hospital stay had more severe impaired pulmonary diffusion capacities and abnormal chest imaging manifestations, and are the main target population for intervention of long-term recovery. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences, National Key Research and Development Program of China, Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development of Pulmonary Tuberculosis, and Peking Union Medical College Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Patient Discharge , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Quality of Life , Fatigue
2.
Immunity ; 56(6): 1410-1428.e8, 2023 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244437

ABSTRACT

Although host responses to the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strain are well described, those to the new Omicron variants are less resolved. We profiled the clinical phenomes, transcriptomes, proteomes, metabolomes, and immune repertoires of >1,000 blood cell or plasma specimens from SARS-CoV-2 Omicron patients. Using in-depth integrated multi-omics, we dissected the host response dynamics during multiple disease phases to reveal the molecular and cellular landscapes in the blood. Specifically, we detected enhanced interferon-mediated antiviral signatures of platelets in Omicron-infected patients, and platelets preferentially formed widespread aggregates with leukocytes to modulate immune cell functions. In addition, patients who were re-tested positive for viral RNA showed marked reductions in B cell receptor clones, antibody generation, and neutralizing capacity against Omicron. Finally, we developed a machine learning model that accurately predicted the probability of re-positivity in Omicron patients. Our study may inspire a paradigm shift in studying systemic diseases and emerging public health concerns.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Breakthrough Infections , Multiomics , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral
3.
Early Child Res Q ; 65: 23-31, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327219

ABSTRACT

This retrospective study investigated transitions in patterns of caregiver involvement before and during COVID-19 and their antecedents and consequences. A total of 504 young children (age: M ± SD = 49.92 ± 4.30 months) and their primary caregivers were recruited from the junior classes of 10 preschools in Zhengzhou City, Henan Province, China. Latent profile analysis identified three profiles characterized by (1) high levels of caregiver involvement (HCI), (2) average levels of caregiver involvement (ACI), and (3) low levels of caregiver involvement (LCI). Latent transition analysis showed that caregivers who belonged to the HCI or LCI latent status before COVID-19 tended to transition to the ACI latent status during COVID-19. Higher levels of caregiver depression contributed to a higher probability of transitioning from the HCI to the ACI latent status, while higher levels of household chaos predicted a higher probability of transitioning from the HCI to the ACI latent status and a lower probability of transitioning from the LCI to the ACI latent status. Finally, the transitions in patterns of caregiver involvement were associated with young children's approaches to learning during the pandemic.

4.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 120: 110365, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326273

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to investigate the influence of comorbid asthma on the risk for mortality among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the United Kingdom (UK) by utilizing a quantitative meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was estimated by conducting a random-effects model. Sensitivity analysis, I2 statistic, meta-regression, subgroup analysis, Begg's analysis and Egger's analysis were all implemented. Our results presented that comorbid asthma was significantly related to a decreased risk for COVID-19 mortality in the UK based on 24 eligible studies with 1,209,675 COVID-19 patients (pooled OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.71-0.93; I2 = 89.2%, P < 0.01). Coming through further meta-regression to seek the possible cause of heterogeneity, none of elements might be responsible for heterogeneity. A sensitivity analysis proved the stability and reliability of the overall results. Both Begg's analysis (P = 1.000) and Egger's analysis (P = 0.271) manifested that publication bias did not exist. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that COVID-19 patients with comorbid asthma might bear a lower risk for mortality in the UK. Furthermore, routine intervention and treatment of asthma patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection should be continued in the UK.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Reproducibility of Results , Comorbidity , Asthma/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
5.
Nutrition ; 113: 112087, 2023 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322402

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The effect of and optimal timing for initiating an oral nutritional supplement(ONS) in hospitalized older patients with the Omicron variant infection remain unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between the ONS and clinical outcomes. METHODS: This study used a retrospective cohort design as primary analysis and a case-control design as sensitivity analysis. We collected data from patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) between April 2022 and June 2022 at Shanghai Fourth People's Hospital, one of the designated medical centers for COVID-19 in Shanghai, China. Patients were identified as ONS users or non-ONS users, with the former defined as early ONS (ONS initiated within 48 h from hospital admission), and late ONS (ONS initiated after 48 h) users. RESULTS: The study included 1181 hospitalized patients ≥60 y of age. The mean age of the cohort was 78 y, and most patients were women (57.7%). Mortalities after propensity-score matching were 1.2% and 4.3% in the ONS group and non-ONS groups, respectively (P = 0.032). Subgroup analysis results showed that median (IQR) hospital length of stay and the median (IQR) length from symptom onset to viral clearance were shorter for the early ONS than for the late ONS group (9 [6-13] d versus 14 [11 -18] d; P < 0.001, and 11 [8-17] d versus 17 [13-22] d; P < 0.001, respectively). The findings from the case-control analysis supported those from the primary analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Early ONS might have significantly lowered risk for in-hospital death, as well as reduce hospital length of stay and days of viral clearance in older patients with COVID-19 during the Omicron wave.

6.
Haiyang kaifa yu guanli / Ocean Development and Management ; 39(5):47-52, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2320342

ABSTRACT

Since the reform and opening up, coastal tourism has been rising and developing, and it has become one of the important marine industries. This paper selected the added value and gross marine product of coastal tourism industry from 2001 to 2020, constructed direct contribution rate, indirect contribution rate and marginal contribution rate model, and calculated the contribution degree of coastal tourism to marine economic development. The results showed that the direct contribution rate of coastal tourism was on the rise, and the indirect contribution rate was mostly about 2%~4%.In the selected study period, the marginal contribution rate of coastal tourism to GROSS marine product was 40.44%. The study found that the overall development level of coastal tourism was good, and the coastal tourism made a great contribution to the development of marine economy, but it was difficult to take accurate measures in the face of sudden crises such as COVID-19, and sometimes it took a lot of time to recover to the normal level. Based on the above situation, suggestions were proposed to increase policy support for the post-epidemic era, promote the supply-side reform of coastal tourism and build coastal tourism products with characteristics in the post-epidemic era, increase the publicity and marketing of coastal tourism, and train and introduce high-quality tourism talents, etc..

7.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2207474, 2023 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316532

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is a cost-effective medical intervention. Inactivated whole virusor large protein fragments-based severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines have high unnecessary antigenic load to induce allergenicity and/orreactogenicity, which can be avoided by peptide vaccines of short peptide fragments that may induce highly targeted immune response. However, epitope identification and peptide delivery remain the major obstacles in developing peptide vaccines. Here, a multi-source data integrated linear B-cell epitope screening strategy is presented and a linear B-cell epitope enriched hotspot region is identified in Spike protein, from which a monomeric peptide vaccine (Epitope25) is developed and applied to subcutaneously immunize wildtype BALB/c mice. Indirect ELISA assay reveals specific and dose-dependent binding between Epitope25 and serum IgG antibodies from immunized mice. The neutralizing activity of sera from vaccinated mice is validated by pseudo and live SARS-CoV-2 wild-type strain neutralization assays. Then a dissolvable microneedle array (DMNA) is developed to pain-freely deliver Epitope25. Compared with intramuscular injection, DMNA and subcutaneous injection elicit neutralizing activities against SARS-CoV-2 wild-type strain as demonstrated by live SARS-CoV-2 virus neutralization assay. No obvious damages are found in major organs of immunized mice. This study may lay the foundation for developing linear B-cell epitope-based vaccines against SARS-CoV-2.

8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 231, 2023 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320842

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major public health challenge worldwide. However, the aetiological and disease severity-related pathogens associated with CAP in adults in China are not well established based on the detection of both viral and bacterial agents. METHODS: A multicentre, prospective study was conducted involving 10 hospitals located in nine geographical regions in China from 2014 to 2019. Sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples were collected from each recruited CAP patient. Multiplex real-time PCR and bacteria culture methods were used to detect respiratory pathogens. The association between detected pathogens and CAP severity was evaluated. RESULTS: Among the 3,403 recruited eligible patients, 462 (13.58%) had severe CAP, and the in-hospital mortality rate was 1.94% (66/3,403). At least one pathogen was detected in 2,054 (60.36%) patients, with two or more pathogens were co-detected in 725 patients. The ten major pathogens detected were Mycoplasma pneumoniae (11.05%), Haemophilus influenzae (10.67%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (10.43%), influenza A virus (9.49%), human rhinovirus (9.02%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (7.43%), Staphylococcus aureus (4.50%), adenovirus (2.94%), respiratory syncytial viruses (2.35%), and Legionella pneumophila (1.03%), which accounted for 76.06-92.52% of all positive detection results across sampling sites. Klebsiella pneumoniae (p < 0.001) and influenza viruses (p = 0.005) were more frequently detected in older patients, whereas Mycoplasma pneumoniae was more frequently detected in younger patients (p < 0.001). Infections with Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, influenza viruses and respiratory syncytial viruses were risk factors for severe CAP. CONCLUSIONS: The major respiratory pathogens causing CAP in adults in China were different from those in USA and European countries, which were consistent across different geographical regions over study years. Given the detection rate of pathogens and their association with severe CAP, we propose to include the ten major pathogens as priorities for clinical pathogen screening in China.


Subject(s)
Community-Acquired Infections , Legionella pneumophila , Pneumonia, Bacterial , Pneumonia , Humans , Adult , Aged , Pneumonia, Bacterial/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Bacterial/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/complications , Prospective Studies , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/etiology , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/etiology
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 859(Pt 1): 160212, 2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309676

ABSTRACT

Toilet flushing generates and spread fecal aerosols, potentially leading to infection transmission risk. Squat toilets are widely used in public restrooms in some Asian countries including China and India, and remain to be studied. Aerosol dispersion while flushing squat toilet in cubicle was visualized, while the aerosol concentrations were measured on different surfaces by monitoring fluorescence intensity through seeding simulated fluorescence feces. Flushing-generated fecal aerosols could spread to the breathing zone, deposit on floor, and partitions in squat toilet cubicles, and spread even beyond to the restroom lobby. A total of 0.24 % and 0.17 % of seeded fecal waste deposits on the floor and partition (lower than 0.20 m) for each flush. Aerosol concentration decays rapidly, with 86.8 ± 2.2 % reduction in the second minute after a previous flush compared to that in the first minute. Public toilet users are recommended to wait for 2 min after the early flush before entering the cubicle.

10.
Vaccine ; 41(20): 3258-3265, 2023 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291899

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate how BBIBP-CorV vaccination affecting antibody responses upon heterologous Omicron infection. METHODS: 440 Omicron-infected patients were recruited in this study. Antibodies targeting SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) and nucleoprotein of both wild-type (WT) and Omicron were detected by ELISA. The clinical relevance was further analyzed. RESULTS: BBIBP-CorV vaccinated patients exhibited higher anti-RBD IgG levels targeting both WT and Omicron than non-vaccinated patients at different stages. By using a 3-day moving average analysis, we found that BBIBP-CorV vaccinated patients exhibited the increases in both anti-WT and Omicron RBD IgG from the onset and reached the plateau at Day 8 whereas those in non-vaccinated patients remained low during the disease. Significant increase in anti-WT RBD IgA was observed only in vaccinated patients. anti-Omicron RBD IgA levels remained low in both vaccinated and non-vaccinated patients. Clinically, severe COVID-19 only occurred in non-vaccinated group. anti-RBD IgG and IgA targeting both WT and Omicron were negatively correlated with virus load, hospitalization days and virus elimination in vaccinated patients. CONCLUSIONS: BBIBP-CorV vaccination effectively reduces the severity of Omicron infected patients. The existence of humoral memory responses established through BBIBP-CorV vaccination facilitates to induce rapid recall antibody responses when encountering SARS-CoV-2 variant infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , China , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Retrospective Studies
12.
Virol J ; 20(1): 64, 2023 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295939

ABSTRACT

The mRNA vaccine technology was developed rapidly during the global pandemic of COVID-19. The crucial role of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine in preventing viral infection also have been beneficial to the exploration and application of other viral mRNA vaccines, especially for non-replication structure mRNA vaccines of viral disease with outstanding research results. Therefore, this review pays attention to the existing mRNA vaccines, which are of great value for candidates for clinical applications in viral diseases. We provide an overview of the optimization of the mRNA vaccine development process as well as the good immune efficacy and safety shown in clinical studies. In addition, we also provide a brief description of the important role of mRNA immunomodulators in the treatment of viral diseases. After that, it will provide a good reference or strategy for research on mRNA vaccines used in clinical medicine with more stable structures, higher translation efficiency, better immune efficacy and safety, shorter production time, and lower production costs than conditional vaccines to be used as preventive or therapeutic strategy for the control of viral diseases in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Virus Diseases , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Vaccination , RNA, Messenger/genetics , mRNA Vaccines , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics
13.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 12(1): 2202263, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295932

ABSTRACT

The adaptive immunity against SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain and Omicron sublineages induced by BA.1 breakthrough infection in vaccinees of inactivated COVID-19 vaccines have not been well characterized. Here, we report that BA.1 breakthrough infection induced mucosal sIgA and resulted in higher IgG titers against prototype strain and Omicron sublineages in vaccinees than in vaccine naïve-infected individuals. BA.1 breakthrough infection boosted antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis to prototype strain and BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, and BA.2.75 but not BA.4/5 and induced neutralization against prototype strain and BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, BA.2.75, and BA.4/5 but not BF.7, BQ.1, and XBB. In total, BA.1 breakthrough infection individuals produced less extensive sIgA, plasma IgG and NAb responses against Omicron sublineages compared with those against prototype strain. Further, BA.1 breakthrough infection induced recall B cell response to prototype strain and Omicron variant, primarily targeting memory B cells producing conserved epitopes. Memory T cell responses against Omicron is largely preserved. Individuals with vaccine booster did not induce more beneficial immune responses to Omicron sublineages upon BA.1 breakthrough infection than those with primary vaccine dose only. The breakthrough infection individuals produced stronger adaptive immunity than those of inactivated vaccine-healthy individuals. These data have important implications for understanding the vaccine effectiveness and adaptive immunity to breakthrough infection in individuals fully immunized with inactivated vaccines. Omicron sublineages, especially for those emerged after BA.4/5 strain, evade NAb responses induced by BA.1 breakthrough infection. It is urgent to optimize the vaccine immunogen design and formulations to SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Breakthrough Infections , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing
14.
Chinese Journal of Nosocomiology ; 32(21):3201-3208, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2260043

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To further standardize and guide the infection prevention and control(IPC) in designated hospitals so as to effectively ensure the stability, order and safety of medical treatment, ensure the safety of health care workers and patients, and reduce cross infections caused by the transmission of COVID-19. METHODS: The experts who repeatedly participated in the national COVID-19 medical treatment and IPC were invited to compile the consensus based on latest national norms, characteristics of the omicron and situation of epidemic prevention and control. RESULTS: The consensus consisted of two major parts: comprehensive coverage and control of infections in designated hospitals, with 47 recommendations involved. CONCLUSION: The expert consensus will provide guidance for the upcoming prevention and control of infection in designated hospitals.

15.
BMJ medicine ; 1(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2288430

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the trustworthiness (ie, complete and consistent reporting of key methods and results between preprint and published trial reports) and impact (ie, effects of preprints on meta-analytic estimates and the certainty of evidence) of preprint trial reports during the covid-19 pandemic. Design Retrospective review. Data sources World Health Organization covid-19 database and the Living Overview of the Evidence (L-OVE) covid-19 platform by the Epistemonikos Foundation (up to 3 August 2021). Main outcome measures Comparison of characteristics of covid-19 trials with and without preprints, estimates of time to publication of covid-19 preprints, and description of differences in reporting of key methods and results between preprints and their later publications. For the effects of eight treatments on mortality and mechanical ventilation, the study comprised meta-analyses including preprints and excluding preprints at one, three, and six months after the first trial addressing the treatment became available either as a preprint or publication (120 meta-analyses in total, 60 of which included preprints and 60 of which excluded preprints) and assessed the certainty of evidence using the GRADE framework. Results Of 356 trials included in the study, 101 were only available as preprints, 181 as journal publications, and 74 as preprints first and subsequently published in journals. The median time to publication of preprints was about six months. Key methods and results showed few important differences between trial preprints and their subsequent published reports. Apart from two (3.3%) of 60 comparisons, point estimates were consistent between meta-analyses including preprints versus those excluding preprints as to whether they indicated benefit, no appreciable effect, or harm. For nine (15%) of 60 comparisons, the rating of the certainty of evidence was different when preprints were included versus being excluded—the certainty of evidence including preprints was higher in four comparisons and lower in five comparisons. Conclusion No compelling evidence indicates that preprints provide results that are inconsistent with published papers. Preprints remain the only source of findings of many trials for several months—an unsuitable length of time in a health emergency that is not conducive to treating patients with timely evidence. The inclusion of preprints could affect the results of meta-analyses and the certainty of evidence. Evidence users should be encouraged to consider data from preprints.

16.
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management ; 48:390-394, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2287625

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic that caused unprecedented havoc on global tourism industry will all blow over, however whether the tourists' real-time on-site emotional experience in the reopened tourism destinations is higher or lower than that of the period before the pandemic outbreak has not been studied. Since this is an important basis for managers to design tourist win-back strategies, this study empirically examines the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on tourists' real-time on-site emotional experience using geo-tagged check-in user-generated content data in China's National 5A scenic spots from November 7, 2019 to April 8, 2020. Results show that although the COVID-19 pandemic doesn't destroy the tourist attractions, tourists' real-time on-site emotional experience after the outbreak of COVID-19 is significantly lower than that of the period before the COVID-19 outbreak, suggesting that tourism destinations should not only focus on the recovery of tourist arrivals, but also pay attention to the tourist experience recovery during the tourism recovery stage. Results also provide empirical evidence and practical implications for destinations in tourist experience management during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

17.
Tourism Economics ; 29(2):460-487, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2286282

ABSTRACT

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on tourism has received general attention in the literature, while the role of news during the pandemic has been ignored. Using a time-frequency connectedness approach, this paper focuses on the spillover effects of COVID-19-related news on the return and volatility of four regional travel and leisure (T&L) stocks. The results in the time domain reveal significant spillovers from news to T&L stocks. Specifically, in the return system, T&L stocks are mainly affected by media hype, while in the volatility system, they are mainly affected by panic sentiment. This paper also finds two risk contagion paths. The contagion index and Global T&L stock are the sources of these paths. The results in the frequency domain indicate that the shocks in the T&L industry are mainly driven by short-term fluctuations. The spillovers from news to T&L stocks and among these T&L stocks are stronger within 1 month.

18.
International Journal of Logistics ; 26(2):172-189, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2286228

ABSTRACT

This paper makes an initial attempt to develop a theory of supply chain resilience through ambidexterity in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted a single-case analysis focusing on Zong-Teng Group, one of the biggest cross-border e-commerce enterprises in China, as our sample. Data were mainly collected from interviews with Zong-Teng managers and public online resources. Through case analysis, this paper identifies that a fit between the information processing requirements of a firm and its information processing capability leads to greater ambidexterity for exploitation and exploration, which in turn improves supply chain resilience (SCR) in the form of agility, redundancy and flexibility. In addition, ambidexterity in terms of morality improves SCR culture. This paper may be the first to adopt information processing theory to examine SCR and consider the role of ambidexterity, noting that crises such as COVID-19 impose an exponential increase in information processing requirements, to which many firms fail to respond effectively.

19.
Applied Sciences ; 13(5):3047, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2285843

ABSTRACT

In the digital age, many sources of textual content are devoted to studying and expressing many sorts of relationships, including employer–employee, if–then, part–whole, product–producer, and cause–effect relations/causality. Mining cause–effect relations are a key topic in many NLP (natural language processing) applications, such as future event prediction, information retrieval, healthcare, scenario generation, decision making, commerce risk management, question answering, and adverse drug reaction. Many statistical and non-statistical methods have been developed in the past to address this topic. Most of them frequently used feature-driven supervised approaches and hand-crafted linguistic patterns. However, the implicit and ambiguous statement of causation prevented these methods from achieving great recall and precision. They cover a limited set of implicit causality and are difficult to extend. In this work, a novel MCKN (multi-column knowledge-oriented network) is introduced. This model includes various knowledge-oriented channels/columns (KCs), where each channel integrates prior human knowledge to capture language cues of causation. MCKN uses unique convolutional word filters (wf) generated automatically using WordNet and FrameNet. To reduce MCKN's dimensionality, we use filter selection and clustering approaches. Our model delivers superior performance on the Alternative Lexicalization (AltLexes) dataset, proving that MCKN is a simpler and distinctive approach for informal datasets.

20.
Infect Drug Resist ; 15: 6695-6701, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271906

ABSTRACT

Background: "Pneumonia Prevention No.1" belongs to 'traditional Chinese medicine prescription for prevention of viral pneumonia and influenza' was urgently formulated by Notice on Printing the Novel Coronavirus Diagnosis and Treatment Scheme for COVID-19 (Trial Version 3) and Traditional Chinese Medicine Prevention and Treatment Scheme for COVID-19 in Hubei Province (Trial). Because the prescription drug has the bidirectional regulation function of human immune function, moderate improvement of immune function can effectively resist virus invasion, while excessive immune function will produce immune overresponse. Excessive immune response will aggravate the condition of patients with COVID-19, resulting in the death of severe patients. Methods: Twenty medical workers aged 20-60 years old, who had no immune disease, no current disease and healthy physical examination, were selected as participants. The participants took Hubei "Pneumonia Prevention No.1" decoction, one dosage each day, twice a day, for 7 consecutive days. With the before-after control method, blood samples were collected from the median cubital veins before and after medication. Immunoglobulin IgA, IgG and IgM were measured by immunoturbidimetry, and T lymphocyte subsets CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD4/CD8 were measured by flow cytometry. The changes of indexes before and after medication were compared with SPPS 13.0 statistical software. The data were expressed by (mean ± standard deviation). T-test was adopted, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant (P < 0.05). Results: The results of this study show that in healthy participants, the immunoglobulin and T lymphocyte subsets did not differ significantly before and after drug administration (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Under normal drug administration circumstances, "Pneumonia Prevention No. 1" had no significant regulating effect on the immune system in a healthy population and did not increase the immune system capacity beyond a reasonable range. It is safe to be used as a prophylactic measure in healthy populations.

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