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1.
Immunity ; 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757424

ABSTRACT

Global research to combat the COVID-19 pandemic has led to the isolation and characterization of thousands of human antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, providing an unprecedented opportunity to study the antibody response to a single antigen. Using the information derived from 88 research publications and 13 patents, we assembled a dataset of ∼8,000 human antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein from >200 donors. By analyzing immunoglobulin V and D gene usages, complementarity-determining region H3 sequences, and somatic hypermutations, we demonstrated that the common (public) responses to different domains of the spike protein were quite different. We further used these sequences to train a deep-learning model to accurately distinguish between the human antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and those to influenza hemagglutinin protein. Overall, this study provides an informative resource for antibody research and enhances our molecular understanding of public antibody responses.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314838

ABSTRACT

A new phase of the COVID-19 pandemic has started as SARS-CoV-2 variants are emerging globally, raising concerns for increased transmissibility. Early 2021 the B.1.1.7 (or Alpha) variant, became the dominant variant globally and epidemiological data suggests this variant spreads faster than its ancestors. However, this does not prove that a variant is intrinsically phenotypically different, let alone more transmissible or fit. Therefore, rapid phenotyping of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern is urgently needed. We found that airway, intestinal and alveolar organoids infected with the B.1.1.7 variant produced higher levels of infectious virus late in infection compared to its 614G-containing ancestor. The B.1.1.7 variant also had a clear fitness advantage in human airway organoids. In alveolar organoids, the B.1.1.7 variant induced lower levels of innate immunity. These findings suggest that the B.1.1.7 variant is phenotypically different from its ancestor and may explain why this clade has spread rapidly across the globe.Funding Information: This work was supported by Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (10150062010008;B.L.H.), PPP allowance (LSHM19136;B.L.H.). This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 874735. Declaration of Interests: H.C. is inventor on patents held by the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences that cover organoid technology. H.C.’s full disclosure is given at https://www.uu.nl/staff/JCClevers. All other authors have nothing to declare. Ethics Approval Statement: The Medical Ethical Committee of the Erasmus MC Rotterdam granted permission for this study (METC 2012-512). The study was approved by the UMC Utrecht (Utrecht, The Netherlands) ethical committee and was in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and according to Dutch law. This study is compliant with all relevant ethical regulations regarding research involving human participants.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293465

ABSTRACT

In the past two years, the global research in combating COVID-19 pandemic has led to isolation and characterization of numerous human antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 spike. This enormous collection of antibodies provides an unprecedented opportunity to study the antibody response to a single antigen. Using information derived from 88 research publications and 13 patents, we have assembled a dataset of ~8,000 human antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 spike from >200 donors. Analysis of antibodies that target different domains of the spike protein reveals a number of common (public) responses to SARS-CoV-2, exemplified via recurring IGHV/IGK(L)V pairs, CDR H3 sequences, IGHD usage, and somatic hypermutation. We further present a proof-of-concept for predicting antigen specificity by using deep learning to differentiate sequences of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike and to influenza hemagglutinin. Overall, this study not only provides an informative resource for antibody research, but fundamentally advances our molecular understanding of public antibody responses.

4.
Elife ; 102021 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389777

ABSTRACT

Virus propagation methods generally use transformed cell lines to grow viruses from clinical specimens, which may force viruses to rapidly adapt to cell culture conditions, a process facilitated by high viral mutation rates. Upon propagation in VeroE6 cells, SARS-CoV-2 may mutate or delete the multibasic cleavage site (MBCS) in the spike protein. Previously, we showed that the MBCS facilitates serine protease-mediated entry into human airway cells (Mykytyn et al., 2021). Here, we report that propagating SARS-CoV-2 on the human airway cell line Calu-3 - that expresses serine proteases - prevents cell culture adaptations in the MBCS and directly adjacent to the MBCS (S686G). Similar results were obtained using a human airway organoid-based culture system for SARS-CoV-2 propagation. Thus, in-depth knowledge on the biology of a virus can be used to establish methods to prevent cell culture adaptation.


Subject(s)
Epithelial Cells , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Cultivation/methods , Virus Internalization , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Proteolysis , Respiratory System/cytology , Respiratory System/virology , Serine Proteases/metabolism
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3815, 2021 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279879

ABSTRACT

Since the COVID-19 pandemic onset, the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 has been extensively characterized. Antibodies to the receptor binding domain (RBD) on the spike protein are frequently encoded by IGHV3-53/3-66 with a short complementarity-determining region (CDR) H3. Germline-encoded sequence motifs in heavy chain CDRs H1 and H2 have a major function, but whether any common motifs are present in CDR H3, which is often critical for binding specificity, is not clear. Here, we identify two public clonotypes of IGHV3-53/3-66 RBD antibodies with a 9-residue CDR H3 that pair with different light chains. Distinct sequence motifs on CDR H3 are present in the two public clonotypes that seem to be related to differential light chain pairing. Additionally, we show that Y58F is a common somatic hypermutation that results in increased binding affinity of IGHV3-53/3-66 RBD antibodies with a short CDR H3. These results advance understanding of the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Complementarity Determining Regions/chemistry , Complementarity Determining Regions/immunology , Complementarity Determining Regions/metabolism , Crystallography, X-Ray , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Humans , Models, Molecular , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
6.
Eur J Immunol ; 51(9): 2296-2305, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258058

ABSTRACT

The increasing numbers of infected cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses serious threats to public health and the global economy. Most SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies target the receptor binding domain (RBD) and some the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the spike protein, which is the major antigen of SARS-CoV-2. While the antibody response to RBD has been extensively characterized, the antigenicity and immunogenicity of the NTD protein are less well studied. Using 227 plasma samples from COVID-19 patients, we showed that SARS-CoV-2 NTD-specific antibodies could be induced during infection. As compared to the results of SARS-CoV-2 RBD, the serological response of SARS-CoV-2 NTD is less cross-reactive with SARS-CoV, a pandemic strain that was identified in 2003. Furthermore, neutralizing antibodies are rarely elicited in a mice model when NTD is used as an immunogen. We subsequently demonstrate that NTD has an altered antigenicity when expressed alone. Overall, our results suggest that while NTD offers a supplementary strategy for serology testing, it may not be suitable as an immunogen for vaccine development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cross Reactions/immunology , Female , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pandemics/prevention & control , Protein Binding/immunology , Sf9 Cells , Vero Cells
7.
Cell Rep ; 31(9): 107725, 2020 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-276452

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization has declared the ongoing outbreak of COVID-19, which is caused by a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, a pandemic. There is currently a lack of knowledge about the antibody response elicited from SARS-CoV-2 infection. One major immunological question concerns antigenic differences between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. We address this question by analyzing plasma from patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-CoV and from infected or immunized mice. Our results show that, although cross-reactivity in antibody binding to the spike protein is common, cross-neutralization of the live viruses may be rare, indicating the presence of a non-neutralizing antibody response to conserved epitopes in the spike. Whether such low or non-neutralizing antibody response leads to antibody-dependent disease enhancement needs to be addressed in the future. Overall, this study not only addresses a fundamental question regarding antigenicity differences between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV but also has implications for immunogen design and vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , SARS Virus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Reactions/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Sf9 Cells , Vero Cells , Viral Vaccines/immunology
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