Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 67
Filter
Add filters

Year range
1.
Neural Computing & Applications ; : 1-14, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1609688

ABSTRACT

This study is conducted to build a multi-criteria text mining model for COVID-19 testing reasons and symptoms. The model is integrated with a temporal predictive classification model for COVID-19 test results in rural underserved areas. A dataset of 6895 testing appointments and 14 features is used in this study. The text mining model classifies the notes related to the testing reasons and reported symptoms into one or more categories using look-up wordlists and a multi-criteria mapping process. The model converts an unstructured feature to a categorical feature that is used in building the temporal predictive classification model for COVID-19 test results and conducting some population analytics. The classification model is a temporal model (ordered and indexed by testing date) that uses machine learning classifiers to predict test results that are either positive or negative. Two types of classifiers and performance measures that include balanced and regular methods are used: (1) balanced random forest and (2) balanced bagged decision tree. The balanced or weighted methods are used to address and account for the biased and imbalanced dataset and to ensure correct detection of patients with COVID-19 (minority class). The model is tested in two stages using validation and testing sets to ensure robustness and reliability. The balanced classifiers outperformed regular classifiers using the balanced performance measures (balanced accuracy and G-score), which means the balanced classifiers are better at detecting patients with positive COVID-19 results. The balanced random forest achieved the best average balanced accuracy (86.1%) and G-score (86.1%) using the validation set. The balanced bagged decision tree achieved the best average balanced accuracy (83.0%) and G-score (82.8%) using the testing set. Also, it was found that the patient history, age, testing reasons, and time are the key features to classify the testing results.

2.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0143821, 2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608700

ABSTRACT

With the emergence and wide spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOCs), such as the Delta variant (B.1.617.2 lineage and AY sublineage), it is important to track VOCs for sourcing of transmission. Currently, whole-genome sequencing is commonly used for detecting VOCs, but this is limited by the high costs of reagents and sophisticated sequencers. In this study, common mutations in the genomes of SARS-CoV-2 VOCs were identified by analyzing more than 1 million SARS-CoV-2 genomes from public data. Among them, mutations C1709A (a change of C to A at position 1709) and C56G, respectively, were found in more than 99% of the genomes of Alpha and Delta variants and were specific to them. Then, a method using the amplification refractory mutation system combined with quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (ARMS-RT-qPCR) based on the two mutations was developed for identifying both VOCs. The assay can detect as little as 1 copy/µL of the VOCs, and the results for identifying Alpha and Delta variants in clinical samples by the ARMS-RT-qPCR assay showed 100% agreement with the results using sequencing-based methods. The whole assay can be completed in 2.5 h using commercial fluorescent PCR instruments. Therefore, the ARMS-RT-qPCR assay could be used for screening the two highly concerning variants Alpha and Delta by normal PCR laboratories in airports and in hospitals and other health-related organizations. Additionally, based on the unique mutations identified by the genomic analysis, similar molecular assays can be developed for rapid identification of other VOCs. IMPORTANCE The current stage of the pandemic, led by SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs), underscores the necessity to develop a cost-effective and rapid molecular diagnosis assay to differentiate the VOCs. In this study, over 1 million SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequences of high quality from GISAID were analyzed and a network of the common mutations of the lineages was constructed. The conserved unique mutations specific for SARS-CoV-2 VOCs were found. Then, ARMS-RT-qPCR assays based on the two unique mutations of the Alpha and Delta variants were developed for the detection of the two VOCs. Application of the assay in clinical samples demonstrated that the current method is a convenient, cost-effective, and rapid way to screen the target SARS-CoV-2 VOCs.

3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(44): e27529, 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1570142

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: It is recommended to use visual laryngoscope for tracheal intubation in a Corona Virus Disease 2019 patient to keep the operator farther from the patient. How the position of the operator affects the distance in this setting is not ascertained. This manikin study compares the distances between the operator and the model and the intubation conditions when the operator is in sitting position and standing position, respectively.Thirty one anesthesiologists with minimum 3-years' work experiences participated in the study. The participant's posture was photographed when he performed tracheal intubation using UE visual laryngoscope in standing and sitting position, respectively. The shortest distance between the model's upper central incisor and operator's face screen (UF), the horizontal distance between the model's upper central incisor and the operator's face screen, the angle between the UF line and the vertical line of the model's upper central incisor were measured. The success rate of intubation, the duration of intubation procedure, the first-attempt success rate, the Cormack-Lehane grade, and operator comfort score were also recorded.When the operator performed the procedure in sitting position, the horizontal distance between the model's upper central incisor and the operator's face screen distance was significantly longer (9.5 [0.0-17.2] vs 24.3 [10.3-33.0], P ≤ .001) and the angle between the UF line and the vertical line of the model's upper central incisor angle was significantly larger (45.2 [16.3-75.5] vs 17.7 [0.0-38.9], P ≤ .001). There was no significant difference in UF distance when the operator changed the position. Cormack-Lehane grade was significantly improved when it was assessed using visual laryngoscope. Cormack-Lehane grade was not significantly different when the operator assessed it in sitting and standing position, respectively. No significant differences were found in the success rate, duration for intubation, first-attempt success rate, and operator comfort score.The operator is kept farther from the patient when he performs intubation procedure in sitting position. Meanwhile, it does not make the procedure more difficult or uncomfortable for the operator, though all the participants prefer to standing position.

4.
Front Psychol ; 12: 699180, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528850

ABSTRACT

Research has investigated behavioral coping strategies for the negative emotions that public emergencies elicit. Accordingly, our current research explored how people coped with negative emotions in response to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak, from a cognitive perspective. Building on the theory of psychological distance and self-construal, we proposed that people who experienced fear, sadness and anxiety responded with independent-self construal, focusing on information that related to themselves and the novel virus (independent information). On the other hand, people who experienced fear, sadness and anger responded with interdependent-self construal, focusing on information that pertained to "us", the virus and nature (interdependent information). We collected data from 1,142 participants at both the initial peak of the outbreak and when its spread had subsided. Based on this longitudinal data, we examined the effectiveness of these strategies, and our findings suggested that independent information was effective in decreasing fear and anxiety, while interdependent information effectively mitigated sadness. The findings could help researchers, practitioners, governments, and organizations to implement appropriate information strategies to regulate individuals' negative emotions during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.

6.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 94:74-77, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1409683

ABSTRACT

Background: There are no clear expert consensus or guidelines on how to treat 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The objective of this study is to investigate the short-term effect of risk-adapted treatment strategy on patients with COVID-19.

7.
Front Psychol ; 12: 619303, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394801

ABSTRACT

Even though the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has limited consumption, individuals continue to plan post-pandemic consumption activities to get rid of the stress caused by consumption repression. Building on Maslow's theory of needs and Herzberg's two-factor theory, our research categorizes consumption into fundamental ("must-have" products that fulfill the physical needs of individuals), hygiene (maintaining the security needs of consumers), and motivational consumption (enhancing well-being of individuals). Based on empirical data of purchase behavior and consumption expectation before, during, and after the pandemic in China, we identify how consumption repression induces psychological distress, via a sense of feeling threatened, lacking control, or lacking freedom, and how the expectation of future consumption alleviates that stress. Results show that fundamental consumption leads to psychological distress; hygiene consumption can both result in and reduce stress; and motivational consumption can reduce stress. Our findings provide new insights into the relationship between consumption and psychological distress through new theoretical formulations. The results can be applied by marketers attempting to understand purchase decision-making and by policymakers supporting both citizens and commerce during social emergencies.

9.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 5(2): 146-151, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318197

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic disease globally. Although COVID-19 directly invades lungs, it also involves the nervous system. Therefore, patients with nervous system involvement as the presenting symptoms in the early stage of infection may easily be misdiagnosed and their treatment delayed. They become silent contagious sources or 'virus spreaders'. In order to help neurologists to better understand the occurrence, development and prognosis, we have developed this consensus of prevention and management of COVID-19. It can also assist other healthcare providers to be familiar with and recognise COVID-19 in their evaluation of patients in the clinic and hospital environment.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Central Nervous System Infections/therapy , Central Nervous System/virology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Neurologists/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Central Nervous System/physiopathology , Central Nervous System Infections/diagnosis , Central Nervous System Infections/physiopathology , Central Nervous System Infections/virology , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Early Diagnosis , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1304: 259-321, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237453

ABSTRACT

Inflammation is a characteristic marker in numerous lung disorders. Several immune cells, such as macrophages, dendritic cells, eosinophils, as well as T and B lymphocytes, synthetize and release cytokines involved in the inflammatory process. Gender differences in the incidence and severity of inflammatory lung ailments including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary fibrosis (PF), lung cancer (LC), and infectious related illnesses have been reported. Moreover, the effects of sex hormones on both androgens and estrogens, such as testosterone (TES) and 17ß-estradiol (E2), driving characteristic inflammatory patterns in those lung inflammatory diseases have been investigated. In general, androgens seem to display anti-inflammatory actions, whereas estrogens produce pro-inflammatory effects. For instance, androgens regulate negatively inflammation in asthma by targeting type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and T-helper (Th)-2 cells to attenuate interleukin (IL)-17A-mediated responses and leukotriene (LT) biosynthesis pathway. Estrogens may promote neutrophilic inflammation in subjects with asthma and COPD. Moreover, the activation of estrogen receptors might induce tumorigenesis. In this chapter, we summarize the most recent advances in the functional roles and associated signaling pathways of inflammatory cellular responses in asthma, COPD, PF, LC, and newly occurring COVID-19 disease. We also meticulously deliberate the influence of sex steroids on the development and progress of these common and severe lung diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Gonadal Steroid Hormones , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Lung , Lymphocytes , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Chin J Nat Med ; 19(4): 305-320, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193536

ABSTRACT

Qing-Fei-Pai-Du decoction (QFPDD) is a Chinese medicine compound formula recommended for combating corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. The latest clinical study showed that early treatment with QFPDD was associated with favorable outcomes for patient recovery, viral shedding, hospital stay, and course of the disease. However, the effective constituents of QFPDD remain unclear. In this study, an UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS based method was developed to identify the chemical constituents in QFPDD and the absorbed prototypes as well as the metabolites in mice serum and tissues following oral administration of QFPDD. A total of 405 chemicals, including 40 kinds of alkaloids, 162 kinds of flavonoids, 44 kinds of organic acids, 71 kinds of triterpene saponins and 88 kinds of other compounds in the water extract of QFPDD were tentatively identified via comparison with the retention times and MS/MS spectra of the standards or refereed by literature. With the help of the standards and in vitro metabolites, 195 chemical components (including 104 prototypes and 91 metabolites) were identified in mice serum after oral administration of QFPDD. In addition, 165, 177, 112, 120, 44, 53 constituents were identified in the lung, liver, heart, kidney, brain, and spleen of QFPDD-treated mice, respectively. These findings provided key information and guidance for further investigation on the pharmacologically active substances and clinical applications of QFPDD.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacokinetics , Administration, Oral , Alkaloids/analysis , Animals , COVID-19 , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Flavonoids/analysis , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Saponins/analysis , Triterpenes/analysis
12.
Knowledge-Based Systems ; 223:107041, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1188850

ABSTRACT

The occurrence of natural disasters or accidents causes the obstruction or interruption of road traffic connectivity and affects the transportation of essential materials, especially for cross-regional delivery under emergency situations. Affected by COVID-19, government administrators establish cross-regional quarantine roadblocks to reduce the risk of virus transmission caused by cross-regional transportation. In this study, we propose an emergency logistics network design problem with resource sharing under collaborative alliances. We construct a state–space–time network-based bi-objective mixed integer programming model to optimize the vehicle routes in order to meet customer demands for essential materials with the lowest cost and highest emergency response speed under limited transportation resources. A two-stage hybrid heuristic algorithm is then proposed to find good-quality solutions for the problem. Clustering results are obtained using a 3D k-means clustering algorithm with the consideration of time and space indices. The optimization of the initial population generated by the improved Clarke and Wright saving method and improved nondominated sorting genetic algorithm-II with elite retention strategy provides stable and excellent performance for the searching of Pareto frontier. The cost difference of the entire emergency logistics network before and after collaboration, i.e., the profit, is fairly allocated to the participants (i.e., logistics service providers) through the Shapley value method. A real-world case in Chongqing City, China is used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm. This study contributes to smart transportation and logistics system in emergency planning and has particular implications for the optimal response of existing logistics system to the current COVID-19 pandemic.

13.
Mol Med Rep ; 23(6)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181668

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to observe the temporal changes in the chest based on findings from imaging in severe patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia. A total of 33 severe confirmed cases (20 male patients and 13 female patients) were enrolled in the present study between January 31, 2020 and March 10, 2020. Chest imaging findings and clinical data were collected and analyzed. The median age was 65 years (age range, 25­90 years). As of April 7, 2020, 24 patients were discharged, and 9 patients died. With regards to the clinical manifestations, 28 patients had fever, 17 patients had a cough and 15 patients had shortness of breath. Of these, 29 patients had underlying health conditions. Ground glass opacities, consolidation and interlobular septal thickening were the most common and typical chest computerized tomography (CT) scan abnormalities. A total of 6/33 (18.2%) patients had 1 affected lobe, 6/33 (18.2%) patients had 2 affected lobes, 5/33 (15.2%) patients had 3 affected lobes, 9/33 (27.3%) patients had 4 affected lobes and 7/33 (21.2%) patients had 5 affected lobes in the initial chest CT scan. The mean interval time between two consecutive CT examinations was 4.5 days (range, 3­9 days). Most severe patients exhibited some degree of aggravation based on the CT findings in the 3 weeks from illness onset. After 3 weeks from illness onset, these severe survivors demonstrated improvements in the chest CT findings, which included complete absorption or only a few remaining fibrous stripes. Chest CT manifestations of patients infected with novel coronavirus pneumonia were diverse and varied. Severe patients had imaging features of rapid progression and slow absorption. Monitoring of chest imaging findings is vital to detect any changes in a timely manner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Thorax/virology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(6): ofaa187, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1109308

ABSTRACT

Background: The clinical manifestations and factors associated with the severity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections outside of Wuhan are not clearly understood. Methods: All laboratory-confirmed cases with SARS-Cov-2 infection who were hospitalized and monitored in Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital were recruited from January 20 to February 10. Results: A total of 275 patients were included in this study. The median patient age was 49 years, and 63.6% had exposure to Wuhan. The median virus incubation period was 6 days. Fever (70.5%) and dry cough (56.0%) were the most common symptoms. A decreased albumin level was found in 51.3% of patients, lymphopenia in 33.5%, and pneumonia based on chest computed tomography in 86%. Approximately 16% of patients (n = 45) had severe disease, and there were no deaths. Compared with patients with nonsevere disease, those with severe disease were older, had a higher frequency of coexisting conditions and pneumonia, and had a shorter incubation period (all P < .05). There were no differences between patients who likely contacted the virus in Wuhan and those who had no exposure to Wuhan. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that older age, male sex, and decreased albumin level were independently associated with disease severity. Conclusions: Most of the patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Guangzhou, China are not severe cases and patients with older age, male, and decreased albumin level were more likely to develop into severe ones.

15.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(3): 213, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110876

ABSTRACT

Background: The prognostic role of the interval between disease onset and hospital admission (O-A interval) was undetermined in patients with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: A total of 205 laboratory-confirmed inpatients admitted to Hankou hospital of Wuhan from January 11 to March 8, 2020 were consecutively included in this retrospective observational study. Demographic data, medical history, laboratory testing results were collected from medical records. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate the prognostic effect of the O-A interval (≤7 versus >7 days) on disease progression in mild-to-moderate patients. For severe-to-critical patients, the in-hospital mortality and the length of hospital stay were compared between the O-A interval subgroups using log-rank test and Mann-Whitney U test, respectively. Results: Mild-to-moderate patients with a short O-A interval (≤7 days) are more likely to deteriorate to severe-to-critical stage compared to those with a long O-A interval (>7 days) [unadjusted odds ratio =2.93, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.32-6.55; adjusted odds ratio =3.44, 95% CI, 1.20-9.83]. No association was identified between the O-A interval and the mortality or the length of hospital stay of severe-to-critical patients. Conclusions: The O-A interval has predictive values for the disease progression in mild-to-moderate COVID-19 patients. Under circumstances of the specific health system in Wuhan, China, the spontaneous healthcare-seeking behavior is usually determined by patients' own heath conditions. Hence, the O-A interval can be reflective of the natural course of COVID-19 to some extent. However, our findings should be validated further in other cohorts and in other health systems.

16.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 87(1): 116-117, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068220
17.
Diabetol Metab Syndr ; 13(1): 5, 2021 Jan 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A dysregulated host immune response is common in patients with COVID-19. AIM: In this study, we aimed to define the characteristics of lymphocyte subsets and their relationship with disease progression in COVID-19 patients with or without diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: The baseline peripheral lymphocyte subsets were compared between 55 healthy controls and 95 patients with confirmed COVID-19, and between severe and non-severe COVID-19 patients with or without DM. RESULTS: The prevalence of DM in the COVID-19 group was 20%, and patients with severe COVID-19 had a higher prevalence of DM than those with non-severe disease (P = 0.006). Moreover, a significantly poor prognosis and a higher rate of severity were found in those with DM relative to those without DM (P = 0.001, 0.003). Generally, all lymphocytes and subsets of lymphocytes, especially B and T cells, were significant reduced in COVID-19 patients, particularly in those with DM. Patients with severe COVID-19 and DM had the lowest lymphocyte counts compared with those with severe COVID-19 without DM, and those with non-severe COVID-19 with or without DM. Partially decreased lymphocyte subsets, age and DM were closely related to disease progression and prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide a reference for clinicians that immunomodulatory treatment may improve disease progression and prognosis of COVID-19 patients, especially those with severe disease with DM. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Register ChiCTR2000034563.

19.
Cancer Manag Res ; 12: 12021-12028, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004541

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease that has been spreading very fast worldwide. Up to now, there is scarce information regarding the clinical features and short-term outcomes of infected patients with cancer. Methods: We performed a retrospective study in Wuhan Union Hospital from Feb 14, 2020, to Mar 15, 2020, China. Data were retrieved including demographic and clinical features, laboratory findings, and outcome data. Patients were classified into the discharged group and undischarged group by the 4-week outcomes from admission. Difference analysis and correlation analysis were performed between the two groups. Results: A total of 37 patients were enrolled in the study, including 27 cancer survivors in routine follow-up. Breast cancer (18.9%) was the most frequent cancer type, and common symptoms included cough (54.1%), fever (48.6%), and fatigue (27%). Lymphocytopenia and hypoproteinemia were much frequent in patients who had received chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or surgery within the past month. However, the concentration of D-dimer (median: 3.75 vs 0.43, P =0.010) and fibrin degradation products (median: 23.60 vs 1.80, P =0.002) were evidently increased in this population compared with cancer survivors. At the end of follow-up, 83.8% of the enrolled patients were discharged. Among the discharged, women (48.6%) and cancer survivors (67.6%) showed better short-term outcomes. The elevated level of FDP was significantly higher in the undischarged group (median: 21.85 vs 2.00, P =0.049). The proportion of CD3-positive lymphocyte cells and CD4-positive lymphocytes was correlated with short-term outcomes. Conclusion: Peripheral lymphocyte subset (CD3-positive and CD4-positive) on admission as a novel biomarker had a potential association with early efficacy. Cancer survivors in routine follow-up would achieve better short-term outcomes. COVID-19 patients with cancer should gain more attention and close monitoring.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...