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1.
J Assoc Inf Sci Technol ; 71(12): 1419-1423, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898536

ABSTRACT

In this opinion paper, we argue that global health crises are also information crises. Using as an example the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, we (a) examine challenges associated with what we term "global information crises"; (b) recommend changes needed for the field of information science to play a leading role in such crises; and (c) propose actionable items for short- and long-term research, education, and practice in information science.

2.
COVID ; 2(3):261-272, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1731959

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study investigated emotional distress and associated factors among the general population in the aftermath of the COVID-19 lockdown in China. Design and sample: An online nationwide survey was conducted using a self-designed questionnaire, which included items related to demography, lifestyle, and experience of emotional distress during the previous month of the pandemic period. A total of 10,545 respondents completed the survey. Results: Over 30% of participants reported experiencing one or more symptoms of emotional distress to a moderate or higher degree. Increased emotional distress was associated with COVID-19-related impact on diet (β= −1.106, 95% CI: −1.187 to −1.026, p < 0.001), experiencing food shortage (β= 1.334, 95% CI: 1.117 to 1.551, p < 0.001), lack of physical exercise (β= −0.845, 95% CI: −1.024 to −0.667, p < 0.001), younger age (β= −0.050, 95% CI: −0.062 to −0.039, p < 0.001), being a smoker (β= 0.852, 95% CI: 0.604 to 1.100, p < 0.001), lower education level (β= −0.524, 95% CI: −0.702 to −0.346, p < 0.001), and lack of medical insurance (β= −0.742, 95% CI: −1.012 to −0.473, p < 0.001). Emotional distress was negatively associated time spent sleeping (β= −0.020, 95% CI: −0.027 to −0.013, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The levels of emotional distress are high in the aftermath of the lockdown and associated with a number of demographic and lifestyle factors.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316021

ABSTRACT

Background: This study primarily aimed to evaluate the associations between mental distress and COVID-19-related changes in behavioral outcomes, and potential modifiers (age, gender, and educational attainment) of such associations. Methods: An online survey using anonymous network sampling was conducted in China during April-May, 2020 using a 74-item questionnaire distributed through social media. A national sample of 10,545 adults in 31 provinces provided data on socio-demographic characteristics, COVID-19-related mental distress, and changes in behavioral outcomes. Structural equation models were used for data analyses. Results: About 13% of adults reported experiencing at least one symptom of mental distress. After adjusting for covariates, greater mental distress was associated with increased smoking and alcohol consumption (among current smokers and drinkers) and with both increased and decreased physical activity. Underweight adults were more likely to lose body weight (≥ 1 kg) whereas overweight adults were more likely to gain weight by the same amount. Association between mental distress and change in physical activity was stronger in adults aged 40 and above and those with high education. Conclusions: Mental distress was associated with increased smoking in males but not females. These findings inform the design of tailored public health interventions aimed to mitigate long-term negative consequences of mental distress on outcomes.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322266

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Study bidirectional relationships between weight gain, obesity and COVID-19 infection risk during the pandemic. Methods: : MEDLINE, Embase, MedRxiv, and WHO COVID-19 Database were searched till June 2, 2020. Newspaper and internet article sources were identified using a media database. Meta-analysis was conducted using random- and fixed effect models. Results: : Ten studies published from 5 countries met inclusion criteria;five studies (provided 17 analyses/types of results) were included in meta-analysis. The studies suggested bidirectional relationships and some dose-response relationships. Meta-analysis showed obesity was associated with increased COVID-19 infection risk (Odds ratio, OR=1.69, 95% CI: 1.41, 2.02). COVID-19 risk increased with obesity (OR=1.43 (1.18, 1.73)) and severe obesity (OR=1.96 (1.49, 2.59)). Obesity was positively associated with COVID-19 mortality (OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.20, 2.25) and its severity: admission to intensive care unit (ICU) (OR=2.01 (1.25, 3.23)), and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) use (OR=8.20 (2.10, 31.91)). We also observed a stronger association in younger age groups (β=-0.29 (-0.47 to -0.10)). Conclusions: : Obesity was positively associated with higher COVID-19 infection risk, severity, and mortality. Appropriate treatment of COVID-19 patients with obesity and weight management are warranted.

5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 709535, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599328

ABSTRACT

Aims: To identify dietary patterns during the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and to examine their association with changes in weight status in the Chinese population. Methods: The 2020 China COVID-19 cross-sectional survey is an anonymous 74-item survey administered via social media across 31 provinces in mainland China between April and May 2020. Dietary data were assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire and the changes in weight status were self-reported. Exploratory factor analysis using the principal component analysis method was applied to identify dietary patterns. The multinomial regression models were conducted, and forest plots were used to present the associations between dietary patterns and changes in weight status. Results: Of a total of 10,545 adults (aged ≥18 years), more than half of participants reported to have weight gain, with 18.6% of men and 16.3% of women having weight gain >2.5 kg. Approximately 8% of participants reported to have weight loss, with 2.1% of men and 2.5% women having weight loss >2.5 kg. Two dietary patterns, namely, the modern and prudent dietary patterns, were identified during the COVID-19 pandemic. The modern dietary pattern was loaded heavily with soft drinks, fried foods, pickles, and inversely with fresh vegetables. The prudent dietary pattern was characterized by high intake of fresh fruits, vegetables, and inversely with soft drinks and fried food. The modern dietary pattern was positively associated with weight gain in men and women, while the prudent dietary pattern was negatively associated with both weight gain and loss in men and women during the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusion: Dietary patterns during COVID-19 are significantly associated with the changes in weight status, which may subsequently increase the risk of diet-related non-communicable disease among the Chinese population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
6.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(7)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504243

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This paper presented qualitative and quantitative data collected on the research capacity of global health institutions in China and aimed to provide a landscaping review of the development of global health as a new discipline in the largest emerging economy of the world. METHODS: Mixed methods were used and they included a bibliometric analysis, a standardised survey and indepth interviews with top officials of 11 selected global health research and educational institutions in mainland China. RESULTS: The bibliometric analysis revealed that each institution had its own focus areas, some with a balanced focus among chronic illness, infectious disease and health systems, while others only focused on one of these areas. Interviews of key staff from each institution showed common themes: recognition that the current research capacity in global health is relatively weak, optimism towards the future, as well as an emphasis on mutual beneficial networking with other countries. Specific obstacles raised and the solutions applied by each institution were listed and discussed. CONCLUSION: Global health institutions in China are going through a transition from learning and following established protocols to taking a more leading role in setting up China's own footprint in this area. Gaps still remain, both in comparison with international institutions, as well as between the leading Chinese institutions and those that have just started. More investment needs to be made, from both public and private domains, to improve the overall capacity as well as the mutual learning and communication within the academic community in China.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries , Global Health , China , Government Programs , Humans , Poverty
8.
J Affect Disord ; 293: 78-89, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275413

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the prevalence of depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, and posttraumatic stress symptoms among children and adolescents during global COVID-19 pandemic in 2019 to 2020, and the potential modifying effects of age and gender. METHODS: A literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and two Chinese academic databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang) for studies published from December 2019 to September 2020 that reported the prevalence of above mental health problems among children and adolescents. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to estimate the pooled prevalence. RESULTS: Twenty-three studies (21 cross-sectional studies and 2 longitudinal studies) from two countries (i.e., China and Turkey) with 57,927 children and adolescents were identified. Depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, and posttraumatic stress symptoms were assessed in 12, 13, 2, and 2 studies, respectively. Meta-analysis of results from these studies showed that the pooled prevalence of depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, and posttraumatic stress symptoms were 29% (95%CI: 17%, 40%), 26% (95%CI: 16%, 35%), 44% (95%CI: 21%, 68%), and 48% (95%CI: -0.25, 1.21), respectively. The subgroup meta-analysis revealed that adolescents and females exhibited higher prevalence of depression and anxiety compared to children and males, respectively. LIMITATIONS: All studies in meta-analysis were from China limited the generalizability of our findings. CONCLUSIONS: Early evidence highlights the high prevalence of mental health problems among children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially among female and adolescents. Studies investigating the mental health of children and adolescents from countries other than China are urgently needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Anxiety/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Horm Metab Res ; 53(5): 301-310, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219992

ABSTRACT

This study examined the associations between diabetes and self-reported/familial COVID-19 infection and investigated health-related outcomes among those with diabetes during China's nationwide quarantine. The 2020 China COVID-19 Survey was administered anonymously via social media (WeChat). It was completed by 10 545 adults in all of mainland China's 31 provinces. The survey consisted of 74 items covering sociodemographic characteristics, preventive measures for COVID-19, lifestyle behaviors, and health-related outcomes during the period of quarantine. Regression models examined associations among study variables. Diabetes was associated with a six-fold increased risk of reporting COVID-19 infection among respondents or their family members. Among people with diabetes, individuals who rarely wore masks had double the risk of suspected COVID-19 infection compared with those who always wore masks, with an inverse J-shaped relationship between face mask wearing and suspected COVID-19 infection. People with diabetes tended to have both poor knowledge of COVID-19 and poor compliance with preventive measures, despite perceiving a high risk of personal infection (40.0% among respondents reporting diabetes and 8.0% without diabetes). Only 54-55% of these respondents claimed to consistently practice preventive measures, including wearing face masks. Almost 60% of those with diabetes experienced food or medication shortages during the quarantine period, which was much higher than those without diabetes. Importantly, respondents who experienced medication shortages reported a 63% higher COVID-19 infection rate. Diabetes was associated with an increased risk of self-reported personal and family member COVID-19 infection, which is mitigated by consistent use of face masks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Complications/prevention & control , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Life Style , Male , Masks , Middle Aged , Patient Compliance , Personal Protective Equipment , Pharmaceutical Preparations/supply & distribution , Quarantine , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
10.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 106, 2021 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204078

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Partial- or full-lockdowns, among other interventions during the COVID-19 pandemic, may disproportionally affect people (their behaviors and health outcomes) with lower socioeconomic status (SES). This study examines income-related health inequalities and their main contributors in China during the pandemic. METHODS: The 2020 China COVID-19 Survey is an anonymous 74-item survey administered via social media in China. A national sample of 10,545 adults in all 31 provinces, municipalities, and autonomous regions in mainland China provided comprehensive data on sociodemographic characteristics, awareness and attitudes towards COVID-19, lifestyle factors, and health outcomes during the lockdown. Of them, 8448 subjects provided data for this analysis. Concentration Index (CI) and Corrected CI (CCI) were used to measure income-related inequalities in mental health and self-reported health (SRH), respectively. Wagstaff-type decomposition analysis was used to identify contributors to health inequalities. RESULTS: Most participants reported their health status as "very good" (39.0%) or "excellent" (42.3%). CCI of SRH and mental health were - 0.09 (p < 0.01) and 0.04 (p < 0.01), respectively, indicating pro-poor inequality in ill SRH and pro-rich inequality in ill mental health. Income was the leading contributor to inequalities in SRH and mental health, accounting for 62.7% (p < 0.01) and 39.0% (p < 0.05) of income-related inequalities, respectively. The COVID-19 related variables, including self-reported family-member COVID-19 infection, job loss, experiences of food and medication shortage, engagement in physical activity, and five different-level pandemic regions of residence, explained substantial inequalities in ill SRH and ill mental health, accounting for 29.7% (p < 0.01) and 20.6% (p < 0.01), respectively. Self-reported family member COVID-19 infection, experiencing food and medication shortage, and engagement in physical activity explain 9.4% (p < 0.01), 2.6% (the summed contributions of experiencing food shortage (0.9%) and medication shortage (1.7%), p < 0.01), and 17.6% (p < 0.01) inequality in SRH, respectively (8.9% (p < 0.01), 24.1% (p < 0.01), and 15.1% (p < 0.01) for mental health). CONCLUSIONS: Per capita household income last year, experiences of food and medication shortage, self-reported family member COVID-19 infection, and physical activity are important contributors to health inequalities, especially mental health in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Intervention programs should be implemented to support vulnerable groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Status Disparities , Income/statistics & numerical data , Adult , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 167: 108350, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-943032

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To examine perceived infection risk of COVID-19 and the health and related behavior changes among people with diabetes, compared with people without diabetes, and to examine factors associated with self-reported health during the national quarantine period in China. METHODS: The 2020 China COVID-19 Survey is an anonymous 74-item survey administered via social media across China. A national sample of 10,545 adults in all 31 provinces in mainland China provided data on sociodemographic characteristics, awareness, attitudes towards COVID-19, lifestyle factors, and health outcomes during the quarantine. Regression models tested associations among study variables adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: Among the 9,016 total participants (42.6% men and 57.4% women), 585 reported having diagnosed diabetes and 8,431 had no diabetes. Participants with diabetes perceived themselves to be at higher risk and were more worried about being infected with COVID-19 when compared to non-diabetic individuals (p < 0.001). During the COVID-19 pandemic, participants with diabetes were more likely to experience food and drug shortages and to increase their physical activity, compared to their counterparts. Among diabetic respondents, a high proportion of current smokers (74.1%) and drinkers (68.5%) reported increased amounts of smoking and drinking. People with diabetes were 11% less likely to report excellent or very good health. Having 150 min/week physical activity was positively associated with excellent or very good health (prevalence ratio, PR = 1.14, 95%CI 1.11-1.16). CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of people with diabetes perceived risk of COVID-19 infection and increased their smoking and drinking during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Attitude to Health , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Exercise , Health Behavior , Health Status , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Adult , Anxiety , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus , Female , Humans , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Perception , Prevalence , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
14.
Innovation (N Y) ; 1(1): 100006, 2020 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-833425

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Chinese government implemented a metropolitan-wide quarantine of Wuhan city on 23rd January 2020 to curb the epidemic of the coronavirus COVID-19. Lifting of this quarantine is imminent. We modelled the effects of two key health interventions on the epidemic when the quarantine is lifted. METHODS: We constructed a compartmental dynamic model to forecast the trend of the COVID-19 epidemic at different quarantine lifting dates and investigated the impact of different rates of public contact and facial mask usage on the epidemic. RESULTS: We projected a declining trend of the COVID-19 epidemic if the current quarantine strategy continues, and Wuhan would record the last new confirmed cases in late April 2020. At the end of the epidemic, 65,733 (45,722-99,015) individuals would be infected by the virus, among which 16,166 (11,238-24,603, 24.6%) were through public contacts, 45,996 (31,892-69,565, 69.7%) through household contact, and 3,571 (2,521-5,879, 5.5%) through hospital contacts (including 778 (553-1,154) non-COVID-19 patients and 2,786 (1,969-4,791) medical staff). A total of 2,821 (1,634-6,361) would die of COVID-19 related pneumonia in Wuhan. Early quarantine lifting on 21st March is viable only if Wuhan residents sustain a high facial mask usage of ≥85% and a pre-quarantine level public contact rate. Delaying city resumption to mid/late April would relax the requirement of facial mask usage to ≥75% at the same contact rate. CONCLUSIONS: The prevention of a second epidemic is viable after the metropolitan-wide quarantine is lifted but requires a sustaining high facial mask usage and a low public contact rate.

16.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 34, 2020 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-38547

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused more than 80 813 confirmed cases in all provinces of China, and 21 110 cases reported in 93 countries of six continents as of 7 March 2020 since middle December 2019. Due to biological nature of the novel coronavirus, named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with faster spreading and unknown transmission pattern, it makes us in a difficulty position to contain the disease transmission globally. To date, we have found it is one of the greatest challenges to human beings in fighting against COVID-19 in the history, because SARS-CoV-2 is different from SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV in terms of biological features and transmissibility, and also found the containment strategies including the non-pharmaceutical public health measures implemented in China are effective and successful. In order to prevent a potential pandemic-level outbreak of COVID-19, we, as a community of shared future for mankind, recommend for all international leaders to support preparedness in low and middle income countries especially, take strong global interventions by using old approaches or new tools, mobilize global resources to equip hospital facilities and supplies to protect noisome infections and to provide personal protective tools such as facemask to general population, and quickly initiate research projects on drug and vaccine development. We also recommend for the international community to develop better coordination, cooperation, and strong solidarity in the joint efforts of fighting against COVID-19 spreading recommended by the joint mission report of the WHO-China experts, against violating the International Health Regulation (WHO, 2005), and against stigmatization, in order to eventually win the battle against our common enemy - COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , International Health Regulations , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Civil Defense , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
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