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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 729149, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775856

ABSTRACT

Population aging is a defining demographic reality of our era. It is associated with an increase in the societal burden of delivering care to older adults with chronic conditions or frailty. How to integrate global population aging and technology development to help address the growing demands for care facing many aging societies is both a challenge and an opportunity for innovation. We propose a social technology approach that promotes use of technologies to assist individuals, families, and communities to cope more effectively with the disabilities of older adults who can no longer live independently due to dementia, serious mental illness, and multiple chronic health problems. The main contributions of the social technology approach include: (1) fostering multidisciplinary collaboration among social scientists, engineers, and healthcare experts; (2) including ethical and humanistic standards in creating and evaluating innovations; (3) improving social systems through working with those who deliver, manage, and design older adult care services; (4) promoting social justice through social policy research and innovation, particularly for disadvantaged groups; (5) fostering social integration by creating age-friendly and intergenerational programs; and (6) seeking global benefit by identifying and generalizing best practices. As an emergent, experimental approach, social technology requires systematic evaluation in an iterative process to refine its relevance and uses in different local settings. By linking technological interventions to the social and cultural systems of older people, we aim to help technological advances become an organic part of the complex social world that supports and sustains care delivery to older adults in need.


Subject(s)
Disabled Persons , Frailty , Aged , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Quality Improvement
2.
Journal of Communication in Healthcare ; : 1-10, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1764448

ABSTRACT

Background Methods Results Conclusions Evidence-based health communication is crucial for facilitating vaccine-related knowledge and addressing vaccine hesitancy. To that end, it is important to understand the discourses about COVID-19 vaccination and attend to the publics’ emotions underlying those discourses.We collect tweets related to COVID-19 vaccines from March 2020 to March 2021. In total, 304,292 tweets from 134,015 users are collected. We conduct a Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) modeling analysis and a sentiment analysis to analyze the discourse themes and sentiments.This study identifies seven themes of COVID-19 vaccine-related discourses. Vaccine advocacy (24.82%) is the most widely discussed topic about COVID-19 vaccines, followed by vaccine hesitancy (22.29%), vaccine rollout (12.99%), vaccine facts (12.61%), recognition for healthcare workers (12.47%), vaccine side effects (10.07%), and vaccine policies (4.75%). Trust is the most salient emotion associated with COVID-19 vaccine discourses, followed by anticipation, fear, joy, sadness, anger, surprise, and disgust. Among the seven topics, vaccine advocacy tweets are most likely to receive likes and comments, and vaccine fact tweets are most likely to receive retweets.When talking about vaccines, publics’ emotions are dominated by trust and anticipation, yet mixed with fear and sadness. Although tweets about vaccine hesitancy are prevalent on Twitter, those messages receive fewer likes and comments than vaccine advocacy messages. Over time, tweets about vaccine advocacy and vaccine facts become more dominant whereas tweets about vaccine hesitancy become less dominant among COVID-19 vaccine discourses, suggesting that publics become more confident about COVID-19 vaccines as they obtain more information. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Communication in Healthcare is the property of Taylor & Francis Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

3.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(11): 1028-1037, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699812

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to affect countries worldwide. To inhibit the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), testing of patients, contact tracing, and quarantine of their close contacts have been used as major nonpharmaceutical interventions. The advantages of antigen tests, such as low cost and rapid turnaround, may allow for the rapid identification of larger numbers of infectious persons. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of antigen tests for SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Biomed Central databases from inception to January 2, 2021. Studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of antigen testing for SARS-CoV-2 with reference standards were included. We included studies that provided sufficient data to construct a 2 × 2 table on a per-patient basis. Only articles in English were reviewed. Summary sensitivity and specificity for antigen tests were generated using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Fourteen studies with 8624 participants were included. The meta-analysis for antigen testing generated a pooled sensitivity of 79% (95% CI, 66%-88%; 14 studies, 8624 patients) and a pooled specificity of 100% (95% CI, 99%-100%; 14 studies, 8624 patients). The subgroup analysis of studies that reported specimen collection within 7 days after symptom onset showed a pooled sensitivity of 95% (95% CI, 78%-99%; four studies, 1342 patients) and pooled specificity of 100% (95% CI, 97%-100%; four studies, 1342 patients). Regarding the applicability, the patient selection, index tests, and reference standards of studies in our meta-analysis matched the review title. CONCLUSION: Antigen tests have moderate sensitivity and high specificity for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. Antigen tests might have a higher sensitivity in detecting SARS-CoV-2 within 7 days after symptom onset. Based on our findings, antigen testing might be an effective method for identifying contagious individuals to block SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324466

ABSTRACT

Background: On March 19, 2020, the government of California ordered all 40 million Californians to stay at home in the coming weeks as the result of the escalation of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. As lockdowns were implemented, the significant changes caused by these restrictions brought a dramatic improvement in air quality in metropolitan cities such as Los Angeles (LA Basin).Methods: We use real-time data from The South Coast Air Quality Management District (South Coast AQMD), and the California Department of Transportation to evaluate the drivers of the pollution sources. We also mapped monthly spatial variations and constructed hourly heatmaps of those pollutants in 2020 to understand the impacts of the lockdown on different locations and times of day in the LA Basin. Results: Compared to the same dates in 2019, traffic flow on highways in the Los Angeles Basin dropped by 20.86 % when the stay at home order was initiated and it continued to decrease along with dramatic declines in NO2, CO, and PM2.5. The correlation (Pierson r) between truck flow change and changes of NO2, CO, and PM2.5 is statistically significant. Conclusion: The declines in truck flow are mainly responsible for the drop of NO2 and CO, with traffic having a slightly smaller effect on PM2.5. The lockdowns provided a large-scale experiment into air quality research. The result of this research would provide an important reference for the policy markers regarding truck management in light of air quality control to prepare for the 2028 Summer Olympics in LA.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324135

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 lockdown in Wuhan, transportation, industrial production and other human activities declined significantly, as did the NO2 concentration. In order to assess the relative contributions of different factors to reductions of air pollutants, sensitivity experiments were implemented by random forest (RF) model, with the comparison of contributions of meteorology, road traffic, and emission sources between different periods. Besides, an emulator was operated to suggest an appropriate limit for control of transportation. The RF models showed different mechanisms for air pollutants. Within-city Migration index (WMI) was more important in the normal, pre-lockdown and post-pandemic model while Out-Migration Index (OMI) was emphasized in the lockdown model. In the COVID-19 lockdown period, 73.3% of the reduction can be attributed to the decreased road traffic, showing massive impact of road traffic on the air quality. In the post-pandemic period, meteorology controlled about 42.2% of the decrease and emissions from industry and household controlled 40.0% while road traffic only contributed to 17.8%. It was suggested that priority of restriction should be given to road traffic within the city. A limit of less than 40% on the control of the road traffic can get a better effect, especially for cities with severe traffic pollution.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312719

ABSTRACT

The pandemic Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes noticeable morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to vaccine and antiviral drug therapy, the use of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) neutralizing antibodies for treatment purposes is a viable alternative. In this study, we aimed to profile the humoral responses and identify neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 using high-throughput single-cell sequencing that tailored to B cell receptor sequencing. From two convalescent patients with high serum titer against SARS-COV-2, we identified seven antibodies specifically binding to SARS-CoV-2. Among these, the most potent antibody, P4A1 was demonstrated to block the binding of spike protein to its receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and prevent the viral infection in neutralization assays with pseudovirus as well as live virus at nM to sub-nM range. Moreover, antibody P4A1 can also bind strongly to spike protein with N354D/D364Y, R408I, W436R, V367F or D614G mutations respectively, suggesting that the antibody alone or in combination with other antibodies that recognize different variations of SARS-CoV-2, may provide a broad spectrum therapeutic option for COVID-19 patients. Authors Lisu Huang, Bingqing Shen, Yu Guo, and Shu Shen contributed equally to this work.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311717

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) threatens global public health and economy. Therapeutic options such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 are in urgent need. We have identified potent monoclonal antibodies binding to SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein from COVID-19 convalescent patients and one of these antibodies, P4A1, interacts directly and covers the majority of the Receptor Binding Motif (RBM) of Spike receptor-binding domain (RBD), shown by high-resolution complex structure analysis. We further demonstrated P4A1 binding and neutralizing activities against wild type and mutant spike proteins. P4A1 was subsequently engineered to reduce the potential risk for antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection and to extend its half-life. The engineered mAb exhibits optimized pharmacokinetic and safety profile, and results in complete viral clearance in a rhesus monkey model of COVID-19 following a single injection.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315713

ABSTRACT

The considerable cessation of human activities during the COVID-19 pandemic has affected global energy use and CO2 emissions. Here we show the unprecedented decrease in global fossil CO2 emissions from January to April 2020 was of 7.8% (938 Mt CO2 with a +6.8% of 2-σ uncertainty) when compared with the period last year. In addition other emerging estimates of COVID impacts based on monthly energy supply or estimated parameters, this study contributes to another step that constructed the near-real-time daily CO2 emission inventories based on activity from power generation (for 29 countries), industry (for 73 countries), road transportation (for 406 cities), aviation and maritime transportation and commercial and residential sectors emissions (for 206 countries). The estimates distinguished the decline of CO2 due to COVID-19 from the daily, weekly and seasonal variations as well as the holiday events. The COVID-related decreases in CO2 emissions in road transportation (340.4 Mt CO2, -15.5%), power (292.5 Mt CO2, -6.4% compared to 2019), industry (136.2 Mt CO2, -4.4%), aviation (92.8 Mt CO2, -28.9%), residential (43.4 Mt CO2, -2.7%), and international shipping (35.9Mt CO2, -15%). Regionally, decreases in China were the largest and earliest (234.5 Mt CO2,-6.9%), followed by Europe (EU-27 & UK) (138.3 Mt CO2, -12.0%) and the U.S. (162.4 Mt CO2, -9.5%). The declines of CO2 are consistent with regional nitrogen oxides concentrations observed by satellites and ground-based networks, but the calculated signal of emissions decreases (about 1Gt CO2) will have little impacts (less than 0.13ppm by April 30, 2020) on the overserved global CO2 concertation. However, with observed fast CO2 recovery in China and partial re-opening globally, our findings suggest the longer-term effects on CO2 emissions are unknown and should be carefully monitored using multiple measures.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314977

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is transmitted largely by respiratory droplets or airborne aerosols. Despite being frequently found in the immediate environment and faeces of patients, evidence supporting oral acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 is unavailable. Utilizing Syrian hamster model, we demonstrated that the severity of pneumonia induced by intranasal inhalation of SARS-CoV-2 increased with virus inoculum. SARS-CoV-2 retained its infectivity in vitro in simulated human fed-gastric and fasted-intestinal fluid after two hours. Oral inoculation with the highest intranasal inoculum (10 5 PFU) caused only mild pneumonia in 67% (4/6) of the animals with no clinical symptoms. The lung histopathology and viral load were significantly lower than those infected by the lowest intranasal inoculum (100 PFU). However, 83% oral infection (10/12 hamsters) had similar level of detectable viral shedding from oral swabs and faeces as intranasally infected hamsters. Our findings indicated oral acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 can establish asymptomatic respiratory infection with less efficiency.

10.
Huanjing yu Zhiye Yixue = Journal of Environmental & Occupational Medicine ; 38(12):1387, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1687522

ABSTRACT

From October 22 to 23, 2021, the 16th National Postgraduates Symposium on Environmental and Occupational Medicine was successfully held in Central South University,sponsored by the Editorial Board of Journal of Environmental and Occupational Medicine and Xiangya School of Public Health of Central South University, and co-organized by School of Public Health of South China University and Shanghai Preventive Medicine Association. Keeping in view the outbreak of COVID-19, the symposium was held in the form of "offline+online". More than 100 teachers and students from more than 30 universities and research institutions across China attended the conference. A total of 114 excellent papers were submitted to this conference.Focusing on the theme of "Research and practice: Healing the schism", young scholars' forum as well as postgraduates' academic exchanges at the main venue and four parallel sessions were launched. This conference not only provided an excellent platform for postgraduate students in the field of environmental and occupational medicine nationwide to share academic trends and exchange academic research, but also expanded the influence of the Journal of Environmental and Occupational Medicine.

11.
Arch. med ; 21(1): 238-246, 2021/01/03.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1677832

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar relação entre a cobertura pela Estratégia de Saúde da Família e a disponibilidade de respiradores com a taxa de contágio e mortalidade da COVID-19 no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Materiais e métodos: trata-se de um estudo ecológico, que utiliza modelos computacionais de análise geoespacial sobre o avanço do COVID-19 nos 295 municípios de Santa Catarina. Resultados: o Estado apresentou casos em todos os municípios, e uma taxa de infecção por Covid-19 de 1,63%. No modelo de regressão realizado, a cobertura pela Estratégia de Saúde da Família apresentou correlação com a mortalidade e a taxa de infecção pela Covid-19. A quantidade de respiradores apresentou correlação com a mortalidade. Conclusão: em Santa Catarina a Estratégia de Saúde da Família e a compra de novos respiradores, apresentam-se como aliados no enfrentamento à COVID 19..Au


Objective: to relate the coverage by the FHS and the availability of respirators with the transmission and mortality rate of COVID-19 in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Materials and methods: this is an ecological study, which uses computational models of geospatial analysis on the progress of COVID-19 to the 295 cities in Santa Catarina. The correlation between the FHS coverage and the number of respirators grouped in the mesoregions was calculated with the COVID-19 transmission and mortality rates. Results: the state had low infection rates of 0.07% and mortality of 1.72%, when compared to Brazil. There was an increase in cases in smaller municipalities, indicating the interiorization of the pandemic. There was no correlation between FHS coverage with infection and mortality. However, respirators are associated with lower mortality. Conclusion: regional disparity was found in the presence of respirators in the state's micro-regions, suggesting an imbalance in the quality of care for critically ill patients during the pandemic..Au


Subject(s)
Humans , Ventilators, Mechanical , Coronavirus Infections , Family Health Strategy
12.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 21: 100393, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665253

ABSTRACT

Background: Stimulation of immunity by vaccination may elicit adverse events. There is currently inconclusive evidence on the relationship between herpes zoster related hospitalization and COVID-19 vaccination. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of inactivated virus (CoronaVac, Sinovac) and mRNA (BNT162b2, BioNTech/Fosun Pharma) COVID-19 vaccine on the risk of herpes zoster related hospitalization. Methods: Self-controlled case series (SCCS) analysis was conducted using the data from the electronic health records in Hospital Authority and COVID-19 vaccination records in the Department of Health in Hong Kong. We conducted the SCCS analysis including patients with a first primary diagnosis of herpes zoster in the hospital inpatient setting between February 23 and July 31, 2021. A confirmatory analysis by nested case-control method was also conducted. Each herpes zoster case was randomly matched with ten controls according to sex, age, Charlson comorbidity index, and date of hospital admission. Conditional Poisson regression and logistic regression models were used to assess the potential excess rates of herpes zoster after vaccination. Findings: From February 23 to July 31, 2021, a total of 16 and 27 patients were identified with a first primary hospital diagnosis of herpes zoster within 28 days after CoronaVac and BNT162b2 vaccinations. The incidence of herpes zoster was 7.9 (95% Confidence interval [CI]: 5.2-11.5) for CoronaVac and 7.1 (95% CI: 4.1-11.5) for BNT162b2 per 1,000,000 doses administered. In SCCS analysis, CoronaVac vaccination was associated with significantly higher risk of herpes zoster within 14 days after first dose (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR]=2.67, 95% CI: 1.08-6.59) but not in other periods afterwards compared to the baseline period. Regarding BNT162b2 vaccination, a significantly increased risk of herpes zoster was observed after first dose up to 14 days after second dose (0-13 days after first dose: aIRR=5.23, 95% CI: 1.61-17.03; 14-27 days after first dose: aIRR=5.82, 95% CI: 1.62-20.91; 0-13 days after second dose: aIRR=5.14, 95% CI: 1.29-20.47). Using these relative rates, we estimated that there has been an excess of approximately 5 and 7 cases of hospitalization as a result of herpes zoster after every 1,000,000 doses of CoronaVac and BNT162b2 vaccination, respectively. The findings in the nested case control analysis showed similar results. Interpretation: We identified an increased risk of herpes zoster related hospitalization after CoronaVac and BNT162b2 vaccinations. However, the absolute risks of such adverse event after CoronaVac and BNT162b2 vaccinations were very low. In locations where COVID-19 is prevalent, the protective effects on COVID-19 from vaccinations will greatly outweigh the potential side effects of vaccination. Funding: The project was funded by Research Grant from the Food and Health Bureau, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Ref. No.COVID19F01). FTTL (Francisco Tsz Tsun Lai) and ICKW (Ian Chi Kei Wong)'s posts were partly funded by D24H; hence this work was partly supported by AIR@InnoHK administered by Innovation and Technology Commission.

13.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 567446, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638124

ABSTRACT

Objective: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), declared as a major public health emergency, has had profound effects on public mental health especially emotional status. Due to professional requirements, medical staff are at a higher risk of infection, which might induce stronger negative emotions. This study aims to reveal the emotional status of Chinese frontline medical staff in the early epidemic period to better maintain their mental health, and provide adequate psychological support for them. Methods: A national online survey was carried out in China at the early stage of the COVID-19 epidemic. In total, 3025 Chinese frontline medical staff took part in this investigation which utilized a general information questionnaire, the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), and the Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire (BEQ). Results: At the early stage of COVID-19, anxiety was the most common negative emotion of Chinese medical staff, followed by sadness, fear, and anger, mainly at a mild degree, which declined gradually over time. Nurses had the highest level of negative emotions compared with doctors and other healthcare workers. Women experienced more fear than men, younger and unmarried medical staff had more anxiety and fear compared with elders and married ones. Risk perception and emotional expressivity increased negative emotions, cognitive reappraisal reduced negative emotions, while negative emotions led to more avoidant behavior and more physical health disturbances, in which negative emotions mediated the effect of risk perception on avoidant behavior tendency in the model test. Conclusion: Chinese frontline medical staff experienced a mild level of negative emotions at the early stage of COVID-19, which decreased gradually over time. The findings suggest that during the epidemic, nurses' mental health should be extensively attended to, as well as women, younger, and unmarried medical staff. To better ensure their mental health, reducing risk perception and improving cognitive reappraisal might be important, which are potentially valuable to form targeted psychological interventions and emotional guidance under crisis in the future.

14.
ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information ; 10(12):836, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1580707

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 lockdown in Wuhan, transportation, industrial production and other human activities declined significantly, as did the NO2 concentration. In order to assess the relative contributions of different factors to reductions in air pollutants, we implemented sensitivity experiments by Random Forest (RF) models, with the comparison of the contributions of meteorological conditions, human mobility, and emissions from industry and households between different periods. In addition, we conducted scenario analyses to suggest an appropriate limit for control of human mobility. Different mechanisms for air pollutants were shown in the pre-pandemic, pre-lockdown, lockdown, and post-pandemic periods. Wind speed and the Within-city Migration index, representing intra-city mobility intensity, were excluded from stepwise multiple linear models in the pre-lockdown and lockdown periods. The results of sensitivity experiments show that, in the COVID-19 lockdown period, 73.3% of the reduction can be attributed to decreased human mobility. In the post-pandemic period, meteorological conditions control about 42.2% of the decrease, and emissions from industry and households control 40.0%, while human mobility only contributes 17.8%. The results of the scenario analysis suggest that the priority of restriction should be given to human mobility within the city than other kinds of human mobility. The reduction in the NO2 concentration tends to be smaller when human mobility within the city decreases by more than 70%. A limit of less than 40% on the control of the human mobility can achieve a better effect, especially in cities with severe traffic pollution.

15.
Clin Chim Acta ; 524: 78-83, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536460

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary cryptococcosis is an opportunistic aggressive mycosis in immunocompromised patients, but it can be increasingly seen in immunocompetent patients. It is still challenging to make a rapid and accurate diagnosis due to the various clinical manifestations and limitations in the diagnostic tools. METHOD: A 54-year-old man presented with intermittent productive cough and fever for 1 week. A chest X-ray demonstrated multiple consolidations in both lungs. Blood biochemistry indicated elevated immunoglobulin G levels. Including sputum cultures, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, influenza A and B virus were all negative. Computed tomography of the chest showed ground-glass opacities with a nodular pattern. The serum cryptococcal antigen test was positive; however, the cerebral spinal fluid was negative. The diagnosis of pulmonary cryptococcal infection was made. An initial bronchoscopy was performed unsuccessfully and the patient received intravenous fluconazole therapy for 2 weeks. Due to poor improvement of clinical condition, he then underwent a surgical lung biopsy. The pathology revealed several encapsulated yeast cells, diffuse pulmonary interstitial fibrosis, noncaseating granulomas surrounded by T lymphocytes and multinucleated giant cells with intracellular inclusions, confirming pulmonary yeast infection associated with hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Ultimately, fungal cultures of the pathology samples revealed Cryptococcus neoformans. Subsequently antifungal therapy combined with oral steroid treatment, his general condition improved. After a total of 6 months of antifungal therapy, the patient recovered completely. CONCLUSIONS: Applicable laboratory diagnosis can help facilitate the accurate and rapid diagnosis of pulmonary cryptococcosis. This report elected to provide an update on the topic of laboratory diagnosis, clinical manifestation, and management of pulmonary cryptococcosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cryptococcosis , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Biopsy , Cryptococcosis/diagnosis , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Clin Invest ; 131(20)2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501861

ABSTRACT

The mRNA-1273 vaccine is effective against SARS-CoV-2 and was granted emergency use authorization by the FDA. Clinical studies, however, cannot provide the controlled response to infection and complex immunological insight that are only possible with preclinical studies. Hamsters are the only model that reliably exhibits severe SARS-CoV-2 disease similar to that in hospitalized patients, making them pertinent for vaccine evaluation. We demonstrate that prime or prime-boost administration of mRNA-1273 in hamsters elicited robust neutralizing antibodies, ameliorated weight loss, suppressed SARS-CoV-2 replication in the airways, and better protected against disease at the highest prime-boost dose. Unlike in mice and nonhuman primates, low-level virus replication in mRNA-1273-vaccinated hamsters coincided with an anamnestic response. Single-cell RNA sequencing of lung tissue permitted high-resolution analysis that is not possible in vaccinated humans. mRNA-1273 prevented inflammatory cell infiltration and the reduction of lymphocyte proportions, but enabled antiviral responses conducive to lung homeostasis. Surprisingly, infection triggered transcriptome programs in some types of immune cells from vaccinated hamsters that were shared, albeit attenuated, with mock-vaccinated hamsters. Our results support the use of mRNA-1273 in a 2-dose schedule and provide insight into the potential responses within the lungs of vaccinated humans who are exposed to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Lung/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Lymphocyte Activation , Mesocricetus , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Single-Cell Analysis , Virus Replication
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488597

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused the global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Rapid identification and isolation of infectious patients are critical methods to block COVID-19 transmission. Antigen tests can contribute to prompt identification of infectious individuals. This meta-analysis aims to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of antigen tests for SARS-CoV-2. We conducted a literature search in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and Biomed Central databases. Studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of antigen tests for SARS-CoV-2 in community participants were included. Only English-language articles were reviewed. We included eligible studies that provided available data to construct a 2 × 2 table on a per-patient basis. Overall sensitivity and specificity for antigen tests were generated using a bivariate random-effects model. Eighteen studies with 34,865 participants were retrieved. The meta-analysis for SARS-CoV-2 antigen tests generated a pooled sensitivity of 0.82 and a pooled specificity of 1.00. A subgroup analysis of ten studies that reported outcomes for 5629 symptomatic participants generated a pooled sensitivity of 0.87 and a pooled specificity of 1.00. Antigen tests might have higher sensitivity in detecting SARS-CoV-2 in symptomatic patients in the community and may be an effective tool to identify patients to be quarantined to prevent further SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Mass Screening , Pandemics , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291513

ABSTRACT

Background: The long-term impact of COVID-19 on patient health has been a recent focus. This study aims to determine the persistent symptoms and psychological conditions of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 15 months after onset. The potential risk factors were also explored.Methods: A cohort of COVID-19 patients discharged from February 20, 2020 to March 31, 2020 was recruited. Follow-ups were conducted using validated questionnaires and psychological screening scales at 15 months after onset to evaluate the patients’ health status. The risk factors for long-term health impacts and their associations with disease severity was analyzed.Findings: 534 COVID-19 patients were enrolled. The median age of the patients was 62.0 years old (IQR 52.0-70.0) and 295 were female (55.2%). The median time from onset to follow-up was 460.0 (451.0-467.0) days. Sleep disturbance (18.5%, 99/534) and fatigue (17.2%, 92/534) were the most common persistent symptoms. 6.4% (34/534) of the patients had depression, 9.2% (49/534) were anxious, 13.0% (70/534) had insomnia and 4.7% (25/534) suffered from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Multivariate adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that glucocorticoid use during hospitalization (OR 3.58, 95% CI 1.12-11.44) was significantly associated with an increased risk of fatigue. The OR values for anxiety and sleep disorders were 2.36 (95% CI 1.07-5.20) and 2.16 (95% CI 1.13-4.14) in females compared with males. The OR value of PTSD was 25.6 (95% CI 3.3-198.4) in patients with persistent symptoms to those without persistent symptoms. No significant associations were observed between fatigue syndrome or adverse mental outcomes and disease severity.Interpretation: 15-month follow-up in this study aroused the need of extended rehabilitation intervention for complete recovery in COVID-19 patients. Funding: None to declare. Declaration of Interest: All the authors declare no competing interests.Ethical Approval: The Research Ethics Committee of Shanghai Changzheng Hospital approved this study (2020SL007).

19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463703

ABSTRACT

Exosomes are associated with cancer progression, pregnancy, cardiovascular diseases, central nervous system-related diseases, immune responses and viral pathogenicity. However, study on the role of exosomes in the immune response of teleost fish, especially antiviral immunity, is limited. Herein, serum-derived exosomes from mandarin fish were used to investigate the antiviral effect on the exosomes of teleost fish. Exosomes isolated from mandarin fish serum by ultra-centrifugation were internalized by mandarin fish fry cells and were able to inhibit Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) infection. To further investigate the underlying mechanisms of exosomes in inhibiting ISKNV infection, the protein composition of serum-derived exosomes was analyzed by mass spectrometry. It was found that myxovirus resistance 1 (Mx1) was incorporated by exosomes. Furthermore, the mandarin fish Mx1 protein was proven to be transferred into the recipient cells though exosomes. Our results showed that the serum-derived exosomes from mandarin fish could inhibit ISKNV replication, which suggested an underlying mechanism of the exosome antivirus in that it incorporates Mx1 protein and delivery into recipient cells. This study provided evidence for the important antiviral role of exosomes in the immune system of teleost fish.


Subject(s)
DNA Virus Infections , Exosomes , Fish Diseases , Fish Proteins , Fishes , Iridoviridae , Myxovirus Resistance Proteins , Animals , Cell Line , DNA Virus Infections/blood , DNA Virus Infections/immunology , DNA Virus Infections/veterinary , Exosomes/immunology , Exosomes/metabolism , Fish Diseases/blood , Fish Diseases/immunology , Fish Proteins/blood , Fish Proteins/immunology , Fishes/blood , Fishes/immunology , Fishes/virology , Iridoviridae/immunology , Iridoviridae/metabolism , Myxovirus Resistance Proteins/blood , Myxovirus Resistance Proteins/immunology
20.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 713188, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456288

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, antigenicity concerns continue to linger with emerging mutants. As recent variants have shown decreased reactivity to previously determined monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) or sera, monitoring the antigenicity change of circulating mutants is urgently needed for vaccine effectiveness. Currently, antigenic comparison is mainly carried out by immuno-binding assays. Yet, an online predicting system is highly desirable to complement the targeted experimental tests from the perspective of time and cost. Here, we provided a platform of SAS (Spike protein Antigenicity for SARS-CoV-2), enabling predicting the resistant effect of emerging variants and the dynamic coverage of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among circulating strains. When being compared to experimental results, SAS prediction obtained the consistency of 100% on 8 mAb-binding tests with detailed epitope covering mutational sites, and 80.3% on 223 anti-serum tests. Moreover, on the latest South Africa escaping strain (B.1.351), SAS predicted a significant resistance to reference strain at multiple mutated epitopes, agreeing well with the vaccine evaluation results. SAS enables auto-updating from GISAID, and the current version collects 867K GISAID strains, 15.4K unique spike (S) variants, and 28 validated and predicted epitope regions that include 339 antigenic sites. Together with the targeted immune-binding experiments, SAS may be helpful to reduce the experimental searching space, indicate the emergence and expansion of antigenic variants, and suggest the dynamic coverage of representative mAbs/vaccines among the latest circulating strains. SAS can be accessed at https://www.biosino.org/sas.

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