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1.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 99, 2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483126

ABSTRACT

Large-scale COVID-19 vaccinations are currently underway in many countries in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we report, besides generation of neutralizing antibodies, consistent alterations in hemoglobin A1c, serum sodium and potassium levels, coagulation profiles, and renal functions in healthy volunteers after vaccination with an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Similar changes had also been reported in COVID-19 patients, suggesting that vaccination mimicked an infection. Single-cell mRNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) before and 28 days after the first inoculation also revealed consistent alterations in gene expression of many different immune cell types. Reduction of CD8+ T cells and increase in classic monocyte contents were exemplary. Moreover, scRNA-seq revealed increased NF-κB signaling and reduced type I interferon responses, which were confirmed by biological assays and also had been reported to occur after SARS-CoV-2 infection with aggravating symptoms. Altogether, our study recommends additional caution when vaccinating people with pre-existing clinical conditions, including diabetes, electrolyte imbalances, renal dysfunction, and coagulation disorders.

2.
Brief Bioinform ; 2021 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447577

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has attracted research interests from all fields. Phylogenetic and social network analyses based on connectivity between either COVID-19 patients or geographic regions and similarity between syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) sequences provide unique angles to answer public health and pharmaco-biological questions such as relationships between various SARS-CoV-2 mutants, the transmission pathways in a community and the effectiveness of prevention policies. This paper serves as a systematic review of current phylogenetic and social network analyses with applications in COVID-19 research. Challenges in current phylogenetic network analysis on SARS-CoV-2 such as unreliable inferences, sampling bias and batch effects are discussed as well as potential solutions. Social network analysis combined with epidemiology models helps to identify key transmission characteristics and measure the effectiveness of prevention and control strategies. Finally, future new directions of network analysis motivated by COVID-19 data are summarized.

3.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(8): e533-e541, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402737

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of human infection with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Moscow, Lima, Kuwait, and Singapore to analyze the effects of climate factors on the incidence of COVID-19. METHODS: Collect the daily incidence of COVID-19 and related climate data in four areas, construct a negative binomial regression model, and analyze the correlation between the incidence of COVID-19 and meteorological factors. RESULTS: AH was the climate factor affecting the incidence of COVID-19 in Moscow, Lima, and Singapore; Ta and RH were the climate factors affecting the incidence of COVID-19 in Kuwait. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of COVID-19 in four areas were all associated with the humidity, and climate factors should be taken into consideration when epidemic prevention measures are taken, and environment humidification may be a feasible approach to decrease COVID-19 virus transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Climate , Humans , Humidity , Models, Statistical , SARS-CoV-2 , Temperature
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5000, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361637

ABSTRACT

The successive emergences and accelerating spread of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lineages and evolved resistance to some ongoing clinical therapeutics increase the risks associated with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. An urgent intervention for broadly effective therapies to limit the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 and future transmission events from SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs) is needed. Here, we isolate and humanize an angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2)-blocking monoclonal antibody (MAb), named h11B11, which exhibits potent inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV and circulating global SARS-CoV-2 lineages. When administered therapeutically or prophylactically in the hACE2 mouse model, h11B11 alleviates and prevents SARS-CoV-2 replication and virus-induced pathological syndromes. No significant changes in blood pressure and hematology chemistry toxicology were observed after injections of multiple high dosages of h11B11 in cynomolgus monkeys. Analysis of the structures of the h11B11/ACE2 and receptor-binding domain (RBD)/ACE2 complexes shows hindrance and epitope competition of the MAb and RBD for the receptor. Together, these results suggest h11B11 as a potential therapeutic countermeasure against SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and escape variants.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Epitopes , Female , HEK293 Cells , Haplorhini , Humans , Macaca fascicularis , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vero Cells , Virus Activation
6.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(8): 1925-1939, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266906

ABSTRACT

Background: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) allow entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) into host cells and play essential roles in cancer therapy. However, the functions of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in kidney cancer remain unclear, especially as kidneys are targets for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: UCSC Xena project, the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases (GSE30589 and GSE59185) were searched for gene expression in human tissues, gene expression data, and clinical information. Several bioinformatics methods were utilized to analyze the correlation between ACE2 and TMPRSS2 with respect to the prognosis of kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC) and kidney renal papillary cell carcinoma (KIRP). Results: ACE2 expression was significantly upregulated in tumor tissue, while its downregulation was associated with low survival in KIRC and KIRP patients. TMPRSS2 was downregulated in KIRC and KIRP, and its expression was not correlated with patient survival. According to clinical risk factor-based prediction models, ACE2 exhibits predictive accuracy for kidney cancer prognosis and is correlated with metabolism and immune infiltration. In an animal model, ACE2 expression was remarkably downregulated in SARS-CoV-2-infected cells compared to in the control. Conclusion: ACE2 expression is highly correlated with various metabolic pathways and is involved in immune infiltration.it plays a crucial role than TMPRSS2 in diagnosing and prognosis of kidney cancer patients. The overlap in ACE2 expression between kidney cancer and SARS-CoV-2 infection suggests that patients with KIRC or KIRP are at high risk of developing serious symptoms.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , COVID-19/complications , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/complications , Kidney Neoplasms/complications , Receptors, Virus/biosynthesis , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Animals , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/immunology , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/metabolism , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/mortality , Chlorocebus aethiops , Down-Regulation , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Gene Regulatory Networks , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Kidney Neoplasms/immunology , Kidney Neoplasms/metabolism , Kidney Neoplasms/mortality , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Animal , Neoplasm Proteins/biosynthesis , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , Organ Specificity , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/biosynthesis , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/physiology , Tissue Array Analysis , Vero Cells
7.
Comput Electr Eng ; 93: 107235, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265658

ABSTRACT

Predicting the population density of key areas of the city is crucial. It helps reduce the spread risk of Covid-19 and predict individuals' travel needs. Although current researches focus on using the method of clustering to predict the population density, there is almost no discussion about using spatial-temporal models to predict the population density of key areas in a city without using actual regional images. We abstract 997 key areas and their regional connections into a graph structure and propose a model called Word Embedded Spatial-temporal Graph Convolutional Network (WE-STGCN). WE-STGCN is mainly composed of the Spatial Convolution Layer, the Temporal Convolution Layer, and the Feature Component. Based on the data set provided by the DataFountain platform, we evaluate the model and compare it with some typical models. Experimental results show that WE-STGCN has 53.97% improved to baselines on average and can commendably predicting the population density of key areas.

8.
Front Public Health ; 8: 565849, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207746

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) status and explore its associated factors in pediatric medical staff during the COVID-19 epidemic so as to provide fundamental evidence for clinicians and administrators to formulate targeted intervention measures to improve the HRQoL and mental health status in pediatric medical staff during this, and future pandemics. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the HRQoL of pediatric medical staff. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyze the associated factors. Results: A total of 2,997 participants were recruited. Females scored worse than males in terms of emotional functioning (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.1) and cognitive functioning (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.8). The respondents aged 30-39 and 40-49 years scored worse in nearly all domains of HRQoL compared health care professionals under 30 years old. Respondents with high education had lower scores in physical functioning (OR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0-1.7) and emotional functioning (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.9). Compared with doctors, nurses had higher scores in all domains except for summary score and worry. The respondents whose working places had not set up pediatric fever clinics and isolated observation areas independently had lower scores in all domains except for worry. The respondents who had ever treated patients with COVID-19 had lower scores in all domains. Conclusion: During the COVID-19 outbreak, the HRQoL of pediatric medical staff decreased. The factors associated with HRQoL can be used to develop intervention to improve HRQoL in pediatric medical staff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Adult , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Medical Staff , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(33): 45344-45352, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188153

ABSTRACT

To control the spread of COVID-19, China has imposed national lockdown policies to restrict the movement of its population since the Chinese New Year of January 2020. In this study, we quantitatively analyzed the changes of pollution sources in Shanghai during the COVID-19 lockdown; a high-resolution emission inventory of typical pollution sources including stationary source, mobile source, and oil and gas storage and transportation source was established based on pollution source data from January to February 2020. The results show that the total emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were 9520.2, 37,978.6, 2796.7, and 7236.9 tons, respectively, during the study period. Affected by the COVID-19 lockdown, the mobile source experienced the largest decline. The car mileage and oil sales decreased by about 80% during the COVID-19 lockdown (P3) when compared with those during the pre-Spring Festival (P1). The number of aircraft activity decreased by approximately 50%. The impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on industries such as iron and steel and petrochemicals was less significant, while the greater impact was on coatings, chemicals, rubber, and plastic. The emissions of SO2, NOx, PM2.5, and VOCs decreased by 11%, 39%, 37%, and 47%, respectively, during P3 when compared with those during P1. The results show that the measures to control the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic made a significant contribution to emission reductions. This study may provide a reference for other countries to assess the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on emissions and help establish regulatory actions to improve air quality.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , China , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(4): 4174-4183, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175845

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sinonasal symptoms were usually reported to appear initially, yielding the symptoms important for the early detection of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study was conducted retrospectively to investigate the detailed sinonasal manifestations and dynamic profile of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in COVID-19 patients longitudinally. METHODS: This retrospective study included 11 consecutive patients. The prevalence, timing and severity of sinonasal manifestations were analyzed. Oropharyngeal, nasal, sputum and stool specimens were collected to detect RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 over COVID-19 period. RESULTS: Among the 11 patients, 6 (54.5%) were female, and the median age was 51 (IQR, 36-62) years. Seven patients (63.6%) experienced sinonasal symptoms, with 6 (54.5%) exhibiting sinonasal symptoms on the onset day. Seven patients (63.6%) demonstrated nasal obstruction, 5 (45.5%) had rhinorrhea, and 4 (36.4%) exhibited olfactory dysfunction. All six patients with sinonasal symptoms on the onset day had non-severe infections. Most patients (85.7%) with sinonasal symptoms had non-severe infections. Sinonasal symptoms commonly appeared early. The positive RT-PCR rate for SARS-CoV-2 in various specimens was highest in the first week (73.3%), then gradually decreased over the disease course, but 3 patients (27.3%) had experienced a long-lasting fluctuated positive RT-PCR results since 29 days of illness in both groups, especially for two patients with airway comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Sinonasal symptoms were more prevalent in patients with mild or moderate COVID-19 and usually appeared early. In addition, regular nucleic acid testing for SARS-CoV-2 should be considered for COVID-19 patients with certain airway comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
12.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(7): 561-575, 2021 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110489

ABSTRACT

Although coronavirus (CoV) infection is often characterized by respiratory symptoms, the virus can also result in extrapulmonary symptoms, especially the symptoms related to the digestive system. The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently the world's most pressing public health threat and has a significant impact on civil societies and the global economy. The occurrence of digestive symptoms in patients with COVID-19 is closely related to the development and prognosis of the disease. Moreover, thus far, there are no specific antiviral drug or vaccine approved for the treatment or prevention of COVID-19. Therefore, we elaborate on the effects of CoVs on the digestive system and the potential underlying mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Digestive System Diseases/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Humans
13.
Chinese Journal of Biologicals ; 33(12):1409-1413, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1073828

ABSTRACT

Objective: To systematically analyze the 670 convalescent plasma (CP) samples from patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

18.
Sleep Med ; 78: 8-14, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-967848

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have demonstrated that first-line nurses involved in the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) crisis may experience sleep disturbances. As breathing relaxation techniques can improve sleep quality, anxiety, and depression, the current study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of diaphragmatic breathing relaxation training (DBRT) for improving sleep quality among nurses in Wuhan, China during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: This study used a quasi-experimental (before and after) intervention strategy, with 151 first-line nurses from four wards in Leishenshan hospital. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) to evaluate the effectiveness of DBRT before and after the intervention. Data were examined using the Shapiro-Wilk test, Levene's test, and paired t-test. RESULTS: A total of 140 nurses completed the DBRT sessions. First-line nurses achieved significant reductions in global sleep quality (p < 0.01), subjective sleep quality (p < 0.001), sleep latency (p < 0.01), sleep duration (p < 0.001), sleep disturbances (p < 0.001), habitual sleep efficiency (p = 0.015), daytime dysfunction (p = 0.001), and anxiety (p = 0.001). There were no significant reductions in the use of sleeping medication (p = 0.134) and depression (p = 0.359). CONCLUSION: DBRT is a useful non-pharmacological treatment for improving sleep quality and reducing anxiety among first-line nurses involved in the COVID-19 outbreak. The study protocol was clinically registered by the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR2000032743.


Subject(s)
Nursing Staff, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Relaxation Therapy/methods , Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm/therapy , Sleep Latency , Adult , Anxiety/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Female , Humans , Male , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Self Efficacy , Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm/prevention & control , Stress, Psychological/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008908, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962372

ABSTRACT

As of October 5, 2020, China has reported 2,921 cases imported from overseas. Assessing the effectiveness of China's current policies on imported cases abroad is very important for China and other countries that are facing or will face overseas imported cases. In April, we used a susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered metapopulation model to simulate the epidemic in seven foreign countries, China and the three Chinese key cities. Based on the model outside China, we estimated the proportion of people in incubation period and calculated the risk indexes for Chinese cities through analyzing aviation traffic data from these countries. Based on the model in China and the three key cities, we collected information on control measures and quantified the effectiveness of implementing the current policies at different times and intensities. Our model results showed that Shanghai, Beijing, Qingdao, Guangzhou, and Tianjin have the top five risk indexes. As of April 20, 2020, under current measures, the number of confirmed cases could be reduced by 99% compared with no air traffic restrictions and isolation measures; the reduction could be 93% with isolation of passengers only from key countries. If the current policy were postponed for 7, 10, or 20 days, the increase in the number of confirmed cases would be 1,329, 5,524, and 779,245 respectively, which is 2.1, 5.7, and 662.9 times the number of confirmed cases under current measures. Our research indicates that the importation control measures currently taken by China were implemented at an appropriate time to prevent the epidemic spreading and have achieved relatively good control results. However, it is necessary to remain vigilant; otherwise, another outbreak peak could occur.


Subject(s)
Air Travel , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Health Policy , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Build Environ ; 188: 107467, 2021 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927131

ABSTRACT

Prefabricated inpatient wards have been proven to be an efficient alternative to quickly extend the caring capacity for patients. In this study, three typical ventilation strategies were studied using computational fluid dynamics in a prefabricated Coronavirus disease 2019 double-patient ward. Pollutants are the respiratory droplets and aerosols injected from two manikins. They are modelled as particles with different diameters (3 µm, 6 µm, 12 µm, 20 µm, 45 µm and 175 µm) by the Eulerian-Lagrangian model. Three ventilation strategies with an identical air change rate of 12.3 h-1 but different layouts of inlets and outlets are implemented. The flow field, flow structures and particle trajectories have been analysed and compared among the three ventilation strategies. The fate of particles is analysed and compared quantitatively. It is found that small particles (<20 µm) can move along with the main flow streams. Most of them are removed by ventilation to the outlet(s). Large particles (>45 µm) cannot move with the flow streams over a long path. Most of them deposit on solid surfaces in different regions of the ward in each ventilation strategy. Health workers should pay close attention to these polluted areas. Targeted cleaning of the polluted areas is necessary in a prefabricated inpatient ward. To promote the removal of some large particles (e.g., 45 µm) by the outlet(s), the outlet(s) should be installed inside the landing area of large particles and close to the polluted source(s).

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