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1.
Cell Reports Methods ; : 100222, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1819464

ABSTRACT

Summary During the COVID-19 pandemic, the development of point-of-care (POC) diagnostic testing accelerated in an unparalleled fashion. As a result, there has been an increased need for accurate, robust, and easy to use POC testing in a variety of non-traditional settings (i.e. pharmacies, drive-thru sites, schools). While stakeholders often express the desire for POC technologies that are “as simple as digital pregnancy tests,” there is little discussion of what this means in regards to device design, development, and assessment. The design of POC technologies and systems should take into account the capabilities and limitations of the users and their environments. Such "human factors" are important tenets that can help technology developers create POC technologies that are effective for end-users in a multitude of settings. Here, we review the core principles of human factors and discuss lessons learned during the evaluation process of SARS-CoV-2 POC testing.

2.
The American Journal of the Medical Sciences ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1797253

ABSTRACT

Background : Estimates of the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and factors associated with infection among healthcare personnel (HCP) vary widely. We conducted a serosurvey of HCP at a large public healthcare system in the Atlanta area. Methods : All employees of Grady Health System were invited to participate in mid-2020;a volunteer sample of those completing testing was included. Asymptomatic HCP were offered testing for IgG antibody and for SARS-CoV-2 RNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Symptomatic HCP were offered PCR testing. Antibody index values for IgG and cycle threshold values for PCR were evaluated for those with a positive result. An online survey was distributed at the time of testing. Results : 624 of 1677 distributed surveys (37.2%) were completed by 608 unique HCP. The majority were female (76.4%) and provided clinical care (70.9%). The most common occupations were clinician (24.8%) and nurse (23.5%). 37 of 608 (6.1%) HCP had detectable IgG. Exposure to a confirmed case of COVID-19 outside of the hospital was associated with detectable IgG (12.8% vs 4.4%, p=0.02), but exposure to a patient with COVID-19 was not. Conclusions : Among HCP in a large healthcare system, 6.1% had detectable SARS-CoV-2 IgG. Seropositivity was associated with exposures outside of the healthcare setting.

3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 809356, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792881

ABSTRACT

We aimed to describe frequency of COVID-19 exposure risk factors among patients presenting for medical care at an urban, public hospital serving mostly uninsured/Medicare/Medicaid clients and risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Consenting, adult patients seeking care at a public hospital from August to November 2020 were enrolled in this cross-sectional investigation. Saliva, anterior nasal and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2 using RT-PCR. Participant demographics, close contact, and activities ≤14 days prior to enrollment were collected through interview. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Among 1,078 participants, 51.8% were male, 57.0% were aged ≥50 years, 81.3% were non-Hispanic Black, and 7.6% had positive SARS-CoV-2 tests. Only 2.7% reported COVID-19 close contact ≤14 days before enrollment; this group had 6.79 adjusted odds of testing positive (95%CI = 2.78-16.62) than those without a reported exposure. Among participants who did not report COVID-19 close contact, working in proximity to ≥10 people (adjusted OR = 2.17; 95%CI = 1.03-4.55), choir practice (adjusted OR = 11.85; 95%CI = 1.44-97.91), traveling on a plane (adjusted OR = 5.78; 95%CI = 1.70-19.68), and not participating in an essential indoor activity (i.e., grocery shopping, public transit use, or visiting a healthcare facility; adjusted OR = 2.15; 95%CI = 1.07-4.30) were associated with increased odds of testing positive. Among this population of mostly Black, non-Hispanic participants seeking care at a public hospital, we found several activities associated with testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection in addition to close contact with a case. Understanding high-risk activities for SARS-CoV-2 infection among different communities is important for issuing awareness and prevention strategies.

4.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1787454

ABSTRACT

We aimed to describe frequency of COVID-19 exposure risk factors among patients presenting for medical care at an urban, public hospital serving mostly uninsured/Medicare/Medicaid clients and risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Consenting, adult patients seeking care at a public hospital from August to November 2020 were enrolled in this cross-sectional investigation. Saliva, anterior nasal and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2 using RT-PCR. Participant demographics, close contact, and activities ≤14 days prior to enrollment were collected through interview. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Among 1,078 participants, 51.8% were male, 57.0% were aged ≥50 years, 81.3% were non-Hispanic Black, and 7.6% had positive SARS-CoV-2 tests. Only 2.7% reported COVID-19 close contact ≤14 days before enrollment;this group had 6.79 adjusted odds of testing positive (95%CI = 2.78–16.62) than those without a reported exposure. Among participants who did not report COVID-19 close contact, working in proximity to ≥10 people (adjusted OR = 2.17;95%CI = 1.03–4.55), choir practice (adjusted OR = 11.85;95%CI = 1.44–97.91), traveling on a plane (adjusted OR = 5.78;95%CI = 1.70–19.68), and not participating in an essential indoor activity (i.e., grocery shopping, public transit use, or visiting a healthcare facility;adjusted OR = 2.15;95%CI = 1.07–4.30) were associated with increased odds of testing positive. Among this population of mostly Black, non-Hispanic participants seeking care at a public hospital, we found several activities associated with testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection in addition to close contact with a case. Understanding high-risk activities for SARS-CoV-2 infection among different communities is important for issuing awareness and prevention strategies.

5.
Hepatol Int ; 2022 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782952

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on safety and immunogenicity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination in patients with compensated (C-cirrhosis) and decompensated cirrhosis (D-cirrhosis) are limited. METHODS: In this prospective multicenter study, adult participants with C-cirrhosis and D-cirrhosis were enrolled and received two doses of inactivated whole-virion COVID-19 vaccines. Adverse events were recorded within 14 days after any dose of vaccination, and serum samples of enrolled patients were collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies at least 14 days after the second dose. Risk factors for negative neutralizing antibody were analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 553 patients were enrolled from 15 centers in China, including 388 and 165 patients with C-cirrhosis and D-cirrhosis. The vaccines were well tolerated, most adverse reactions were mild and transient, and injection site pain (23/388 [5.9%] vs 9/165 [5.5%]) and fatigue (5/388 [1.3%] vs 3/165 [1.8%]) were the most frequently local and systemic adverse events in both the C-cirrhosis and D-cirrhosis groups. Overall, 4.4% (16/363) and 0.3% (1/363) of patients were reported Grades 2 and 3 alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations (defined as ALT > 2 upper limit of normal [ULN] but ≤ 5 ULN, and ALT > 5 ULN, respectively). The positive rates of COVID-19 neutralizing antibodies were 71.6% (278/388) and 66.1% (109/165) in C-cirrhosis and D-cirrhosis groups. Notably, Child-Pugh score of B and C levels was an independent risk factor of negative neutralizing antibody. CONCLUSIONS: Inactivated COVID-19 vaccinations are safe with acceptable immunogenicity in cirrhotic patients, and Child-Pugh score of B and C levels is associated with hyporesponsive to COVID-19 vaccination.

6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776214

ABSTRACT

Severe pneumonia with novel pathogens, also called COVID-19, caused a pandemic in Taiwan as well as in the rest of the world in May 2021. Nurses are under great stress when caring for critically ill patients with COVID-19. This study aimed to explore the perceived stress and coping behaviors of nurses caring for critically ill patients with COVID-19 using a mixed-methods approach. We recruited 85 nurses from a special intensive care unit (ICU) of a medical center in Taiwan between May and June 2021. To gather data, we used a questionnaire on basic characteristics, the perceived stress scale (PSS-14), and the brief coping orientation to problems experienced inventory (B-COPE), then conducted a qualitative interview. The results showed that the average perceived stress level among nurses was 25.4 points, and most of them perceived moderate stress. The top three coping behaviors practiced by the nurses were active coping, planning, and acceptance. Nurses who received less perceived support from their friends or families and who had shorter working experience in nursing had significantly higher stress levels. The qualitative results revealed that the nurses' perceived stress came from fear, worry, and the increased burden caused by caring for critical patients with COVID-19. Coping behaviors included rest, seeking support, and affirmative fighting. Based on these findings, it is suggested that the support nurses receive from their families is an important predictor of perceived stress. Therefore, it is suggested that nurses be provided with more support in dealing with stress caused by caring for critical patients with COVID-19 in special ICUs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Humans , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Taiwan/epidemiology
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771200

ABSTRACT

With the continuous expansion of urban construction land, the green belts aiming for ecological protection have ensured a sustainable and effective function of regional ecosystem services. At the same time, these ecological green belts are expected to develop their compound service potentials with the development of cities. In order to meet the increasing demand of urban residents for the recreational utilization of urban green space, the primary function of the ecological green belts has transformed from being purely ecological to a combination of being ecological and recreational. Based on social media data, which has the characteristics of a large amount of accessible geographic information, this study used multiple regression models to analyze the recreational utilization intensity of ecological protection green belts with a case study in the green belt of Shanghai, China. The research results showed that the internal elements (total external area, water area, etc.) of the Shanghai green belt have positive correlations with its recreational utilization. The impact of external factors was inconclusive on the recreational utilization of the outer forest belt (the number of subway stations in accessibility factors was negatively correlated; the number of cultural facilities and the number of restaurants in the surrounding service facilities were positively related). Combined with the "Shanghai City Master Plan (2017-2035)", this study suggests potential zones for the recreational transformation of the Shanghai green belt, provides a theoretical and practical basis for improving the recreational utilization of an urban ecological protection green belt and contributes to the sustainable development of ecological protection green belts in high-density cities.


Subject(s)
Ecosystem , Urban Renewal , China , Cities , Humans , Parks, Recreational
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 Mar 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765712

ABSTRACT

The negative association between the growth mindset and mental health problems suggests that prevention and intervention programs to improve mental health by targeting mindset may have potential clinical value. However, research on the longitudinal effect of mindset on adolescent mental health and its underlying mechanisms is lacking. Using a three-wave longitudinal design, we obtained data from a diverse sample of Chinese adolescents (n = 2543). Longitudinal multiple mediation models were constructed to examine the effects of the growth mindset on levels of anxiety and depression two years later. In addition, the mediating effects of smartphone use for entertainment and problematic smartphone use (PSU) were examined. After controlling for various covariates and the autoregressive effects of mental health problems, the growth mindset had significant negative effects on anxiety (ß = -0.053, p = 0.004) and depression (ß = -0.074, p < 0.001). Smartphone use had a significant mediating role in the effect of mindset on anxiety (ß = -0.016, p < 0.001) and depression (ß = -0.016, p < 0.001). The growth mindset has long-lasting positive effects on adolescent mental health. Smartphone use for entertainment and PSU mediate the effect of mindset on adolescent mental health.

9.
J Affect Disord ; 304: 122-127, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757458

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the way people live, affecting both their physical and mental health. Adolescents are vulnerable to the stress of the pandemic, and may experience indicators of psychological distress, such as depression. This study aimed to examine the impact of COVID-19-related stressors on depression and the mediating role of life history strategies. METHODS: A two-wave longitudinal study was conducted with 1123 adolescents (51.20% girls, Mage = 14.30) recruited from three junior high schools in the Northeastern province of China. Adolescents' life history strategies, depressive symptoms, and demographic variables were assessed at Time 1 (November 2019) and Time 2 (August 2020), and adolescents' experience of COVID-19-related stressors was assessed at Time 2. None of participants was infected by COVID-19 virus. RESULTS: COVID-19-related stressors were positively associated with depressive symptoms at Time 2 (ß = 0.08, p < 0.01), after controlling for gender, age, SES and depressive symptoms at Time 1. And life history strategies partially mediated the relation of pandemic stress to depression (indirect effect = 0.02, p < 0.05, 95% CI [0.004, 0.034]). There were no gender differences in the relations between stress on depression. LIMITATIONS: The sample was from a district where the pandemic was not very severe, which may limit generalizability of the results. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that COVID-19-related stressors may have a long-term impact on adolescents, increasing depression through speeding up their life history strategies. Interventions should focus on life history strategies, particularly cognitive style, among adolescents during and after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Life History Traits , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pandemics
10.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264085, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736504

ABSTRACT

Self-collected specimens can expand access to SARS-CoV-2 testing. At a large inner-city hospital 1,082 participants self-collected saliva and anterior nasal swab (ANS) samples before healthcare workers collected nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) samples on the same day. To characterize patient preferences for self-collection, this investigation explored ability, comfort, and ease of ANS and saliva self-collection for SARS-CoV-2 testing along with associated patient characteristics, including medical history and symptoms of COVID-19. With nearly all participants successfully submitting a specimen, favorable ratings from most participants (at least >79% in ease and comfort), and equivocal preference between saliva and ANS, self-collection is a viable SARS-CoV-2 testing option.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Specimen Handling/methods , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Georgia , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology , Young Adult
11.
Sustainability ; 14(4):2124, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1715684

ABSTRACT

To alleviate the problems of traffic congestion, excessive energy consumption, and the environmental pollution caused by private cars, it is essential to use public transportation (PT). However, passengers making multiple trips in a short time period must repeatedly make travel mode choices, purchase tickets, and wait for buses for each trip, which may negatively affect their preference for PT. In order to improve the attractiveness of PT, especially for passengers requiring multiple trips in a short time period, this paper proposes the one e-ticket customized bus service mode for passengers with multiple trips (OECBSM-PMT) by customized buses (CBs). Besides, a CB-routing optimization model for the OECBSM-PMT is also developed in this paper, formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming based on a vehicle routing problem with pickup and delivery and time windows (VRPPDTW). The model aims to maximize the profit and minimize the costs of operation with considering passengers with multi-trip requests, homogeneous CB fleets with pickup/delivery-time-window constraints, and mixed loads. A service effectiveness identification procedure based on genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed to cope with the calculation considering the characteristics of passengers with multiple trips. Finally, the proposed model and algorithm are verified and analyzed using the case of the 2022 Beijing Winter Olympic Games. It can be found from the results that the method can provide an optimized CB route plan and timetable, and the algorithm GA-I obtains better solutions than other solving strategies in most instances. The proposed OECBSM-PMT and corresponding optimized method can better adapt to diverse travel demands, significantly improve the convenience for passengers, especially those making multiple trips in a short time period and will eventually promote a higher level of public transport service.

12.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-3, 2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703768

ABSTRACT

We performed an epidemiological investigation and genome sequencing of severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to define the source and scope of an outbreak in a cluster of hospitalized patients. Lack of appropriate respiratory hygiene led to SARS-CoV-2 transmission to patients and healthcare workers during a single hemodialysis session, highlighting the importance of infection prevention precautions.

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324168

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 has brought unprecedented risks and challenges to everyone in the world. Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease of the nervous system. Infection can worsen it and cause severe symptoms such as myasthenia crisis and respiratory failure. At present, the pandemic of COVID-19 may promote the aggravation of patients with MG. This article focuses on the respiratory management of MG patients during the epidemic of COVID-19.

14.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323602

ABSTRACT

In late December 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic caused a great threat to people’s lives worldwide. As a special category of the population, pregnant women are vulnerable during emergencies. This study was designed to explore whether or not the COVID-19 pandemic has influenced maternal and infant outcomes. We collected maternal characteristics, laboratory results, condition in the third trimester, maternal outcome, fetal or neonatal outcomes, and characteristics of amniotic fluid, umbilical cord and placenta from pregnant women and fetals or newborns in the first affiliated hospital of Jinan university from 24 January to 31 March 2020 (peak period), chose the same types of data at the hospital during the same period in 2019 and 1 January − 23 January 2020 (prior to the outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020) as a control. Our study focused on uncomplicated singleton pregnancies among women not infected by COVID-19. The results demonstrated that there was not an increase in adverse outcomes of pregnant women and newborns during the COVID-19 pandemic;This might be associated with the updated design of major epidemic prevention and control systems in Guangzhou, and the extension of pregnant women’s rest time during the third trimester of pregnancy. Nevertheless, the survey showed an increased incidence rate of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and zinc deficiency in newborns during the epidemic, implying that pregnant women should participate in appropriate physical exercise, increase their exposure to outdoor sunlight and improve nutrition intake to ensure healthy newborns during the quarantine period. Our study has provided some guidance for maternal management during the COVID-19 pandemic.

15.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313408

ABSTRACT

The authors have withdrawn this preprint due to author disagreement.

16.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309744

ABSTRACT

Background: Some discharged COVID-19 patients were required to be readmitted because of a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test at discontinuation of quarantine for 14 days. However, little is known about the clinical characteristics and underlying pathogenesis of these patients. Methods: We followed up 165 confirmed COVID-19 adult inpatients admitted to the First Department of Wuhan HuoShenShan Hospital by phone, 17 of whom were found to be positive again by throat swab SARS-CoV-2 PCR after quarantine. Thirty-four of 148 enrolled patients whose SARS-CoV-2 throat swabs were PCR negative were score matched by one-to-two propensity score matching. The clinical data were statistically analyzed between these two groups. Results: The levels of serum-specific IgM antibody in the PCR-positive group were obviously decreased compared to those in the score-matched group. Moreover, the levels of procalcitonin in the PCR-positive group were also significantly lower than those in the score-matched group. Conclusion: The increased IgM antibody against SARS-CoV-2 in humoral immunity is beneficial to the clearance of virus in COVID-19 infection. Additionally, the combination of slight bacterial infection is also conducive to the elimination of SARS-CoV-2, probably due to strengthening the immune reaction.

17.
Technol Health Care ; 30(S1): 225-234, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with unexplained pneumonia appeared in Wuhan, Hubei Province at the end of 2019. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical data of patients with severe COVID-19. METHODS: Medical records of 28 severe patients admitted to the intensive care unit of Wuhan Xinzhou District People's Hospital were collected from January 31 to March 17. RESULTS: The mortality rate of severe patients in our study was 39.3%. There were statistically significant differences in age, admission systolic blood pressure, lymphocyte count, albumin, total bilirubin, and lactate dehydrogenase between the death group and the survival group (P< 0.05). There were statistically significant differences in APACHE II, CURB-65, SOFA, respiratory frequency, systolic pressure, platelet, procalcitonin, albumin, creatinine, creatine kinase isoenzyme, lactate dehydrogenase, chloride ion, prothrombin time, international normalized ratio, arterial partial pressure of oxygen, and FiO2 at ICU between the death group and the survival group (P< 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Fever and cough are the main symptoms, which is useful for predicting the prognosis to dynamically measure the APACHE II, CURB-65, SOFA, respiratory frequency, lymphocyte count, platelet, lactate dehydrogenase, and coagulation tests. The drugs that protect the liver and heart may improve the survival rate of patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Procalcitonin , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670285

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of inactivated whole-virion severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines in patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD) in this study. METHODS: This was a prospective, multi-center, open-label study. Participants aged over 18 years with confirmed CLD and healthy volunteers were enrolled. All participants received 2 doses of inactivated whole-virion SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Adverse reactions were recorded within 14 days after any dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, laboratory testing results were collected after the second dose, and serum samples of enrolled subjects were collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies at least 14 days after the second dose. RESULTS: A total of 581 participants (437 patients with CLD and 144 healthy volunteers) were enrolled from 15 sites in China. Most adverse reactions were mild and transient, and injection site pain (n = 36; 8.2%) was the most frequently reported adverse event. Three participants had grade 3 aminopherase elevation (defined as alanine aminopherase >5 upper limits of normal) after the second dose of inactivated whole-virion SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, and only 1 of them was judged as severe adverse event potentially related to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. The positive rates of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies were 76.8% in the noncirrhotic CLD group, 78.9% in the compensated cirrhotic group, 76.7% in the decompensated cirrhotic group (P = .894 among CLD subgroups), and 90.3% in healthy controls (P = .008 vs CLD group). CONCLUSION: Inactivated whole-virion SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are safe in patients with CLD. Patients with CLD had lower immunologic response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines than healthy population. The immunogenicity is similarly low in noncirrhotic CLD, compensated cirrhosis, and decompensated cirrhosis.

19.
J Infect Dis ; 225(2): 229-237, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637718

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The natural history and clinical progression of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections can be better understood using combined serological and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs and serum were collected at a single time-point from patients at an urban, public hospital during August-November 2020 and tested for SARS-CoV-2 using RT-PCR, viral culture, and anti-spike pan-immunoglobulin antibody testing. Participant demographics and symptoms were collected through interview. The χ 2 and Fisher exact tests were used to identify associations between RT-PCR and serology results with presence of viable virus and frequency of symptoms. RESULTS: Among 592 participants, 129 (21.8%) had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection by RT-PCR or serology. Presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was strongly associated with lack of viable virus (P = .016). COVID-19 symptom frequency was similar for patients testing RT-PCR positive/seronegative and patients testing RT-PCR positive/seropositive. Patients testing RT-PCR positive/seronegative reported headaches, fatigue, diarrhea, and vomiting at rates not statistically significantly different from those testing RT-PCR negative/seropositive. CONCLUSIONS: While patients testing SARS-CoV-2 seropositive were unlikely to test positive for viable virus and were therefore at low risk for forward transmission, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms were common. Paired SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR and antibody testing provides more nuanced understanding of patients' COVID-19 status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
20.
IEEE Open J Eng Med Biol ; 2: 142-151, 2021 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596389

ABSTRACT

Faced with the COVID-19 pandemic, the US system for developing and testing technologies was challenged in unparalleled ways. This article describes the multi-institutional, transdisciplinary team of the "RADxSM Tech Test Verification Core" and its role in expediting evaluations of COVID-19 testing devices. Expertise related to aspects of diagnostic testing was coordinated to evaluate testing devices with the goal of significantly expanding the ability to mass screen Americans to preserve lives and facilitate the safe return to work and school. Focal points included: laboratory and clinical device evaluation of the limit of viral detection, sensitivity, and specificity of devices in controlled and community settings; regulatory expertise to provide focused attention to barriers to device approval and distribution; usability testing from the perspective of patients and those using the tests to identify and overcome device limitations, and engineering assessment to evaluate robustness of design including human factors, manufacturability, and scalability.

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