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1.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819373

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, global public health and the economy have suffered unprecedented damage. Based on the increasing related literature, the characteristics and pathogenic mechanisms of the virus, and epidemiological and clinical features of the disease are being rapidly discovered. The spike glycoprotein (S protein), as a key antigen of SARS-CoV-2 for developing vaccines, antibodies, and drug targets, has been shown to play an important role in viral entry, tissue tropism, and pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanisms of interaction between S protein and host factors, especially receptor-mediated viral modulation of host signaling pathways, and highlight the progression of potential therapeutic targets, prophylactic and therapeutic agents for prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

2.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802454

ABSTRACT

There is a potential risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread through human contact with seafood and the inanimate materials contaminated by the virus. In this study, we examined the stability of the virus in artificial seawater (ASW) and on the surface of selected materials. SARS-CoV-2 (3.75 log10 TCID50 ) in ASW at 22℃ maintained infectious about 3 days and at 4℃ the virus survived more than 7 days. It should be noticed that viable virus at high titer (5.50 log10 TCID50 ) may survive more than 20 days in ASW at 4℃ and for 7 days at 22℃. SARS-CoV-2 on stainless steel and plastic bag maintained infectious for 3 days, and on nonwoven fabric for 1 day at 22℃. In addition, the virus remained infectious for 9 days on stainless steel and non-woven fabric, and on plastic bag for 12 days at 4℃. It is important to highlight the role of inanimate material surfaces as a source of infection and the necessity for surface decontamination and disinfection.

4.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 806902, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674357

ABSTRACT

Sex differences in immune responses had been reported to correlate with different symptoms and mortality in the disease course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection interferes with females' fertility and causes different symptoms among pregnant and non-pregnant females remains unknown. Here, we examined the differences in viral loads, SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody titers, proinflammatory cytokines, and levels of T cell activation after SARS-CoV-2 sub-lethal infection between pregnant and non-pregnant human Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme II (ACE2) transgenic mouse models. Both mice showed elevated levels of viral loads in the lung at 4 days post-infection (dpi). However, viral loads in the pregnant group remained elevated at 7 dpi while decreased in the non-pregnant group. Consistent with viral loads, increased production of proinflammatory cytokines was detected from the pregnant group, and the IgM or SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibody in serum of pregnant mice featured delayed elevation compared with non-pregnant mice. Moreover, by accessing kinetics of activation marker expression of peripheral T cells after infection, a lower level of CD8+ T cell activation was observed in pregnant mice, further demonstrating the difference of immune-response between pregnant and non-pregnant mice. Although vertical transmission did not occur as SARS-CoV-2 RNA was absent in the uterus and fetus from the infected pregnant mice, a lower pregnancy rate was observed when the mice were infected before embryo implantation after mating, indicating that SARS-CoV-2 infection may interfere with mice's fertility at a specific time window. In summary, pregnant mice bear a weaker ability to eliminate the SARS-CoV-2 virus than non-pregnant mice, which was correlated with lower levels of antibody production and T cell activation.

5.
Psychol Health ; : 1-20, 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565833

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: College students are vulnerable to psychological distress during COVID-19 due to pandemic-related stressors. In response to psychological distress, college students engage in various coping behaviors, such as self-care behaviors and substance use. The transactional model of stress and coping depicts a cognitive appraisal process in the stress-coping association. Psychological resilience is an essential factor for the cognitive appraisal. This study aimed to investigate the mediation effects of resilience on psycho-behavioral health in response to COVID-19 stressors. DESIGN: Longitudinal data were collected from 1,225 Chinese college students via web-based anonymous surveys at wave 1 (T1, between Jan 31 and Feb 11, 2020) and wave 2 (T2, between Mar 20 and Apr 3, 2020). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants reported their COVID-19 stressors (T1), resilience (T1), psychological distress (depression and anxiety; T2), and coping behaviors (self-care behaviors, drinking, and smoking; T2). Path analysis was used for data analyses. RESULTS: Resilience mediated the association between COVID-19 stressors and psychological distress. Resilience together with psychological distress mediated the association of COVID-19 stressors with self-care behaviors or drinking. CONCLUSIONS: Resilience appears to offer protection that promotes psycho-behavioral health in college students in the face of COVID-19 stressors. Interventions for college students should attend to resilience.

6.
Gynecol Oncol ; 164(2): 304-310, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560851

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite significant increase in COVID-19 publications, characterization of COVID-19 infection in patients with gynecologic cancer remains limited. Here we present an update of COVID-19 outcomes among people with gynecologic cancer in New York City (NYC) during the initial surge of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]). METHODS: Data were abstracted from gynecologic oncology patients with COVID-19 infection among 8 NYC area hospital systems between March and June 2020. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to estimate associations between factors and COVID-19 related hospitalization and mortality. RESULTS: Of 193 patients with gynecologic cancer and COVID-19, the median age at diagnosis was 65.0 years (interquartile range (IQR), 53.0-73.0 years). One hundred six of the 193 patients (54.9%) required hospitalization; among the hospitalized patients, 13 (12.3%) required invasive mechanical ventilation, 39 (36.8%) required ICU admission. Half of the cohort (49.2%) had not received anti-cancer treatment prior to COVID-19 diagnosis. No patients requiring mechanical ventilation survived. Thirty-four of 193 (17.6%) patients died of COVID-19 complications. In multivariable analysis, hospitalization was associated with an age ≥ 65 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11, 4.07), Black race (OR 2.53, CI 1.24, 5.32), performance status ≥2 (OR 3.67, CI 1.25, 13.55) and ≥ 3 comorbidities (OR 2.00, CI 1.05, 3.84). Only former or current history of smoking (OR 2.75, CI 1.21, 6.22) was associated with death due to COVID-19 in multivariable analysis. Administration of cytotoxic chemotherapy within 90 days of COVID-19 diagnosis was not predictive of COVID-19 hospitalization (OR 0.83, CI 0.41, 1.68) or mortality (OR 1.56, CI 0.67, 3.53). CONCLUSIONS: The case fatality rate among patients with gynecologic malignancy with COVID-19 infection was 17.6%. Cancer-directed therapy was not associated with an increased risk of mortality related to COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Carcinoma/complications , Carcinoma/mortality , Genital Neoplasms, Female/complications , Genital Neoplasms, Female/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , Carcinoma/therapy , Female , Genital Neoplasms, Female/therapy , Humans , Logistic Models , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Patient Acuity , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
7.
Cell Res ; 32(1): 24-37, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537308

ABSTRACT

Host cellular receptors play key roles in the determination of virus tropism and pathogenesis. However, little is known about SARS-CoV-2 host receptors with the exception of ACE2. Furthermore, ACE2 alone cannot explain the multi-organ tropism of SARS-CoV-2 nor the clinical differences between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, suggesting the involvement of other receptor(s). Here, we performed genomic receptor profiling to screen 5054 human membrane proteins individually for interaction with the SARS-CoV-2 capsid spike (S) protein. Twelve proteins, including ACE2, ASGR1, and KREMEN1, were identified with diverse S-binding affinities and patterns. ASGR1 or KREMEN1 is sufficient for the entry of SARS-CoV-2 but not SARS-CoV in vitro and in vivo. SARS-CoV-2 utilizes distinct ACE2/ASGR1/KREMEN1 (ASK) receptor combinations to enter different cell types, and the expression of ASK together displays a markedly stronger correlation with virus susceptibility than that of any individual receptor at both the cell and tissue levels. The cocktail of ASK-related neutralizing antibodies provides the most substantial blockage of SARS-CoV-2 infection in human lung organoids when compared to individual antibodies. Our study revealed an interacting host receptome of SARS-CoV-2, and identified ASGR1 and KREMEN1 as alternative functional receptors that play essential roles in ACE2-independent virus entry, providing insight into SARS-CoV-2 tropism and pathogenesis, as well as a community resource and potential therapeutic strategies for further COVID-19 investigations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Asialoglycoprotein Receptor , Humans , Membrane Proteins , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization
8.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 378, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500450

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic has heavily burdened the global public health system and may keep simmering for years. The frequent emergence of immune escape variants have spurred the search for prophylactic vaccines and therapeutic antibodies that confer broad protection against SARS-CoV-2 variants. Here we show that the bivalency of an affinity maturated fully human single-domain antibody (n3113.1-Fc) exhibits exquisite neutralizing potency against SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus, and confers effective prophylactic and therapeutic protection against authentic SARS-CoV-2 in the host cell receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) humanized mice. The crystal structure of n3113 in complex with the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2, combined with the cryo-EM structures of n3113 and spike ecto-domain, reveals that n3113 binds to the side surface of up-state RBD with no competition with ACE2. The binding of n3113 to this novel epitope stabilizes spike in up-state conformations but inhibits SARS-CoV-2 S mediated membrane fusion, expanding our recognition of neutralization by antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Binding assay and pseudovirus neutralization assay show no evasion of recently prevalent SARS-CoV-2 lineages, including Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), and Delta (B.1.617.2) for n3113.1-Fc with Y58L mutation, demonstrating the potential of n3113.1-Fc (Y58L) as a promising candidate for clinical development to treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Single-Chain Antibodies/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Crystallography, X-Ray , Epitopes/chemistry , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Chain Antibodies/immunology , Single-Chain Antibodies/therapeutic use
9.
J Virol ; 96(1): e0149221, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476391

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in more than 235 million cases worldwide and 4.8 million deaths (October 2021), with various incidences and mortalities among regions/ethnicities. The coronaviruses SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and HCoV-NL63 utilize the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as the receptor to enter cells. We hypothesized that the genetic variability in ACE2 may contribute to the variable clinical outcomes of COVID-19. To test this hypothesis, we first conducted an in silico investigation of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding region of ACE2. We then applied an integrated approach of genetics, biochemistry, and virology to explore the capacity of select ACE2 variants to bind coronavirus spike proteins and mediate viral entry. We identified the ACE2 D355N variant that restricts the spike protein-ACE2 interaction and consequently limits infection both in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, ACE2 polymorphisms could modulate susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2, which may lead to variable disease severity. IMPORTANCE There is considerable variation in disease severity among patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Human genetic variation can affect disease outcome, and the coronaviruses SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and HCoV-NL63 utilize human ACE2 as the receptor to enter cells. We found that several missense ACE2 single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) that showed significantly altered binding with the spike proteins of SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and NL63-HCoV. We identified an ACE2 SNP, D355N, that restricts the spike protein-ACE2 interaction and consequently has the potential to protect individuals against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our study highlights that ACE2 polymorphisms could impact human susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2, which may contribute to ethnic and geographical differences in SARS-CoV-2 spread and pathogenicity.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Genetic Variation , Humans , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization
10.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt A): 127391, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446842

ABSTRACT

Personal protective equipment (PPE) such as face masks is vital in battling the COVID-19 crisis, but the dominant polypropylene-based PPE are lack of antiviral/antibacterial activities and environmental friendliness, and have hazardous impact on the soil and aquatic ecosystems. The work presented herein focused on developing biodegradable, antiviral, and antibacterial cellulose nonwovens (AVAB-CNWs) as a multi-functional bioprotective layer for better protection against coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and addressing environmental concerns raised by the piling of COVID-19 related wastes. Both guanidine-based polymer and neomycin sulfate (NEO) were reactive-modified and covalently grafted onto the surface of cellulose nonwovens, thereby conferring outstanding antiviral and antibacterial activities to the nonwovens without deteriorating the microstructure and biodegradability. Through adjusting the grafting amount of active components and selecting appropriate reagents for pretreatment, the antimicrobial activity and hydrophobicity for self-cleaning of the nonwovens can be tuned. More importantly, we demonstrated for the first time that such multi-functional nonwovens are capable of inactivating SARS-CoV-2 instantly, leading to high virucidal activity (> 99.35%), which is unachievable by conventional masks used nowadays. Meanwhile, the robust breathability and biodegradability of AVAB-CNWs were well maintained. The applications of the as-prepared nonwovens as high-performance textile can be readily extended to other areas in the fight against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cellulose , Ecosystem , Humans , Microplastics , Plastics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Sci Bull (Beijing) ; 66(9): 925-936, 2021 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386590

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 infection is spreading rapidly worldwide. Efficacious antiviral therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 is urgently needed. Here, we discovered that protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and verteporfin, two Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs, completely inhibited the cytopathic effect produced by SARS-CoV-2 infection at 1.25 µmol/L and 0.31 µmol/L, respectively, and their EC50 values of reduction of viral RNA were at nanomolar concentrations. The selectivity indices of PpIX and verteporfin were 952.74 and 368.93, respectively, suggesting a broad margin of safety. Importantly, PpIX and verteporfin prevented SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice adenovirally transduced with human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The compounds, sharing a porphyrin ring structure, were shown to bind viral receptor ACE2 and interfere with the interaction between ACE2 and the receptor-binding domain of viral S protein. Our study suggests that PpIX and verteporfin are potent antiviral agents against SARS-CoV-2 infection and sheds new light on developing novel chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapy against SARS-CoV-2.

12.
Gynecologic Oncology ; 162:S22-S23, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1366714

ABSTRACT

Despite a growing body of literature, characterization of COVID-19 infection in patients with gynecologic cancer remains limited. Here we present an update of COVID-19 outcomes in New York City (NYC) from the initial surge of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]). We sought to determine the hospitalization and mortality rates and their associated factors, specifically recent chemotherapy and immunotherapy use. Data were abstracted from gynecologic oncology patients with COVID-19 infection among 8 New York City (NYC) area hospital systems. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to analyze COVID-19 related hospitalization and mortality. Of 193 patients with gynecologic cancer and COVID-19, the median age at diagnosis was 65.0 years (interquartile range, 53.0-73.0 years). A total of 106 of the 193 patients (54.9%) required hospitalization;among the hospitalized patients 13 (12.3%) required invasive mechanical ventilation and 39 (36.8%) required ICU admission. No patients requiring mechanical ventilation survived. A total of 34 of 193 (17.6%) patients died of COVID-19 complications. On multivariable analysis, hospitalization was associated with an age greater than or equal to 65 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11, 4.07), Black race (OR 2.53, CI 1.24, 5.32), performance status greater than or equal to 2 (OR 3.67, CI 1.25, 13.55) and greater than or equal to 3 comorbidities (OR 2.00, CI 1.05, 3.84). Only former or current history of smoking (OR 2.75, CI 1.21, 6.22) was associated with death due to COVID-19 on multivariable analysis. A total of 13 of 34 (38.23%) patients who died of COVID-19 complications received cytotoxic chemotherapy, while 4 of 34 (11.76%) patients received immunotherapy. However, recent cytotoxic chemotherapy use was not predictive of COVID-19 hospitalization or mortality on multivariable analysis. [Display omitted] The case fatality rate among gynecologic oncology patients with COVID-19 infection is 17.6%. Cancer-directed therapy, including immunotherapy use, is not associated with an increased risk of mortality related to COVID-19 infection in this larger cohort. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Gynecologic Oncology is the property of Academic Press Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

13.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 716208, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354835

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and there is an urgent need to understand the cellular response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Beclin 1 is an essential scaffold autophagy protein that forms two distinct subcomplexes with modulators Atg14 and UVRAG, responsible for autophagosome formation and maturation, respectively. In the present study, we found that SARS-CoV-2 infection triggers an incomplete autophagy response, elevated autophagosome formation but impaired autophagosome maturation, and declined autophagy by genetic knockout of essential autophagic genes reduces SARS-CoV-2 replication efficiency. By screening 26 viral proteins of SARS-CoV-2, we demonstrated that expression of ORF3a alone is sufficient to induce incomplete autophagy. Mechanistically, SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a interacts with autophagy regulator UVRAG to facilitate PI3KC3-C1 (Beclin-1-Vps34-Atg14) but selectively inhibit PI3KC3-C2 (Beclin-1-Vps34-UVRAG). Interestingly, although SARS-CoV ORF3a shares 72.7% amino acid identity with the SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a, the former had no effect on cellular autophagy response. Thus, our findings provide the mechanistic evidence of possible takeover of host autophagy machinery by ORF3a to facilitate SARS-CoV-2 replication and raise the possibility of targeting the autophagic pathway for the treatment of COVID-19.

14.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-11, 2021 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269181

ABSTRACT

Before herd immunity is reached, preventive practices still play an important role in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. Adherence to preventive behaviors could be determined by individuals' health beliefs, which would be influenced by antecedent factors such as previous exposure to pandemic stressors. Applying the health belief model (HBM), this study aims to examine the mediation association among COVID-19 stressors, HBM constructs, and preventive behaviors. Longitudinal data were collected from 1225 Chinese college students using web-based surveys at wave 1 (w1; between January 31 and February 11, 2020) and wave 2 (w2; between March 20 and April 3, 2020). Participants reported their COVID-19 stressors (w1), five HBM constructs (w2), and preventive behaviors (w1 and w2). Paired t-tests suggested that social distancing and self-quarantine behaviors decreased while precautionary behaviors increased from w1 to w2. Path analysis indicated that two HBM constructs (perceived barriers and self-efficacy) mediated the association between COVID-19 stressors and precautionary behaviors. These findings suggested that tailored prevention intervention for college students should attend to perceived barriers and self-efficacy. Individuals who exposed to multiple pandemic stressors merit particular attention and intervention should account for their early pandemic stress experiences.

15.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(3): e1009392, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148252

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus interaction with its viral receptor is a primary genetic determinant of host range and tissue tropism. SARS-CoV-2 utilizes ACE2 as the receptor to enter host cell in a species-specific manner. We and others have previously shown that ACE2 orthologs from New World monkey, koala and mouse cannot interact with SARS-CoV-2 to mediate viral entry, and this defect can be restored by humanization of the restrictive residues in New World monkey ACE2. To better understand the genetic determinants behind the ability of ACE2 orthologs to support viral entry, we compared koala and mouse ACE2 sequences with that of human and identified the key residues in koala and mouse ACE2 that restrict viral receptor activity. Humanization of these critical residues rendered both koala and mouse ACE2 capable of binding the spike protein and facilitating viral entry. Our study shed more lights into the genetic determinants of ACE2 as the functional receptor of SARS-CoV-2, which facilitates our understanding of viral entry.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Base Sequence , COVID-19/virology , Host Specificity , Humans , Mice/genetics , Mice/virology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Phascolarctidae/genetics , Phascolarctidae/virology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Alignment , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization
16.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(3): e1009439, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133695

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the global pandemic of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 is classified as a biosafety level-3 (BSL-3) agent, impeding the basic research into its biology and the development of effective antivirals. Here, we developed a biosafety level-2 (BSL-2) cell culture system for production of transcription and replication-competent SARS-CoV-2 virus-like-particles (trVLP). This trVLP expresses a reporter gene (GFP) replacing viral nucleocapsid gene (N), which is required for viral genome packaging and virion assembly (SARS-CoV-2 GFP/ΔN trVLP). The complete viral life cycle can be achieved and exclusively confined in the cells ectopically expressing SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2 N proteins, but not MERS-CoV N. Genetic recombination of N supplied in trans into viral genome was not detected, as evidenced by sequence analysis after one-month serial passages in the N-expressing cells. Moreover, intein-mediated protein trans-splicing approach was utilized to split the viral N gene into two independent vectors, and the ligated viral N protein could function in trans to recapitulate entire viral life cycle, further securing the biosafety of this cell culture model. Based on this BSL-2 SARS-CoV-2 cell culture model, we developed a 96-well format high throughput screening for antivirals discovery. We identified salinomycin, tubeimoside I, monensin sodium, lycorine chloride and nigericin sodium as potent antivirals against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Collectively, we developed a convenient and efficient SARS-CoV-2 reverse genetics tool to dissect the virus life cycle under a BSL-2 condition. This powerful tool should accelerate our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 biology and its antiviral development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Containment of Biohazards , Genome, Viral/drug effects , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Virus Replication/drug effects
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(12)2021 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117490

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is a major global health threat. Epidemiological studies suggest that bats (Rhinolophus affinis) are the natural zoonotic reservoir for SARS-CoV-2. However, the host range of SARS-CoV-2 and intermediate hosts that facilitate its transmission to humans remain unknown. The interaction of coronavirus with its host receptor is a key genetic determinant of host range and cross-species transmission. SARS-CoV-2 uses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as the receptor to enter host cells in a species-dependent manner. In this study, we characterized the ability of ACE2 from diverse species to support viral entry. By analyzing the conservation of five residues in two virus-binding hotspots of ACE2 (hotspot 31Lys and hotspot 353Lys), we predicted 80 ACE2 proteins from mammals that could potentially mediate SARS-CoV-2 entry. We chose 48 ACE2 orthologs among them for functional analysis, and showed that 44 of these orthologs-including domestic animals, pets, livestock, and animals commonly found in zoos and aquaria-could bind the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and support viral entry. In contrast, New World monkey ACE2 orthologs could not bind the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and support viral entry. We further identified the genetic determinant of New World monkey ACE2 that restricts viral entry using genetic and functional analyses. These findings highlight a potentially broad host tropism of SARS-CoV-2 and suggest that SARS-CoV-2 might be distributed much more widely than previously recognized, underscoring the necessity to monitor susceptible hosts to prevent future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/veterinary , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Host Specificity , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Phylogeny , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Tropism , Viral Zoonoses/genetics , Viral Zoonoses/prevention & control , Viral Zoonoses/virology , Virus Attachment , Virus Internalization
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 961, 2021 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1078585

ABSTRACT

The global spread of SARS-CoV-2 is posing major public health challenges. One feature of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is the insertion of multi-basic residues at the S1/S2 subunit cleavage site. Here, we find that the virus with intact spike (Sfull) preferentially enters cells via fusion at the plasma membrane, whereas a clone (Sdel) with deletion disrupting the multi-basic S1/S2 site utilizes an endosomal entry pathway. Using Sdel as model, we perform a genome-wide CRISPR screen and identify several endosomal entry-specific regulators. Experimental validation of hits from the CRISPR screen shows that host factors regulating the surface expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) affect entry of Sfull virus. Animal-to-animal transmission with the Sdel virus is reduced compared to Sfull in the hamster model. These findings highlight the critical role of the S1/S2 boundary of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in modulating virus entry and transmission and provide insights into entry of coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Genome-Wide Association Study , Host-Pathogen Interactions , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization , A549 Cells , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Endosomes/virology , HeLa Cells , Humans , Mesocricetus , Serine Endopeptidases , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells
19.
Gynecol Oncol ; 159(3): 618-622, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060111

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Elevated inflammatory markers are predictive of COVID-19 infection severity and mortality. It is unclear if these markers are associated with severe infection in patients with cancer due to underlying tumor related inflammation. We sought to further understand the inflammatory response related to COVID-19 infection in patients with gynecologic cancer. METHODS: Patients with a history of gynecologic cancer hospitalized for COVID-19 infection with available laboratory data were identified. Admission laboratory values and clinical outcomes were abstracted from electronic medical records. Severe infection was defined as infection requiring ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, or resulting in death. RESULTS: 86 patients with gynecologic cancer were hospitalized with COVID-19 infection with a median age of 68.5 years (interquartile range (IQR), 59.0-74.8). Of the 86 patients, 29 (33.7%) patients required ICU admission and 25 (29.1%) patients died of COVID-19 complications. Fifty (58.1%) patients had active cancer and 36 (41.9%) were in remission. Patients with severe infection had significantly higher ferritin (median 1163.0 vs 624.0 ng/mL, p < 0.01), procalcitonin (median 0.8 vs 0.2 ng/mL, p < 0.01), and C-reactive protein (median 142.0 vs 62.3 mg/L, p = 0.02) levels compared to those with moderate infection. White blood cell count, lactate, and creatinine were also associated with severe infection. D-dimer levels were not significantly associated with severe infection (p = 0.20). CONCLUSIONS: The inflammatory markers ferritin, procalcitonin, and CRP were associated with COVID-19 severity in gynecologic cancer patients and may be used as prognostic markers at the time of admission.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Genital Neoplasms, Female/immunology , Inflammation/diagnosis , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Genital Neoplasms, Female/blood , Genital Neoplasms, Female/complications , Genital Neoplasms, Female/diagnosis , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/immunology , Leukocyte Count , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Cancer ; 127(7): 1057-1067, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-967649

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence suggests disproportionate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalizations and deaths because of racial disparities. The association of race in a cohort of gynecologic oncology patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 infection is unknown. METHODS: Data were abstracted from gynecologic oncology patients with COVID-19 infection among 8 New York City area hospital systems. A multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression model accounting for county clustering was used to analyze COVID-19-related hospitalization and mortality. RESULTS: Of 193 patients who had gynecologic cancer and COVID-19, 67 (34.7%) were Black, and 126 (65.3%) were non-Black. Black patients were more likely to require hospitalization compared with non-Black patients (71.6% [48 of 67] vs 46.0% [58 of 126]; P = .001). Of 34 (17.6%) patients who died from COVID-19, 14 (41.2%) were Black. Among those who were hospitalized, compared with non-Black patients, Black patients were more likely to: have ≥3 comorbidities (81.1% [30 of 37] vs 59.2% [29 of 49]; P = .05), to reside in Brooklyn (81.0% [17 of 21] vs 44.4% [12 of 27]; P = .02), to live with family (69.4% [25 of 36] vs 41.6% [37 of 89]; P = .009), and to have public insurance (79.6% [39 of 49] vs 53.4% [39 of 73]; P = .006). In multivariable analysis, among patients aged <65 years, Black patients were more likely to require hospitalization compared with non-Black patients (odds ratio, 4.87; 95% CI, 1.82-12.99; P = .002). CONCLUSIONS: Although Black patients represented only one-third of patients with gynecologic cancer, they accounted for disproportionate rates of hospitalization (>45%) and death (>40%) because of COVID-19 infection; younger Black patients had a nearly 5-fold greater risk of hospitalization. Efforts to understand and improve these disparities in COVID-19 outcomes among Black patients are critical.


Subject(s)
African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/ethnology , Genital Neoplasms, Female/ethnology , Health Status Disparities , /statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Genital Neoplasms, Female/complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Logistic Models , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , New York City , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Survival Analysis
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