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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732023

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to significant shifts in university students' lives, which could be displayed by social mentality, a psychosocial conception at the individual and social levels. This five-wave longitudinal study aims to evaluate the changing social mentality of university students during the peak and preventive-order phases of the pandemic in China and investigate the trends and differences in social-demographic variables. (2) Methods: The Bi-Dimensional Structure Questionnaire of Social Mentality (B-DSMQ) was used to collect data from March 2020 to January 2021. Five-wave surveys were administered to 1319 students from five universities using online questionnaires. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the changes in social mentality over time and covariate groups. Linear mixed models were used to explore the associations of overall social mentality with time and covariates. Post hoc analysis was implemented within subgroups, including university, major, grade, parenting style, and the harmonious degree of parents. (3) Results: Students' social mentality changed significantly from Waves 1 to 5 (p < 0.001). It fell to its lowest in the third survey, increased in the fourth survey, and peaked in the fifth survey. In all of the subgroups, the changing social mentality differed significantly over time (p < 0.001). The p-values between groups suggested that changing social mentality was significantly different regarding gender, residence, university, major, grade, student cadre, graduates, nuclear family, economic status, parenting styles, and the harmonious degree of parents' relationship (p < 0.001). (4) Conclusions: Social mentality among university students decreased during the peak of the pandemic before increasing in the contained-risk period. It was the lowest in June when students began to return to the pandemic-preventive campus from quarantined homes. Students living in provinces (except for Shandong) who were from high-level universities in 2016 and 2017 and who majored in medicine displayed a more negative social mentality. Students who were female, student cadres, non-graduates, and enjoying high socioeconomic status displayed a more positive social mentality. Further research is needed on the relationship between mental health and social mentality, specifically the associates and interventions for positive social mentality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Students/psychology , Universities
2.
Pharmacol Res ; 176: 106083, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638968

ABSTRACT

The pathogenic hyper-inflammatory response has been revealed as the major cause of the severity and death of the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Xuanfei Baidu Decoction (XFBD) as one of the "three medicines and three prescriptions" for the clinically effective treatment of COVID-19 in China, shows unique advantages in the control of symptomatic transition from moderate to severe disease states. However, the roles of XFBD to against hyper-inflammatory response and its mechanism remain unclear. Here, we established acute lung injury (ALI) model induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), presenting a hyperinflammatory process to explore the pharmacodynamic effect and molecular mechanism of XFBD on ALI. The in vitro experiments demonstrated that XFBD inhibited the secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α and iNOS activity in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. In vivo, we confirmed that XFBD improved pulmonary injury via down-regulating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α and IL1-ß as well as macrophages and neutrophils infiltration in LPS-induced ALI mice. Mechanically, we revealed that XFBD treated LPS-induced acute lung injury through PD-1/IL17A pathway which regulates the infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages. Additionally, one major compound from XFBD, i.e. glycyrrhizic acid, shows a high binding affinity with IL17A. In conclusion, we demonstrated the therapeutic effects of XFBD, which provides the immune foundations of XFBD and fatherly support its clinical applications.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Macrophages/drug effects , Neutrophils/drug effects , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Line , China , Cytokines/metabolism , Leukocyte Count/methods , Macrophages/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neutrophils/metabolism , RAW 264.7 Cells
3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 283: 114701, 2022 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446835

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Xuanfei Baidu Decoction (XFBD), one of the "three medicines and three prescriptions" for the clinically effective treatment of COVID-19 in China, plays an important role in the treatment of mild and/or common patients with dampness-toxin obstructing lung syndrome. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present work aims to elucidate the protective effects and the possible mechanism of XFBD against the acute inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: We use TGF-ß1 induced fibroblast activation model and LPS/IL-4 induced macrophage inflammation model as in vitro cell models. The mice model of lung fibrosis was induced by BLM via endotracheal drip, and then XFBD (4.6 g/kg, 9.2 g/kg) were administered orally respectively. The efficacy and molecular mechanisms in the presence or absence of XFBD were investigated. RESULTS: The results proved that XFBD can effectively inhibit fibroblast collagen deposition, down-regulate the level of α-SMA and inhibit the migration of fibroblasts. IL-4 induced macrophage polarization was also inhibited and the secretions of the inflammatory factors including IL6, iNOS were down-regulated. In vivo experiments, the results proved that XFBD improved the weight loss and survival rate of the mice. The XFBD high-dose administration group had a significant effect in inhibiting collagen deposition and the expression of α-SMA in the lungs of mice. XFBD can reduce bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting IL-6/STAT3 activation and related macrophage infiltration. CONCLUSIONS: Xuanfei Baidu Decoction protects against macrophages induced inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis via inhibiting IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Inflammation/drug therapy , Macrophages/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Animals , Cell Survival/drug effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Gene Regulatory Networks , Humans , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NIH 3T3 Cells , Phytotherapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/prevention & control , RAW 264.7 Cells , STAT3 Transcription Factor/antagonists & inhibitors , STAT3 Transcription Factor/genetics , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e22114, 2020 Sep 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760049

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bromhexine hydrochloride tablets may be effective in the treatment of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children. This study will further evaluate the efficacy and safety of bromhexine hydrochloride tablets in the treatment of COVID-19 in children. METHODS: The following electronic databases will be searched, with all relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) up to August 2020 to be included: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), the Chongqing VIP China Science and Technology Database (VIP), Wanfang, the Technology Periodical Database, and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM). As well as the above, Baidu, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), Google Scholar, and the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR) will also be searched to obtain more comprehensive data. Besides, the references of the included literature will also be traced to supplement our search results and to obtain all relevant literature. RESULTS: This systematic review will evaluate the current status of bromhexine hydrochloride in the treatment of COVID-19 in children, to evaluate its efficacy and safety. CONCLUSION: This study will provide the latest evidence for evaluating the efficacy and safety of bromhexine hydrochloride in the treatment of COVID-19 in children. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020199805. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The private information of individuals will not be published. This systematic review will also not involve endangering participant rights. Ethical approval is not available. The results may be published in peer-reviewed journals or disseminated at relevant conferences.


Subject(s)
Bromhexine/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Expectorants/pharmacology , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Treatment Outcome
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