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1.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-774564

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has become a global threat Understanding the underlying mechanisms and developing innovative treatments are extremely urgent G-quadruplexes (G4s) are important non-canonical nucleic acids structures with distinct biofunctions Here, we studied four putative G4-forming sequences (PQSs) in SARS-CoV-2 genome One of them (namely RG-1), which locates in the coding sequence (CDS) region of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N), has been verified to form stable RNA G4 structure in live cells G4-specific compounds, such as PDP, can stabilize RG-1 G4 and significantly reduce the protein levels of SARS-CoV-2 N by inhibiting its translation bothin vitro andin vivo To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that PQSs in SARS-CoV-2 can form G4 structures in live cells, and their biofunctions can be regulated by G4-specific stabilizer We expect this finding will provide new insights into developing novel antiviral drugs against COVID-19

2.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-772454

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, at the end of 2019 there has been an explosion of vaccine development By the 1(st) September 2020, a staggering number of vaccines (over 200) had started pre-clinical development of which 39 had entered clinical trials, including some approaches that have not previously been licensed for human vaccines Vaccines have been widely considered as part of the exit strategy to enable the return to previous patterns of working, schooling and socialising Importantly, to effectively control the COVID-19 pandemic, production needs to be scaled up from a small number of pre-clinical doses to enough filled vials to immunise the world's population, which requires close engagement with manufacturers and regulators It will require a global effort to control the virus, necessitating equitable access for all countries to effective vaccines This review explores the immune responses required to protect against SARS-CoV-2 and the potential for vaccine-induced immunopathology It describes the profile of the different platforms and the advantages and disadvantages of each approach The review also addresses the critical steps between promising pre-clinical leads and manufacturing at scale The issues faced during this pandemic and the platforms being developed to address it will be invaluable for future outbreak control Nine months after the outbreak began, we are at a point where pre-clinical and early clinical data is being generated for the vaccines, an overview of this important area will help our understanding of the next phases

3.
J Med Internet Res ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-771624

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Risk and crisis communication plays an essential role in public health emergency response The COVID-19 pandemic triggered spontaneous and intensive media attention, which affects both the public's adoption of personal preventive measures and mental health OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the associations between exposure to COVID-19 specific information and mental health (depression and sleep quality) and self-reported compliance with personal preventive measures (facemask wearing and hand sanitizing);and tested whether such associations were moderated by thoughtful consideration of the veracity of exposed information METHODS: A cross-sectional closed online survey was conducted among a sample of factory workers at the beginning of work resumption in Shenzhen, China A stratified two-stage cluster sampling design was used for recruitment A total of 3,035 factory workers that had resumed work completed an online self-administered questionnaire Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used for analyses RESULTS: The prevalence of probable moderate-to-severe depression and good/excellent sleep quality was 5 6% (n=170) and 69 5% (n=2,110), respectively The prevalence of self-reported consistent facemask wearing in any public places and sanitizing hands every time after returning from public spaces or touching installations was 95 7% (n=2,903) and 70 9% (n=2,151), respectively Around 33 3-54 0% reported a daily exposure to COVID-19 specific information through online media and television for more than one hour After controlling for significant background variables, higher information exposure via television and newspaper/magazines were associated with better sleep quality (adjusted B=0 05 & 0 07, P< 001) and higher self-reported compliance with hand sanitizing (adjusted odds ratios [AOR]=1 18 & 1 21, P< 001) Higher exposure via online unofficial media was associated with better self-reported compliance with hand sanitizing (AOR=1 08, P= 037) but also higher depressive symptoms (adjusted B=0 20, P= 001) In contrast, higher exposure through face-to-face communication was associated with higher depressive symptoms (adjusted B=0 45, P< 001), worse sleep quality (adjusted B=-0 04, P= 012), and poorer self-reported compliance with hand sanitizing (AOR=0 91, P= 020) Exposure to information about COVID-19 patients' positive outcomes, development of vaccines/effective treatment and heroic stories about frontline healthcare workers were associated with both better mental health and higher self-reported compliance with preventive measures Higher overall information exposure was associated with higher depressive symptoms among participants who were less likely to carefully consider the veracity of exposed information, while also associated with better sleep quality among those with more thoughtful consideration of exposed information CONCLUSIONS: This study provides empirical evidence on how amount, sources, and contents of information exposure influenced mental health and compliance with personal preventive measures at the initial phase of work resumption in China;and thoughtful consideration of information quality played an important moderating role Our findings may inform strategic risk communication used by government and public health authorities during the COVID-19 pandemic

4.
Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; 43(4):352-357, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-769449

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinical value of serum 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in the diagnosis of COVID-19 Methods: A total of 116 patients diagnosed with NCP in the First Affiliated Hospital of Hunan University of Chinese Medicine and the First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University were enrolled from January to February 2020 as the disease group A total of 134 cases, including 84 non-NCP inpatients and 50 healthy individuals served as the control group Serum samples from all subjects were collected A fully-automated chemiluminescence immunoassay analyzer was used to detect the concentration of 2019-nCoV IgM and IgG antibodies in serum The sensitivity and specificity of the 2019-nCoV IgM and IgG antibody single test and combined detection were compared using the χ2 test χ2 test and Wilcoxon's rank sum test were used to compare the positive rates and concentrations of IgM and IgG antibodies in NCP patients before and after their 2019-nCoV nucleic acid tests turning negative, respectively The change trend of 2019-nCoV antibody concentration in the process of NCP patients was analyzed by Wilcoxon's rank sum test Results: The sensitivity of 2019-nCoV IgG (90 5%, 105/116) was higher than that of 2019-nCoV IgM (75 9%, 88/116), the difference was statistically significant (χ2=8 91, P<0 05);The specificity of 2019-nCoV IgG (99 3%,133/134) was higher than that of 2019-nCoV IgM (94 0%, 126/134), the difference was statistically significant (χ2=5 63,P<0 05) The sensitivity (89 7%,87/97) of 2019-nCoV IgM combined with IgG was higher than that of 2019-nCoV IgM, the difference was statistically significant (χ2=6 89,P<0 05) The specificity (100%, 125/125) of 2019-nCoV IgM combined with IgG was higher than that of 2019-nCoV IgM, the difference was statistically significant (χ2=7 70, P<0 05) After 2019-nCoV nucleic acid test converted to negative, the positive rate (9/17) and concentration [13 0 (4 9, 24 7) AU/ml] of serum 2019-nCoV IgM antibody were significantly lower than those when the nucleic acid test was positive, positive rate (15/17) and concentration [29 5 (14 0, 61 3) AU/ml], respectively (χ2=5 10, Z=-3 195, both P<0 05) In the course of NCP, patients' serum samples were collected from the first day of diagnosis to every three days, three times in total The first 2019-nCoV IgM and IgG antibody concentrations [19 4 (12 4, 63 7) AU/ml, 105 8 (74 8, 126 1) AU/ml, respectively] were significantly higher than the second concentrations [15 8 (7 1, 40 3)AU/ml, 80 5 (66 7, 105 9) AU/ml], Z were-2 897,-3 179, both P<0 05 Conclusions: 2019-nCoV IgG antibody has a good application value in the diagnosis of NCP The concentration of 2019-nCoV IgM antibody has a certain correlation with the detection of 2019-nCoV nucleic acid The combination of 2019-nCoV IgM and IgG antibodies with 2019-nCoV nucleic acid test may be the best laboratory index for the diagnosis of NCP at present

5.
Gen Psychiatr ; 33(5):e100275, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-760267
6.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(9): 963-967, 2020 Sep 06.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-750613

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate and share the novel method for recruiting participants in clinical trials of vaccines in emergency situations. Methods: To publish recruitment notice in local areas of Wuhan through websites and medium, and guide interested persons to log in to the"Clinical Trials of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Reservation and Health Declaration System"to appoint and register their health information. The "Health Declaration System" provides each volunteer evaluation and risk levels to preliminarily exclude those who do not meet the inclusion criteria. Researchers review the qualified volunteers by telephone, organize them to go to the vaccination site, and finally conduct a strict medical screening to determine the final subjects. Results: A total of 4 819 people and 5 132 people registered in the Phase Ⅰ and Phase Ⅱ recruitment system respectively, with men 2 912 (60.43%) and 2 887 (56.25%) more than women 1 907 (39.57%) and 2 245 (43.75%), mostly in the 20-39 age group, with 3 211 (66.63%) and 3 966 (77.28%). All 13 districts in Wuhan have interested residents to participate clinical research.The initial qualified rate of the Phase Ⅱ recruitment system was higher than that of Phase Ⅰ, with men 2 047 (70.28%) and 2 135(73.95%), higher than women 1 083 (56.80%) and 1 472 (65.57%); 440 and 689 people were reviewed by telephone in Phase Ⅰ and Phase Ⅱ respectively, and the number of verified volunteers was about 440 (35.00%) and 689 (67.20%); Of the 201 603 people who arrived at the vaccination site, 12 and 26 of them were positive for the SARS-CoV-2 antibody with an antibody positive rate of 6.00% and 4.31% respectively. Conclusion: The novel method for recruiting subjects in this clinical study is efficient and reliable, and the recruitment situation of Phase Ⅰ had set a good example for Phase Ⅱ but the medium-and long-term compliance of subjects and the separation of willingness and behaviors still need to be further studied.

7.
Comput Mech ; 2020.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-716301

ABSTRACT

We extend the classical SIR model of infectious disease spread to account for time dependence in the parameters, which also include diffusivities. The temporal dependence accounts for the changing characteristics of testing, quarantine and treatment protocols, while diffusivity incorporates a mobile population. This model has been applied to data on the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic in the US state of Michigan. For system inference, we use recent advances; specifically our framework for Variational System Identification (Wang et al. in Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 356:44–74, 2019; arXiv:2001.04816 [cs.CE]) as well as Bayesian machine learning methods.

10.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(10): 5783-5787, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-542679

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan and rapidly spread throughout China and the rest of the world. COVID-19 is currently a global pandemic. There are cytokine storms in severe COVID-19 patients. Interleukin-6 plays an important role in cytokine storm. Tocilizumab is a blocker of interleukin-6 receptor, which is likely to become an effective drug for patients with severe COVID-19. Here, we reported a case in which tocilizumab was effective for a critical COVID-19 patient.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Receptors, Interleukin-6/immunology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi ; 48(7): 580-586, 2020 Jul 24.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-381905

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyse the clinical history, laboratory tests and pathological data of a patient who suffered from novel coronavirus pneumonia(COVID-19) and provide reference for the clinical treatment of similar cases. Methods: Data of clinical manifestation, laboratory examination, bronchoscopy, echocardiography and cardiopulmonary pathological results were retrospectively reviewed in a case of COVID-19 with rapid exacerbation from mild to critical condition. Results: This patient hospitalized at day 9 post 2019 novel coronavirus(2019-nCoV) infection, experienced progressive deterioration from mild to severe at day 12, severe to critical at day 18 and underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation(ECMO) and continuous renal replacement therapy(CRRT) as well as heart lung transplantation during day 28-45 post infection, and died at the second day post heart and lung transplantation. The patient had suffered from hypertension for 8 years. At the early stage of the disease, his symptoms were mild and the inflammatory indices increased and the lymphocyte count decreased continuously. The patient's condition exacerbated rapidly with multi-organ infections, and eventually developed pulmonary hemorrhage and consolidation, pulmonary hypertension, right heart failure, malignant ventricular arrhythmias, liver dysfunction, etc. His clinical manifestations could not be improved despite viral RNAs test results became negative. The patient underwent lung and heart transplantation and finally died of multi organ failure at the second day post lung and heart transplantation. Pathological examination indicated massive mucus, dark red secretions and blood clots in bronchus. The pathological changes were mainly diffused pulmonary hemorrhagic injuries and necrosis, fibrosis, small vessel disease with cardiac edema and lymphocyte infiltration. Conclusions: The clinical course of severe COVID-19 can exacerbate rapidly from mild to critical with lung, liver and heart injuries.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Lung/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Betacoronavirus , Fatal Outcome , Hemorrhage/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
13.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 17(1), 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-326345

ABSTRACT

Infected people are isolated to minimize the spread of pandemic diseases Therefore, the factors related to self-isolation (SI) should not be neglected, and it is important to investigate the factors leading the infected (or possibly infected) people to choose to self-isolate In this paper, we tried to show that the theory of planned behavior provides a useful conceptual framework for SI when facing a pandemic risk, and a regression method with Chinese provincial (Guangdong Province) data was applied to investigate how attitude (ATT), subjective norms (SN), and perceived behavioral control (PBC) influence SI when facing a pandemic emergency The results and the robustness tests confirm that ATT, SN, and PBC have a significant positive influence on SI when facing a pandemic emergency ATT plays the most important role, followed by SN and then PBC Based on the factors of SI, we found, through theoretical and empirical analyses, at least three important aspects that local governments need to consider to encourage citizens to self-isolate when facing a pandemic

14.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(0): E052, 2020 Apr 27.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-144067

ABSTRACT

Objective: To provide a system for warning, preventing and controlling emerging infectious diseases from a macroscopic perspective, using the COVID-19 epidemic data and effective distance model. Methods: The dates of hospitalization/isolation treatment of the first confirmed cases of COVID-19 and the cumulative numbers of confirmed cases in different provinces in China reported as of 23 February, 2020 were collected. The Location Based Service (LBS) big data platform of "Baidu Migration" was employed to obtain the data of the proportion of the floating population from Wuhan to all parts of the country. Effective distance models and linear regression models were established to analyze the relationship between the effective distance and the arrival time of the epidemic as well as the number of cumulative confirmed cases at provincial and municipal levels. Results: The arrival time of the epidemic and the cumulative number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 had significant linear relationship at both provincial and municipal levels in China, and the regression coefficients of each linear model were significant (P<0.001). At the provincial level, the effective distance could explain about 71% of the variation of the model with arrival time along with around 90% of the variation for the model in the cumulative confirmed case magnitude; at the municipal level, the effective distance could explain about 66% of the variation for the model in arrival time, and about 85% of the variation of the model with the cumulative confirmed case magnitude. Conclusions: The fitting degree of the models are good. The LBS big data and effective distance model can be used to estimate the track, time and extent of epidemic spread to provide useful reference for early warning, prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases.

16.
QJM ; 113(7): 474-481, 2020 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-9128

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have focused on initial clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is the mainly revealing situation in Wuhan, Hubei. AIM: This study aims to reveal more data on the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients outside of Wuhan, Zhejiang, China. DESIGN: This study was a retrospective case series. METHODS: Eighty-eight cases of laboratory-confirmed and three cases of clinically confirmed COVID-19 were admitted to five hospitals in Zhejiang province, China. Data were collected from 20 January 2020 to 11 February 2020. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Of all 91 patients, 88 (96.70%) were laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 with throat swab samples that tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, three (3.30%) cases were clinically diagnosed. The median age of the patients was 50 (36.5-57) years, and female accounted for 59.34%. In this sample, 40 (43.96%) patients had contracted the disease from local cases, 31 (34.07%) patients had been to Wuhan/Hubei, eight (8.79%) patients had contacted with people from Wuhan, and 11 (12.09%) patients were diagnosed after having flown together in the same flight with no passenger that could later be identified as the source of infection. In particular within the city of Ningbo, 60.52% cases can be traced back to an event held in a temple. The most common symptoms were fever (71.43%), cough (60.44%) and fatigue (43.96%). The median of incubation period was 6 (interquartile range 3-8) days and the median time from the first visit to a doctor to the confirmed diagnosis was 1 (1-2) days. According to the chest computed tomography scans, 67.03% cases had bilateral pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Social activity cluster, family cluster and flying alongside with persons already infected with COVID-19 were how people got infected with COVID-19 in Zhejiang.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , China , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Retrospective Studies
17.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(0): E016, 2020 Mar 03.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-3277
18.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 42(4): 296-300, 2020 Apr 23.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2876

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, unexplained pneumonia has appeared in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, and a new type of coronavirus infection was confirmed as COVID-19. COVID-19 spread rapidly nationwide and abroad. The COVID-19 has brought huge impacts to all the people and walks of life, especially to the medical and health systems. It has also brought great challenges to the treatment of patients with cancer. Esophageal cancer is a common malignant tumor in China and most of the patients are in the middle and advanced stage when diagnosed, with immunosuppressive and poor prognosis. The selection of surgical procedures and perioperative managements of esophageal cancer require all thoracic surgeons work together to figure out a reasonable system of surgical treatment and emergency response.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Esophageal Neoplasms , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , China , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Esophageal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Esophageal Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Patient Care Planning , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk
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