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Int J Mol Sci ; 23(24)2022 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200326


HSV-1 is a typical neurotropic virus that infects the brain and causes keratitis, cold sores, and occasionally, acute herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). The large amount of proinflammatory cytokines induced by HSV-1 infection is an important cause of neurotoxicity in the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia, as resident macrophages in CNS, are the first line of defense against neurotropic virus infection. Inhibiting the excessive production of inflammatory cytokines in overactivated microglia is a crucial strategy for the treatment of HSE. In the present study, we investigated the effect of nicotinamide n-oxide (NAMO), a metabolite mainly produced by gut microbe, on HSV-1-induced microglial inflammation and HSE. We found that NAMO significantly inhibits the production of cytokines induced by HSV-1 infection of microglia, such as IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α. In addition, NAMO promotes the transition of microglia from the pro-inflammatory M1 type to the anti-inflammatory M2 type. More detailed studies revealed that NAMO enhances the expression of Sirtuin-1 and its deacetylase enzymatic activity, which in turn deacetylates the p65 subunit to inhibit NF-κB signaling, resulting in reduced inflammatory response and ameliorated HSE pathology. Therefore, Sirtuin-1/NF-κB axis may be promising therapeutic targets against HSV-1 infection-related diseases including HSE.

Herpes Simplex , Herpesvirus 1, Human , Humans , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Microglia/metabolism , Herpesvirus 1, Human/metabolism , Sirtuin 1/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Herpes Simplex/pathology
Hum Cell ; 35(3): 871-884, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1762779


Mechanical ventilation may cause ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) in patients requiring ventilator support. Inhibition of autophagy is an important approach to ameliorate VILI as it always enhances lung injury after exposure to various stress agents. This study aimed to further reveal the potential mechanisms underlying the effects of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit 1 (GGPPS1) knockout and autophagy in VILI using C57BL/6 mice with lung-specific GGPPS1 knockout that were subjected to mechanical ventilation. The results demonstrate that GGPPS1 knockout mice exhibit significantly attenuated VILI based on the histologic score, the lung wet-to-dry ratio, total protein levels, neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines. Importantly, the expression levels of autophagy markers were obviously decreased in GGPPS1 knockout mice compared with wild-type mice. The inhibitory effects of GGPPS1 knockout on autophagy were further confirmed by measuring the ultrastructural change of lung tissues under transmission electron microscopy. In addition, knockdown of GGPPS1 in RAW264.7 cells reduced cyclic stretch-induced inflammation and autophagy. The benefits of GGPPS1 knockout for VILI can be partially eliminated through treatment with rapamycin. Further analysis revealed that Rab37 was significantly downregulated in GGPPS1 knockout mice after mechanical ventilation, while it was highly expressed in the control group. Simultaneously, Rab37 overexpression significantly enhances autophagy in cells that are treated with cyclin stretch, including GGPPS1 knockout cells. Collectively, our results indicate that GGPPS1 knockout results in reduced expression of Rab37 proteins, further restraining autophagy and VILI.

Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury , Animals , Autophagy/genetics , Dimethylallyltranstransferase , Farnesyltranstransferase , Geranyltranstransferase , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury/genetics , Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury/metabolism , Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury/pathology , rab GTP-Binding Proteins/genetics , rab GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism