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1.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(9):5753, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837522

ABSTRACT

Nature-based recreation (NBR) is an important cultural ecosystem service providing human well-being from natural environments. As the most concentrated and high-quality wilderness in China, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) has unique advantages for NBR. In this study, we designed an integrated nature-based recreation potential index (INRPI) based on four aspects: nature-based recreation resources, landscape attractiveness, recreation comfort and opportunity, and recreation reception ability. A combination of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and entropy evaluation method was adopted to assess the NBR potential in the QTP from 2000 to 2020. The research shows that: (i) The INRPI for the QTP decreases gradually from southeast to northwest and increases slightly from 2000 to 2020. (ii) The INRPI displays a pronounced difference on either side of the Qilian-Gyirong line. The areas with very high and high potentials mainly distributed in the southeast of the line, while areas with very low and low potentials distributed in the northwest. (iii) The construction of protected areas effectively improves NBR potential. Areas of INRPI at diverse levels within protected areas obviously increased in 2020. (iv) Increasing altitude has a notable effect on INRPI, and 3000 m is a critical dividing line for the NBR in the QTP. These findings can contribute to decision-makers in guiding rational use and spatial planning of natural land and promoting sustainable recreational development.

3.
Nature ; 595(7868): 596-599, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322487

ABSTRACT

Biomolecular condensates have emerged as an important subcellular organizing principle1. Replication of many viruses, including human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), occurs in virus-induced compartments called inclusion bodies (IBs) or viroplasm2,3. IBs of negative-strand RNA viruses were recently shown to be biomolecular condensates that form through phase separation4,5. Here we report that the steroidal alkaloid cyclopamine and its chemical analogue A3E inhibit RSV replication by disorganizing and hardening IB condensates. The actions of cyclopamine and A3E were blocked by a point mutation in the RSV transcription factor M2-1. IB disorganization occurred within minutes, which suggests that these molecules directly act on the liquid properties of the IBs. A3E and cyclopamine inhibit RSV in the lungs of infected mice and are condensate-targeting drug-like small molecules that have in vivo activity. Our data show that condensate-hardening drugs may enable the pharmacological modulation of not only many previously undruggable targets in viral replication but also transcription factors at cancer-driving super-enhancers6.


Subject(s)
/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/drug effects , Veratrum Alkaloids/pharmacology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line , Female , Humans , Inclusion Bodies , Lung/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/physiology , Transcription Factors , Viral Proteins
4.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(30): 637-644, 2021 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317436

ABSTRACT

What is already known about this topic? Though coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has largely been controlled in China, several outbreaks of COVID-19 have occurred from importation of cases or of suspected virus-contaminated products. Though several outbreaks have been traced to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) isolated on the outer packaging of cold chain products, live virus has not been obtained. What is added by this report? In September 2020, two dock workers were detected as having asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection using throat swabs during routine screening in Qingdao, China. Epidemiological information showed that the two dock workers were infected after contact with contaminated outer packaging, which was confirmed by genomic sequencing. Compared to the Wuhan reference strain, the sequences from the dock workers and the package materials differed by 12-14 nucleotides. Furthermore, infectious virus from the cold chain products was isolated by cell culture, and typical SARS-CoV-2 particles were observed under electron microscopy. What are the implications for public health practice? The international community should pay close attention to SARS-CoV-2 transmission mode through cold chain, build international cooperative efforts in response, share relevant data, and call on all countries to take effective prevention and control measures to prevent virus contamination in cold-chain food production, marine fishing and processing, transportation, and other operations.

6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111438, 2021 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049770

ABSTRACT

Roles of environmental factors in transmission of COVID-19 have been highlighted. In this study, we sampled the high-touch environmental surfaces in the quarantine room, aiming to detect the distribution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on the environmental surfaces during the incubation period of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Fifteen sites were sampled from the quarantine room, distributing in the functional areas such as bedroom, bathroom and living room. All environmental surface samples were collected with sterile polyester-tipped applicator pre-moistened in viral transport medium and tested for SARS-CoV-2. Overall, 34.1% of samples were detected positively for SARS-CoV-2. The positive rates of Patient A, B and C, were 46.2%, 0% and 61.5%, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 was detected positively in bedroom and bathroom, with the positive rate of 50.0% and 46.7%, respectively. In contrast, living room had no positive sample detected. Environmental contamination of SARS-CoV-2 distributes widely during the incubation period of COVID-19, and the positive rates of SARS-CoV-2 on environmental surfaces are relatively high in bathroom and bedroom.


Subject(s)
Bathroom Equipment/virology , COVID-19/transmission , Environmental Microbiology , Environmental Pollution , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Latent Infection/transmission , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfection , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Environmental Pollution/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Latent Infection/epidemiology , Latent Infection/prevention & control , Male , Quarantine/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface Properties , Toilet Facilities/standards
7.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 14(5): e19-e23, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-851031

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The effectiveness of air traffic restriction in containing the spread of infectious diseases is full of controversy in prior literature. In January 2020, the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC) announced air traffic restriction in response to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. This study's aim is to empirically examine the policy effectiveness. METHOD: The data from 2 third-party platforms are used in this investigation. The COVID-19 data from the platform DXY and the air traffic data from Airsavvi are matched to each other. The robust panel regression with controlling city effect and time effect is conducted. RESULTS: The curvilinear relations are found between the air traffic restriction and the existing cases, and the recovery rate (quadratic term = 9.006 and -0.967, respectively). As the strength of air traffic restriction is growing, the negative effect (-8.146) of air traffic restriction on the existing cases and the positive effect (0.961) of air traffic restriction on the recovery rate, respectively, begin decreasing. CONCLUSION: On the macro level, the air traffic restriction may help alleviate the growth of existing cases and help raise the recovery rate of COVID-19 in megacities of China, but both these effects will marginally recede as the restriction strength is intensifying.


Subject(s)
Aviation/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/supply & distribution , Aviation/methods , Aviation/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data
8.
J Transp Health ; 19: 100959, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC) declares the airline transport regulation in January 2020 to help retard the spread of the novel coronavirus disease in China. This study is to examine the effect of airline transport regulation on confirmed cases of the novel coronavirus disease in megacities in China. METHODS: This study combines the multi-source data from the health data platform DXY, the airline data platform Airsavvi, the China Economic Internet Statistical Database and the China Railway website. The megacities whose airports have a passenger throughput of over 30 million per year (11 megacities: Wuhan, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, Shenzhen, Kunming, Xi'an, Chongqing, Hangzhou, Nanjing) are included in the analysis. The regression analysis is conducted in this study. RESULTS: The curvilinear relationship between the limitation on air traffic and confirmed cases of the novel coronavirus disease is identified (coefficient of the linear term = -4.650, p-value < 0.01; coefficient of the quadratic term = 4.089, p-value < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the effectiveness of airline transport regulation in suppressing the development of this pandemic. The limitation on air traffic is found to negatively affect the confirmed cases in China's megacities. However, such effect marginally recedes as the strength of limitation intensifies. It suggests that comprehensive policy intervention is in need and air traffic can be one of important determinants that affect the epidemic development.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 742: 140620, 2020 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-624355

ABSTRACT

We collected environmental surface samples prior to and after disinfection of a quarantine room to evaluate the stability of SARS-CoV-2 during the incubation period of an imported case traveling to Qingdao, China. Overall, 11 of 23 (47.8%) of the first batch of environmental surface samples (within 4 h after case confirmation) were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Whereas only 2 of 23 (8.7%) of the second batch of environmental samples (after first disinfection) were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The majority of samples from the bedroom (70%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, followed by 50% of samples from the bathroom and that of 33% from the corridor. The inner walls of toilet bowl and sewer inlet were the most contaminated sites with the highest viral loads. SARS-CoV-2 was widely distributed on object surfaces in a quarantine room of a later diagnosed COVID-19 case during the incubation period. Proper disinfection is crucial to minimize community transmission of this highly contagious virus.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Environmental Monitoring , Hospitals, Isolation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , China , Environment , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(9)2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-306108

ABSTRACT

We investigated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) environmental contamination in 2 rooms of a quarantine hotel after 2 presymptomatic persons who stayed there were laboratory-confirmed as having coronavirus disease. We detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA on 8 (36%) of 22 surfaces, as well as on the pillow cover, sheet, and duvet cover.


Subject(s)
Bedding and Linens/virology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Fomites/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Adult , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Am J Infect Control ; 48(6): 592-598, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-38791

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading rapidly, bringing pressure and challenges to nursing staff. OBJECTIVE: To explore the psychology of nurses caring for COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Using a phenomenological approach, we enrolled 20 nurses who provided care for COVID-19 patients in the First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Science and Technology from January 20, to February 10, 2020. The interviews were conducted face-to-face or by telephone and were analysed by Colaizzi's 7-step method. RESULTS: The psychological experience of nurses caring for COVID-19 patients can be summarized into 4 themes. First, negative emotions present in early stage consisting of fatigue, discomfort, and helplessness was caused by high-intensity work, fear and anxiety, and concern for patients and family members. Second, self-coping styles included psychological and life adjustment, altruistic acts, team support, and rational cognition. Third, we found growth under pressure, which included increased affection and gratefulness, development of professional responsibility, and self-reflection. Finally, we showed that positive emotions occurred simultaneously with negative emotions. CONCLUSIONS: During an epidemic outbreak, positive and negative emotions of the front-line nurses interweaved and coexisted. In the early stage, negative emotions were dominant and positive emotions appeared gradually. Self-coping styles and psychological growth played an important role in maintaining mental health of nurses.


Subject(s)
Caregivers/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Nurses/psychology , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Data Collection , Emotions , Fatigue/psychology , Fear/psychology , Female , Humans , Interview, Psychological , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
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