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1.
Chinese Journal of Nosocomiology ; 33(4):522-526, 2023.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-20244455

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expressions of peripheral blood microRNA-21(miR-21) and transforming growth factor-beta(TNF-beta)/Smad signaling transduction pathway in patients with bronchial asthma complicated with respiratory virus infection. METHODS: Totally 109 patients with asthma complicated with respiratory virus infection(study group) and 104 patients without virus infection(control group) in the Third People's Hospital of Gansu Province between Feb.2019 and Feb.2021 were selected for the cross-sectional study. The basic data of the two groups were collected, and parameters including vital signs, lung function, peripheral blood miR-21 and TGF-beta/Smad signaling pathway proteins were measured. According to the guidelines, the patients of the two groups were divided into acute exacerbation phase and stable phase. The examination results of each group were compared and the levels of peripheral blood miR-21 and TGF-beta/Smad signaling pathway proteins expression of patients with asthma complicated with respiratory virus infection were analyzed. RESULTS: In study group, the proportion of respiratory virus infection among 109 patients was 33.94% for influenza virus, 23.85% for human rhinovirus, 19.27% for respiratory syncytial virus, 10.09% for parainfluenza virus, 6.42% for adenovirus, 4.59% for human coronavirus and 1.83% for human metapneumovirus respectively. The proportion of patients with acute exacerbation phase in the study group was higher than that in the control group, and the levels of peripheral blood miR-21, TGF-beta1, Smad7, pSmad2 and pSmad3 were higher than those in control group(P<0.05). The levels of miR-21, TGF-beta1, Smad2, Smad3, Smad7, pSmad2 and pSmad3 in peripheral blood of patients with acute exacerbation phase of asthma were higher than those of patients with stable phase of asthma(P<0.05). There were no statistical differences in peripheral blood miR-21, TGF-beta1, Smad2, Smad3, Smad7, pSmad2 and pSmad3 levels in asthma patients with different virus infections. CONCLUSION: Early respiratory virus infections might lead to increased expression of peripheral blood miR-21 and increased activation of TGF-beta/Smad signaling pathway in patients with asthma, which played an important role in acute attack of asthma.

2.
Biosafety and health ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-20241890

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has dramatically increased the awareness of emerging infectious diseases. The advancement of multiomics analysis technology has resulted in the development of several databases containing virus information. Several scientists have integrated existing data on viruses to construct phylogenetic trees and predict virus mutation and transmission in different ways, providing prospective technical support for epidemic prevention and control. This review summarized the databases of known emerging infectious viruses and techniques focusing on virus variant forecasting and early warning. It focuses on the multi-dimensional information integration and database construction of emerging infectious viruses, virus mutation spectrum construction and variant forecast model, analysis of the affinity between mutation antigen and the receptor, propagation model of virus dynamic evolution, and monitoring and early warning for variants. As people have suffered from COVID-19 and repeated flu outbreaks, we focused on the research results of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) and influenza viruses. This review comprehensively viewed the latest virus research and provided a reference for future virus prevention and control research.

3.
EPJ Data Sci ; 12(1): 17, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238815

ABSTRACT

Human mobility restriction policies have been widely used to contain the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). However, a critical question is how these policies affect individuals' behavioral and psychological well-being during and after confinement periods. Here, we analyze China's five most stringent city-level lockdowns in 2021, treating them as natural experiments that allow for examining behavioral changes in millions of people through smartphone application use. We made three fundamental observations. First, the use of physical and economic activity-related apps experienced a steep decline, yet apps that provide daily necessities maintained normal usage. Second, apps that fulfilled lower-level human needs, such as working, socializing, information seeking, and entertainment, saw an immediate and substantial increase in screen time. Those that satisfied higher-level needs, such as education, only attracted delayed attention. Third, human behaviors demonstrated resilience as most routines resumed after the lockdowns were lifted. Nonetheless, long-term lifestyle changes were observed, as significant numbers of people chose to continue working and learning online, becoming "digital residents." This study also demonstrates the capability of smartphone screen time analytics in the study of human behaviors. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1140/epjds/s13688-023-00391-9.

4.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231682

ABSTRACT

Deployment of nucleic acid amplification assays for diagnosing pathogens in point-of-care settings is a challenge due to lengthy preparatory steps. We present a molecular diagnostic platform that integrates a fabless plasmonic nano-surface into an autonomous microfluidic cartridge. The plasmonic 'hot' electron injection in confined space yields a ninefold kinetic acceleration of RNA/DNA amplification at single nucleotide resolution by one-step isothermal loop-mediated and rolling circle amplification reactions. Sequential flow actuation with nanoplasmonic accelerated microfluidic colorimetry and in conjugation with machine learning-assisted analysis (using our 'QolorEX' device) offers an automated diagnostic platform for multiplexed amplification. The versatility of QolorEX is demonstrated by detecting respiratory viruses: SARS-CoV-2 and its variants at the single nucleotide polymorphism level, H1N1 influenza A, and bacteria. For COVID-19 saliva samples, with an accuracy of 95% on par with quantitative polymerase chain reaction and a sample-to-answer time of 13 minutes, QolorEX is expected to advance the monitoring and rapid diagnosis of pathogens.

5.
Lancet Neurol ; 22(6): 476-484, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: No acute treatments targeting calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) have been approved for use in China or South Korea. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of rimegepant-an orally administered small molecule CGRP antagonist-with placebo in the acute treatment of migraine among adults in these countries. METHODS: This double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, multicentre phase 3 trial was done at 86 outpatient clinics at hospitals and academic medical centres (73 in China and 13 in South Korea). Participants were adults (≥18 years) with at least a 1-year history of migraine who had two to eight moderate or severe attacks per month and fewer than 15 headache days per month within the 3 months before the screening visit. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to 75 mg rimegepant or placebo to treat a single migraine attack of moderate or severe pain intensity. Randomisation was stratified by the use of preventive medication and by country. The allocation sequence was generated and implemented by study personnel using an interactive web-response system accessed online from each study centre. All participants, investigators, and the sponsor were masked to treatment assignment. The coprimary endpoints of freedom from pain and freedom from the most bothersome symptom (nausea, phonophobia, or photophobia) 2 h after dosing were assessed in the modified intention-to-treat (mITT) population (randomly assigned participants who took study medication for a migraine attack of moderate or severe pain intensity, and provided at least one efficacy datapoint after treatment) using Cochran-Mantel Haenszel tests. Safety was assessed in all participants who received rimegepant or placebo. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT04574362, and is completed. FINDINGS: 1431 participants were randomly assigned (716 [50%] to rimegepant and 715 [50%] to placebo). 668 (93%) participants in the rimegepant group and 674 (94%) participants in the placebo group received treatment. 1340 participants were included in the mITT analysis (666 [93%] in the rimegepant group and 674 [94%] in the placebo group). 2 h after dosing, rimegepant was superior to placebo for pain freedom (132 [20%] of 666 vs 72 [11%] of 674, risk difference 9·2, 95% CI 5·4-13·0; p<0·0001) and freedom from the most bothersome symptom (336 [50%] of 666 participants vs 241 [36%] of 674 participants, 14·8, 9·6-20·0; p<0·0001). The most common (≥1%) adverse events were protein in urine (8 [1%] of 668 participants in the rimepegant group vs 7 [1%] of 674 participants in the placebo group), nausea (7 [1%] of 668 vs 18 [3%] of 674), and urinary tract infection (5 [1%] of 668 vs 8 [1%] of 674). There were no rimegepant-related serious adverse events. INTERPRETATION: Among adults living in China or South Korea, a single dose of 75 mg rimegepant was effective for the acute treatment of migraine. Safety and tolerability were similar to placebo. Our findings suggest that rimegepant might be a useful new addition to the range of medications for the acute treatment of migraine in China and South Korea, but further studies are needed to support long-term efficacy and safety and to compare rimegepant with other medications for the acute treatment of migraine in this population. FUNDING: BioShin Limited. TRANSLATIONS: For the Chinese and Korean translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide , Migraine Disorders , Adult , Humans , Migraine Disorders/diagnosis , Nausea , Pain , Double-Blind Method , Tablets/therapeutic use , China , Treatment Outcome
6.
Matter ; 6(6): 2094, 2023 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244510

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.matt.2021.09.022.].

8.
BMC Nephrol ; 24(1): 120, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327007

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of thromboembolism in children with primary nephrotic syndrome with Meta-analysis. METHODS: Relevant studies published from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2021 were retrieved from Pubmed, Web of science, Cochrane library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Science and Technology Journal Database(VIP) and Wangfang Database. Quality evaluation of the literatures included was conducted according to Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality(AHRQ) assessment tool, followed by data extraction and Meta-analysis with software RevMan 5.3. RESULTS: A total of seven studies involving 3675 subjects were included. The overall prevalence was 4.9% with 95% CI of 2.83 to 7.05.However, a significant heterogeneity (P < 0.001) was observed with I2 = 89%. The prevalence of venous thromboembolism was 3.3% with 95% CI of 1.7 to 4.9. The prevalence of arterial thromboembolism was 0.5% with 95% CI of 0.2 to 1.4. CONCLUSION: Children with nephrotic syndrome are prone to thromboembolism, and it may lead to disability or death, therefore prevention measures is critical to decreasing the prevalence of thromboembolism.


Subject(s)
Nephrotic Syndrome , Thromboembolism , Humans , Child , Incidence , China , Prevalence
9.
Front Psychiatry ; 14: 1014866, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315447

ABSTRACT

Background: Emergency psychological responding professionals are recruited to help deal with psychological issues as the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues. We aimed to study the neural correlates of psychological states in these emergency psychological responding professionals after exposure to COVID-19 related trauma at baseline and after 1-year self-adjustment. Methods: Resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) and multiscale network approaches were utilized to evaluate the functional brain activities in emergency psychological professionals after trauma. Temporal (baseline vs. follow-up) and cross-sectional (emergency psychological professionals vs. healthy controls) differences were studied using appropriate t-tests. The brain functional network correlates of psychological symptoms were explored. Results: At either time-point, significant changes in the ventral attention (VEN) and the default mode network (DMN) were associated with psychological symptoms in emergency psychological professionals. In addition, the emergency psychological professionals whose mental states improved after 1 year demonstrated altered intermodular connectivity strength between several modules in the functional network, mainly linking the DMN, VEN, limbic, and frontoparietal control modules. Conclusion: Brain functional network alterations and their longitudinal changes varied across groups of EPRT with distinctive clinical features. Exposure to emergent trauma does cause psychological professionals to produce DMN and VEN network changes related to psychological symptoms. About 65% of them will gradually adjust mental states, and the network tends to be rebalanced after a year.

10.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 8(1): 169, 2023 04 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305969

ABSTRACT

Effective drugs with broad spectrum safety profile to all people are highly expected to combat COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2. Here we report that nelfinavir, an FDA approved drug for the treatment of HIV infection, is effective against SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. Preincubation of nelfinavir could inhibit the activity of the main protease of the SARS-CoV-2 (IC50 = 8.26 µM), while its antiviral activity in Vero E6 cells against a clinical isolate of SARS-CoV-2 was determined to be 2.93 µM (EC50). In comparison with vehicle-treated animals, rhesus macaque prophylactically treated with nelfinavir had significantly lower temperature and significantly reduced virus loads in the nasal and anal swabs of the animals. At necropsy, nelfinavir-treated animals had a significant reduction of the viral replication in the lungs by nearly three orders of magnitude. A prospective clinic study with 37 enrolled treatment-naive patients at Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, which were randomized (1:1) to nelfinavir and control groups, showed that the nelfinavir treatment could shorten the duration of viral shedding by 5.5 days (9.0 vs. 14.5 days, P = 0.055) and the duration of fever time by 3.8 days (2.8 vs. 6.6 days, P = 0.014) in mild/moderate COVID-19 patients. The antiviral efficiency and clinical benefits in rhesus macaque model and in COVID-19 patients, together with its well-established good safety profile in almost all ages and during pregnancy, indicated that nelfinavir is a highly promising medication with the potential of preventative effect for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Pregnancy , Animals , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Nelfinavir/pharmacology , Macaca mulatta , Prospective Studies , China , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
11.
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases ; 2023, 2023.
Article in German | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2305942

ABSTRACT

Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), which is caused by feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), is a fatal and immunologically mediated infectious disease among cats. At present, due to the atypical clinical symptoms and clinicopathological changes, the clinical diagnosis of FIP is still difficult. The gold standard method for the differential diagnosis of FIP is immunohistochemistry (IHC) which is time-consuming and requires specialized personnel and equipment. Therefore, a rapid and accurate clinical diagnostic method for FIPV infection is still urgently needed. In this study, based on the etiological investigation of FIPV in parts of southern China, we attempted to explore a new rapid and highly sensitive method for clinical diagnosis. The results of the etiological investigation showed that the N gene of the FIPV BS8 strain had the highest homology with other strains. Based on this, a specific FIPV BS8 N protein monoclonal antibody was successfully prepared by expression of the recombinant proteins, immunization of mice, fusion and selection of hybridoma cell lines, and screening and purification of monoclonal antibodies. Furthermore, we carried out a time-saving combination method including indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR) to examine FIP-suspected clinical samples. These results were 100% consistent with IHC. The results revealed that the combined method could be a rapid and accurate application in the diagnosis of suspected FIPV infection within 24 hours. In conclusion, the combination of IFA and RT-nPCR was shown to be a fast and reliable method for clinical FIPV diagnosis. This study will provide insight into the exploitation of FIPV N antibodies for the clinical diagnosis of FIP-suspected ascites samples.

12.
Front Psychiatry ; 14: 1100355, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299005

ABSTRACT

Background: This study aimed to examine depressive symptoms associated with interpersonal sensitivity, sleep quality, and psychological capital among postgraduate students during static campus management after the COVID-19 pandemic in China. Methods: Research data were obtained during static campus management (10-19 April 2022) after the reappearance of COVID-19 in cities in eastern China. We collected data through an online questionnaire, and the anonymous self-reported questionnaire included the Patient Health Questionnaire, the interpersonal sensitivity subscale of Symptom Checklist-90, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. analysis of variance was performed using t-test and ANOVA. The PROCESS macro was used to determine the relationship between interpersonal sensitivity and depression, together with the independent and serial mediating role of psychological capital and sleep quality. Results: A total of 2,554 postgraduate students were included in this study. The prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe depressive symptoms was 30.97, 6.58, and 1.45%, respectively. Interpersonal sensitivity was significantly associated with depressive symptoms (direct effect = 0.183, p < 0.001). Between interpersonal sensitivity and depressive symptoms, psychological capital and sleep quality played a single mediating role (indirect effect = 0.136 and 0.100, p < 0.001, respectively) and a chain mediating role together (indirect effect = 0.066, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Interpersonal sensitivity has a significant influence on depression among Chinese graduate students. Psychological capital and sleep quality may not only independently mediate the relationship between interpersonal sensitivity and depression, but also co-play a chain-mediating role in the pathway from interpersonal sensitivity to depression. Positive psychological interventions and sleep guidance may be beneficial in alleviating depressive symptoms.

13.
Cell Metab ; 35(4): 585-600.e5, 2023 04 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258682

ABSTRACT

Breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections of vaccinated individuals are being reported globally, resulting in an increased risk of hospitalization and death among such patients. Therefore, it is crucial to identify the modifiable risk factors that may affect the protective efficacy of vaccine use against the development of severe COVID-19 and thus to initiate early medical interventions. Here, in population-based studies using the UK Biobank database and the 2021 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), we analyzed 20,362 participants aged 50 years or older and 2,588 aged 18 years or older from both databases who tested positive for SARS-COV-2, of whom 33.1% and 67.7% received one or more doses of vaccine, respectively. In the UK Biobank, participants are followed from the vaccination date until October 18, 2021. We found that obesity and metabolic abnormalities (namely, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension) were modifiable factors for severe COVID-19 in vaccinated patients (all p < 0.05). When metabolic abnormalities were present, regardless of obesity, the risk of severe COVID-19 was higher than that of metabolically normal individuals (all p < 0.05). Moreover, pharmacological interventions targeting such abnormalities (namely, antihypertensive [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.64, 95% CI 0.48-0.86; p = 0.003], glucose-lowering [aHR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36-0.83; p = 0.004], and lipid-lowering treatments [aHR 0.50, 95% CI 0.37-0.68; p < 0.001]) were significantly associated with a reduced risk for this outcome. These results show that more proactive health management of patients with obesity and metabolic abnormalities is critical to reduce the incidence of severe COVID-19 after vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Obesity , Risk Factors
14.
BMJ Evid Based Med ; 2023 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2272503

ABSTRACT

Living systematic reviews (LSRs) are systematic reviews that are continually updated, incorporating relevant new evidence as it becomes available. LSRs are critical for decision-making in topics where the evidence continues to evolve. It is not feasible to continue to update LSRs indefinitely; however, guidance on when to retire LSRs from the living mode is not clear. We propose triggers for making such a decision. The first trigger is to retire LSRs when the evidence becomes conclusive for the outcomes that are required for decision-making. Conclusiveness of evidence is best determined based on the GRADE certainty of evidence construct, which is more comprehensive than solely relying on statistical considerations. The second trigger to retire LSRs is when the question becomes less pertinent for decision-making as determined by relevant stakeholders, including people affected by the problem, healthcare professionals, policymakers and researchers. LSRs can also be retired from a living mode when new studies are not anticipated to be published on the topic and when resources become unavailable to continue updating. We describe examples of retired LSRs and apply the proposed approach using one LSR about adjuvant tyrosine kinase inhibitors in high-risk renal cell carcinoma that we retired from a living mode and published its last update.

15.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 228: 115340, 2023 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288912

ABSTRACT

VV116 is an oral nucleoside anti-COVID-19 drug undergoing clinical trials in China. We aimed to characterize its metabolites in plasma, urine, and feces of healthy Chinese male subjects after a single oral administration of 400 mg VV116, by using UHPLC-UV-Orbitrap-MS. After oral administration, VV116 was almost completely converted into the metabolite 116-N1. Seventeen other metabolites produced by the subsequent metabolism of 116-N1 were also detected, including 6 phase I metabolites and 11 phase II metabolites resulting from hydrolysis, oxidative deamination, oxidation, and CN-group removal and conjugations. The results were exploratory. The major metabolite of VV116 in human plasma and urine was 116-N1, the main metabolites in feces were M2 and 116-N1. We then synthesized a reference M2 standard and confirmed its structure by MS and NMR.


Subject(s)
Nucleosides , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Humans , Male , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Administration, Oral
16.
Respir Res ; 24(1): 79, 2023 Mar 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267681

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We applied machine learning (ML) algorithms to generate a risk prediction tool [Collaboration for Risk Evaluation in COVID-19 (CORE-COVID-19)] for predicting the composite of 30-day endotracheal intubation, intravenous administration of vasopressors, or death after COVID-19 hospitalization and compared it with the existing risk scores. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of adults hospitalized with COVID-19 from March 2020 to February 2021. Patients, each with 92 variables, and one composite outcome underwent feature selection process to identify the most predictive variables. Selected variables were modeled to build four ML algorithms (artificial neural network, support vector machine, gradient boosting machine, and Logistic regression) and an ensemble model to generate a CORE-COVID-19 model to predict the composite outcome and compared with existing risk prediction scores. The net benefit for clinical use of each model was assessed by decision curve analysis. RESULTS: Of 1796 patients, 278 (15%) patients reached primary outcome. Six most predictive features were identified. Four ML algorithms achieved comparable discrimination (P > 0.827) with c-statistics ranged 0.849-0.856, calibration slopes 0.911-1.173, and Hosmer-Lemeshow P > 0.141 in validation dataset. These 6-variable fitted CORE-COVID-19 model revealed a c-statistic of 0.880, which was significantly (P < 0.04) higher than ISARIC-4C (0.751), CURB-65 (0.735), qSOFA (0.676), and MEWS (0.674) for outcome prediction. The net benefit of the CORE-COVID-19 model was greater than that of the existing risk scores. CONCLUSION: The CORE-COVID-19 model accurately assigned 88% of patients who potentially progressed to 30-day composite events and revealed improved performance over existing risk scores, indicating its potential utility in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Artificial Intelligence , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Hospitalization
17.
Virus Res ; 323: 198977, 2022 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246508

ABSTRACT

Vaccines have been considered the most promising solution for ending the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Information regarding neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and T-cell immune response in inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-immunized COVID-19 convalescent patients were either only available for a short time after illness recovered or not available at all (T-cell immunity). We evaluated SARS-CoV-2 NAbs and cellular immune responses to the SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine in convalescent patients who recovered from infection for about one and a half years. We found that compared to before vaccination, SARS-CoV-2 NAbs and specific T-cell responses were significantly boosted by the inactivated vaccine in convalescent patients, which confirmed the pre-existing adaptive immunity in SARS-CoV-2 infected people. We observed that NAbs and IFN-γ-secreting T-cell response elicited by a single vaccine dose in subjects with prior COVID-19 infection were higher than after two doses of vaccine in SARS-CoV-2 naïve subjects. Both humoral and cellular immune responses elicited by one and two doses of inactivated vaccine were comparable in COVID-19-recovered persons. In conclusion, inactivated COVID-19 vaccine induced robust NAbs and T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 convalescent patients and immune responses after one dose were equal to that after receiving two doses, which highlighted that robust humoral and cellular immune response can be reactivated by the inactivated vaccine in SARS-CoV-2 convalescent patients.

18.
Infect Dis Model ; 2022 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242632

ABSTRACT

Testing and isolation remain a key component of public health responses to both persistent and emerging infectious diseases. Although the value of these measures have been demonstrated in combating recent outbreaks including the COVID-19 pandemic and monkeypox, their impact depends critically on the timelines of testing and start of isolation during the course of disease. To investigate this impact, we developed a delay differential model and incorporated age-since-symptom-onset as a parameter for delay in testing. We then used the model to compare the outcomes of reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid antigen (RA) testing methods when isolation starts either at the time of testing or at the time of test result. Parameterizing the model with estimates of SARS-CoV-2 infection and diagnostic sensitivity of the tests, we found that the reduction of disease transmission using the RA test can be comparable to that achieved by applying the RT-PCR test. Given constraints and inevitable delays associated with sample collection and laboratory assays in RT-PCR testing post symptom onset, self-administered RA tests with short turnaround times present a viable alternative for timely isolation of infectious cases.

19.
Front Psychol ; 13: 1074999, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237647

ABSTRACT

Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has various risk factors, complex pathogenesis, and diverse symptoms, and is often comorbid with other injuries and diseases, making forensic diagnosis difficult. Methods: To explore the current research status and trends of PTSD, we used the Web of Science Core Collection databases to screen PTSD-related literature published between 2010 and 2021 and CiteSpace to perform bibliometric analysis. Results: In recent years, PTSD-related research has grown steadily. The countries and institutions with the most research results were the United States and England, and King's College London and Boston University, respectively. Publications were identified from 2,821 different journals, including 13 forensic-related journals, but the journal distribution was relatively scattered and there was a lack of professional core journals. Keyword co-occurrence and clustering identified many hot topics; "rat model," "mental health," and "satisfaction" were the topics most likely to have a clear effect on future research. Analysis extracted nine turning points from the literature that suggested that neural network centers, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and biomarkers were new research directions. It was found that COVID-19 can cause severe psychological stress and induce PTSD, but the relationship needs further study. The literature on stress response areas and biomarkers has gradually increased over time, but specific systemic neural brain circuits and biomarkers remain to be determined. Conclusion: There is a need to expand the collection of different types of biological tissue samples from patients with different backgrounds, screen PTSD biomarkers and molecular targets using multi-omics and molecular biology techniques, and establish PTSD-related molecular networks. This may promote a systematic understanding of the abnormal activation of neural circuits in patients with PTSD and help to establish a personalized, accurate, and objective forensic diagnostic standard.

20.
Front Med ; 2023 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2236795

ABSTRACT

Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants have made COVID-19 convalescents susceptible to re-infection and have raised concern about the efficacy of inactivated vaccination in neutralization against emerging variants and antigen-specific B cell response. To this end, a study on a long-term cohort of 208 participants who have recovered from COVID-19 was conducted, and the participants were followed up at 3.3 (Visit 1), 9.2 (Visit 2), and 18.5 (Visit 3) months after SARS-CoV-2 infection. They were classified into three groups (no-vaccination (n = 54), one-dose (n = 62), and two-dose (n = 92) groups) on the basis of the administration of inactivated vaccination. The neutralizing antibody (NAb) titers against the wild-type virus continued to decrease in the no-vaccination group, but they rose significantly in the one-dose and two-dose groups, with the highest NAb titers being observed in the two-dose group at Visit 3. The NAb titers against the Delta variant for the no-vaccination, one-dose, and two-dose groups decreased by 3.3, 1.9, and 2.3 folds relative to the wild-type virus, respectively, and those against the Omicron variant decreased by 7.0, 4.0, and 3.8 folds, respectively. Similarly, the responses of SARS-CoV-2 RBD-specific B cells and memory B cells were boosted by the second vaccine dose. Results showed that the convalescents benefited from the administration of the inactivated vaccine (one or two doses), which enhanced neutralization against highly mutated SARS-CoV-2 variants and memory B cell responses. Two doses of inactivated vaccine among COVID-19 convalescents are therefore recommended for the prevention of the COVID-19 pandemic, and vaccination guidelines and policies need to be updated.

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