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1.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-5, 2022 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2160053

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the rate and factors associated with healthcare personnel (HCP) testing positive for severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) after an occupational exposure. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Academic medical center with sites in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Arizona, and Florida. PARTICIPANTS: HCP with a high or medium risk occupational exposure to a patient or other HCP with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We reviewed the records of HCP with significant occupational exposures from March 20, 2020, through December 31, 2020. We then performed regression analysis to assess the impact of demographic and occupational variables to assess their impact on the likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: In total, 2,253 confirmed occupational exposures occurred during the study period. Employees were the source for 57.1% of exposures. Overall, 101 HCP (4.5%) tested positive in the postexposure period. Of these, 80 had employee sources of exposure and 21 had patient sources of exposure. The postexposure infection rate was 6.2% when employees were the source, compared to 2.2% with patient sources. In a multivariate analysis, occupational exposure from an employee source had a higher risk of testing positive compared to a patient source (odds ratio [OR], 3.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72-6.04). Sex, age, high-risk exposure, and HCP role were not associated with an increased risk of testing positive. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of acquiring coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) following a significant occupational exposure has remained relatively low, even in the prevaccination era. Exposure to an infectious coworker carries a higher risk than exposure to a patient. Continued vigilance and precautions remain necessary in healthcare settings.

2.
Frontiers in psychology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2147791

ABSTRACT

To investigate the prevalence of interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, depression symptoms and associated risk factors among a large-scale sample of college students in China during the COVID-19 campus lockdown. The survey was conducted among undergraduate students at a university in eastern part of China in April 2022. The Chi-square test was used to compare the different variable groups and multivariable analysis was performed for the risk factors associated with interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, and depression symptoms. A total of 12,922 college students were included, with an average age of (20.96 ± 1.66) years. The prevalence of interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety and depression symptoms in this study was 58.1, 22.7, and 46.8%, respectively. Male (OR = 1.16, p < 0.001), 22–23 years (OR = 1.40, p < 0.001), freshman (OR = 1.35, p = 0.002), and non-only child (OR = 1.15, p < 0.001) were positively associated with interpersonal sensitivity. Male (OR = 1.20, p < 0.001), sophomores (OR = 1.27, p = 0.020) and seniors (OR = 1.20, p = 0.027) were positively associated with anxiety symptoms. Compared with female students, male students (OR = 0.89, p < 0.001) were less likely to have depression symptoms. 22–23 years (OR = 1.37, p < 0.001), sophomores (OR = 1.26, p = 0.009) and non-only child (OR = 1.11, p = 0.009) were positively associated with depression symptoms. In addition, college students aged 18–21 years, learning status, skipping breakfast, roommate relationship and sleep quality were associated with interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety and depression symptoms (all p < 0.05). The findings of this study suggest a high prevalence of interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety and depression symptoms among Chinese college students during the COVID-19 campus lockdown. Younger ages, low grades, poor dormitory relationship, negative learning status, skipping breakfast and poor sleep quality were the risk factors for college students’ mental health, which should be concerned by the relevant departments of school during the campus lockdown.

3.
Infectious Disease Modelling ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2122499

ABSTRACT

Testing and isolation remain a key component of public health responses to both persistent and emerging infectious diseases. Although the value of these measures have been demonstrated in combating recent outbreaks including the COVID-19 pandemic and monkeypox, their impact depends critically on the timelines of testing and start of isolation during the course of disease. To investigate this impact, we developed a delay differential model and incorporated age-since-symptom-onset as a parameter for delay in testing. We then used the model to compare the outcomes of reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid antigen (RA) testing methods when isolation starts either at the time of testing or at the time of test result. Parameterizing the model with estimates of SARS-CoV-2 infection and diagnostic sensitivity of the tests, we found that the reduction of disease transmission using the RA test can be comparable to that achieved by applying the RT-PCR test. Given constraints and inevitable delays associated with sample collection and laboratory assays in RT-PCR testing post symptom onset, self-administered RA tests with short turnaround times present a viable alternative for timely isolation of infectious cases.

5.
Virus Res ; 323: 198977, 2022 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082653

ABSTRACT

Vaccines have been considered the most promising solution for ending the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Information regarding neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and T-cell immune response in inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-immunized COVID-19 convalescent patients were either only available for a short time after illness recovered or not available at all (T-cell immunity). We evaluated SARS-CoV-2 NAbs and cellular immune responses to the SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine in convalescent patients who recovered from infection for about one and a half years. We found that compared to before vaccination, SARS-CoV-2 NAbs and specific T-cell responses were significantly boosted by the inactivated vaccine in convalescent patients, which confirmed the pre-existing adaptive immunity in SARS-CoV-2 infected people. We observed that NAbs and IFN-γ-secreting T-cell response elicited by a single vaccine dose in subjects with prior COVID-19 infection were higher than after two doses of vaccine in SARS-CoV-2 naïve subjects. Both humoral and cellular immune responses elicited by one and two doses of inactivated vaccine were comparable in COVID-19-recovered persons. In conclusion, inactivated COVID-19 vaccine induced robust NAbs and T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 convalescent patients and immune responses after one dose were equal to that after receiving two doses, which highlighted that robust humoral and cellular immune response can be reactivated by the inactivated vaccine in SARS-CoV-2 convalescent patients.

6.
Heart Lung ; 57: 243-249, 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076150

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a boom in the use of V-V ECMO for ARDS secondary to COVID. Comparisons of outcomes of ECMO for COVID to ECMO for influenza have emerged. Very few comparisons of ECMO for COVID to ECMO for ARDS of all etiologies are available. OBJECTIVES: To compare clinically important outcome measures in recipients of ECMO for COVID to those observed in recipients of ECMO for ARDS of other etiologies. METHODS: V-V ECMO recipients between March 2020 and March 2022 consisted exclusively of COVID patients and formed the COVID ECMO group. All patients who underwent V-V ECMO for ARDS between January 2014 and March 2020 were eligible for analysis as the non-COVID ECMO comparator group. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes included ECMO decannulation, ECMO duration >30 days, and serious complications. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients comprised the COVID ECMO group and were compared to 18 non-COVID ECMO patients. Survival to hospital discharge was not significantly different between the two groups (33% in COVID vs. 50% in non-COVID; p = 0.255) nor was there a significant difference in the rate of non-palliative ECMO decannulation. The proportion of patients connected to ECMO for >30 days was significantly higher in the COVID ECMO group: 69% vs. 17%; p = 0.001. There was no significant difference in serious complications. CONCLUSION: This study could not identify a statistically significant difference in hospital survival and rate of successful ECMO decannulation between COVID ECMO and non-COVID ECMO patients. Prolonged ECMO may be more common in COVID. Complications were not significantly different.

7.
J Travel Med ; 2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051489

ABSTRACT

HIGHLIGHT: Estimating the effective reproduction number of Omicron subvariants is crucial for evaluating the effectiveness of control measures, and adjusting control measures promptly. We conducted a systematic review to synthesize the evidence from estimates of the reproduction numbers for Omicron subvariants, and estimated their effective reproduction number.

8.
Curr Med Sci ; 42(5): 1094-1098, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048502

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the epidemiological features in children after the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: This study collected throat swabs and serum samples from hospitalized pediatric patients of Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei province, China before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Respiratory infected pathogens [adenovirus (ADV), influenza virus A/B (Flu A/B), parainfluenza virus 1/2/3 (PIV1/2/3), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP), and Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP)] were detected. The pathogens, age, and gender were used to analyze the epidemiological features in children after the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: The pathogen detection rate was significantly higher in females than in males (P<0.05), and the infection of PIV1 and MP was mainly manifested. After the COVID-19 pandemic, PIV1, PIV3, RSV, and MP had statistically different detection rates among the age groups (P<0.05), and was mainly detected in patients aged 0-6 years, 0-3 years, 0-3 years, and 1-6 years, respectively. When comparing before the COVID-19 pandemic, the total detection rate of common respiratory pathogens was lower (P<0.05). Except for the increase in the detection rate of PIV1 and CP, the infection rate of other pathogens had almost decreased. CONCLUSION: The prevention and control measures for the COVID-19 pandemic effectively changed the epidemiological features of common respiratory tract infectious diseases in pediatric children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Male , Female , Child , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses
9.
Am J Cardiovasc Dis ; 12(4): 153-169, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2045926

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, an unprecedented outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) began to spread internationally, now impacting more than 293,750,692 patients with 5,454,131 deaths globally as of January 5, 2022. COVID-19 is highly pathogenic and contagious which has caused a large-scale epidemic impacting more deaths than the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in 2002-2003 or the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) epidemic in 2012-2013. Although COVID-19 symptoms are mild in most people, in those with pre-existing comorbidities there is an increased risk of progression to severe disease and death. In an attempt to mitigate this pandemic, urgent public health measures including quarantining exposed individuals and social distancing have been implemented in most states, while some states have even started the process of re-opening after considering both the economic and public health consequences of social distancing measures. While prevention is crucial, both novel agents and medications already in use with other indications are being investigated in clinical trials for patients with COVID-19. The collaboration between healthcare providers, health systems, patients, private sectors, and local and national governments is needed to protect both healthcare providers and patients to ultimately overcome this pandemic. The purpose of this review is to summarize the peer-reviewed and preprint literature on the epidemiology, transmission, clinical presentation, and available therapies as well as to propose a preventive strategy to overcome the present global pandemic.

10.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 918721, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043481

ABSTRACT

Background: Subacute thyroiditis, an inflammatory disease, has been reported caused by vaccines in rare cases. In the context of the coronavirus disease 19 pandemic, various SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have been developed and may be potential triggers for subacute thyroiditis. Case presentation: We report a case of subacute thyroiditis 3 days after receiving the second dose of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (BBIBP-CorV). The patient did not report a previous history of thyroid disease, upper respiratory tract infection, or COVID-19. Physical examination, laboratory testing, ultrasonography, and radioactive iodine uptake were consistent with subacute thyroiditis. During follow-up, the patient recovered from symptoms and signs, and imaging changes except for hypothyroidism, requiring an ongoing thyroxine replacement. Conclusions: Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine may be a causal trigger leading to subacute thyroiditis. Clinicians should be aware of subacute thyroiditis as a possible thyroid-related side effect of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.

11.
Mayo Clinic Proceedings ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2042015

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare clinical characteristics, treatment patterns, and 30-day all-cause readmission and mortality between patients hospitalized for heart failure (HF) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods The study was conducted at 16 hospitals across 3 geographically dispersed US states. The study included 6769 adults (mean age, 74 years;56% men) with cumulative 8989 HF hospitalizations: 2341 hospitalizations in COVID-19 pandemic (Mar- Oct 2020) and 6648 in the pre-COVID-19 (Oct 2018 – Feb 2020) comparator group. We used Poisson regression, Kaplan-Meier estimates, multivariable logistic, and Cox regression analysis to determine whether pre-specified study outcomes vary by timeframes. Results The adjusted 30-day readmission rate decreased from 13.1% in pre-COVID-19 to 10.0% in the COVID-19 pandemic period (relative risk reduction 23%, number needed to avoid one additional readmission 33, hazard ratio [HR] 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66 – 0.89). Conversely, all-cause mortality increased from 9.7% in pre-COVID-19 to 11.3% in the COVID-19 pandemic period (relative risk increase 16%, number of admissions needed for one additional death 62.5: HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.02 – 1.39). Despite significant differences in rates of index hospitalization, readmission, and mortality across the study timeframes, the disease severity, heart failure subtypes, and treatment patterns remained unchanged. Conclusions The findings of this large tristate multicenter cohort study of HF hospitalizations suggest lower rates of index hospitalizations and 30-day readmissions, but higher incidence of 30-day mortality with broadly similar use of heart failure medication, surgical interventions, and devices during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with pre-COVID-19 timeframe.

12.
Energy ; : 125513, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2041728

ABSTRACT

The low-carbon development of air transport industry is of great significance for China to achieve the commitment of carbon peak and carbon neutrality goals. In order to improve the basic data of aviation CO2 emissions, this study continuously collected full flight information in China from January 2017 to December 2020, and established a flight information database and an aircraft-engine parameter database. On the basis of IPCC's Tier 3B accounting method, this study established a long-term aviation CO2 emissions inventory of China from 2017 to 2020 by calculating and accumulating CO2 emissions of each flight. And aviation CO2 emissions of various provinces and cities in China were calculated combined with spatial allocation method. The results showed that aviation CO2 emissions in China was 104.1, 120.1, 136.9, and 88.3 Mt in 2017, 2018, 2019, and 2020, respectively, with annual growth rates of 15.4%, 14.0%, and −35.3% in 2018, 2019, and 2020, respectively. Affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, aviation CO2 emissions in all 31 provinces and 93% of cities decreased in 2020 compared with 2019. China is in the stage of rapid development of air transport industry, and aviation fossil energy consumption and CO2 emissions have continued to grow in recent years.

13.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032323

ABSTRACT

Understanding the feedback loop that links the spatiotemporal spread of infectious diseases and human behavior is an open problem. To study this problem, we develop a multiplex framework that couples epidemic spreading across subpopulations in a metapopulation network (i.e., physical layer) with the spreading of awareness about the epidemic in a communication network (i.e., virtual layer). We explicitly study the interactions between the mobility patterns across subpopulations and the awareness propagation among individuals. We analyze the coupled dynamics using microscopic Markov chains (MMCs) equations and validate the theoretical results via Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. We find that with the spreading of awareness, reducing human mobility becomes more effective in mitigating the large-scale epidemic. We also investigate the influence of varying topological features of the physical and virtual layers and the correlation between the connectivity and local population size per subpopulation. Overall the proposed modeling framework and findings contribute to the growing literature investigating the interplay between the spatiotemporal spread of epidemics and human behavior.

14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 902455, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022935

ABSTRACT

Objective: From January 23rd, 2020, lock-down measures were adopted in Wuhan, China to stop the spread of COVID-19. However, due to the approach of the Spring Festival and the nature of COVID-19, more than 6 million permanent and temporary residents of Wuhan (who were potential carriers or spreaders of the virus), left the city before the lock-down measures were implemented. This study aims to explore whether and how the population inflow from Wuhan city impacted residents' confidence in controlling COVID-19 outbreaks at the destination cities. Study design and setting: Based on questionnaire data and migration big data, a multiple regression model was developed to quantify the impact of the population inflow from Wuhan city on the sense of confidence of residents in controlling the COVID-19 outbreak at the destination cities. Scenarios were considered that varied residents' expected month for controlling COVID-19 outbreak at the destination cities, residents' confidence in controlling COVID-19 outbreak at the destination cities, and the overall indicators for the sense of confidence of residents in controlling COVID-19. A marginal effect analysis was also conducted to calculate the probability of change in residents' confidence in controlling the COVID-19 outbreak with per unit change in the population inflow from Wuhan city. Results: The impact of population inflow from Wuhan city on residents' expected month for controlling COVID-19 outbreak at the destination cities was positive and significant at the 1% level, while that on residents' confidence in controlling COVID-19 at the destination cities was negative and significant at the 1% level. Robustness checks, which included modifying the sample range and replacing measurement indicators of the population inflow from Wuhan city, demonstrated these findings were robust and credible. When the population inflow from Wuhan city increased by one additional unit, the probabilities of the variables "February" and "March" decreased significantly by 0.1023 and 0.1602, respectively, while the probabilities of "April," "May," "June," "July," "before the end of 2020," and "unknown" significantly increased by 0.0470, 0.0856, 0.0333, 0.0080, 0.0046, and 0.0840, respectively. Similarly, when the population inflow from Wuhan city increased by one additional unit, the probability of the variable "extremely confident" decreased by 0.1973. Furthermore, the probabilities of the variables "confident," "neutral," and "unconfident" significantly increased by 0.1392, 0.0224, and 0.0320, respectively. Conclusion: The population inflow from Wuhan city played a negative role in the sense of confidence of residents in controlling COVID-19 in the destination cities. The higher the population inflow from Wuhan city, the longer the residents' expected month for controlling COVID-19 outbreak at the destination cities became, and the weaker the residents' confidence in controlling the COVID-19 outbreak at the destination cities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cities/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Pediatr Radiol ; 2022 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007130

ABSTRACT

Chest radiography is commonly performed as a diagnostic tool of neonatal diseases. Contact-based radiation personal protective equipment (RPPE) has been widely used for radiation protection, but it does not provide full body protection and it is often shared between users, which has become a major concern during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To address these issues, we developed a novel trolley to protect radiographers against X-ray radiation by reducing scatter radiation during neonatal radiographic examinations. We measured the scatter radiation doses from a standard neonatal chest radiograph to the radiosensitive organs using a phantom operator in three protection scenarios (trolley, radiation personal protective equipment [RPPE], no protection) and at three distances. The results showed that the scatter radiation surface doses were significantly reduced when using the trolley compared with RPPE and with no protection at a short distance (P<0.05 for both scenarios in all radiosensitive organs). The novel protective trolley provides a non-contact protective tool for radiographers against the hazard of scatter radiation during neonatal radiography examinations.

17.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 921045, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2005905

ABSTRACT

Background: The prevalence of depressive symptoms has become very high among college freshmen, with interpersonal sensitivity serving as an important predictor of depression. Combining internal and external positive resources can effectively prevent and alleviate depression. This study explores the moderating role of psychological capital (PsyCap) in the relationship between interpersonal sensitivity and depression, as well as the moderating effect of familial support on the conditional influence of PsyCap among Chinese college freshmen. Methods: A cross-sectional mental health survey was performed and the anonymous self-reported questionnaires, including the Patient Health Questionnaire, interpersonal sensitivity subscale of Symptom Checklist-90, Psychological Capital Questionnaire 24, and Perceived Social Support from Family, were distributed to the freshmen. Pearson's coefficient was employed to describe correlations between variables. The PROCESS macro and slope difference tests were used to explore the moderating role of PsyCap and family support in the relationship between interpersonal sensitivity and depression. Results: The prevalence of depression among freshmen was 30.89% (694/2,247). The correlation analysis revealed that depression negatively related to PsyCap (r = -0.187, p < 0.001) and family support (r = -0.193, p < 0.001) and positively related to interpersonal sensitivity (r = 0.399, p < 0.001). The moderation analysis showed that PsyCap negatively moderated the positive relationship between interpersonal sensitivity and depression (ß = -0.159, p < 0.001). We also found that family support played a moderating role in the conditional influence of PsyCap (ß = 0.076, p < 0.01). The slope difference test further showed that family support weakened the effect of interpersonal sensitivity on depression in freshmen when they had low PsyCap. Conclusion: More attention should be paid to freshmen's mental health and interpersonal interaction problems. For freshmen with interpersonal sensitivity and depression, mental health departments can conduct PsyCap development interventions to alleviate psychological symptoms. Freshmen themselves should also seek family support in time, but those individuals with high PsyCap should seek an appropriate level of family support to maintain their autonomy.

18.
J Mater Chem B ; 10(28): 5454-5464, 2022 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000952

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has become a severe global public health event, and the development of protective and therapeutic strategies is urgently needed. Downregulation of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2; one of the important SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors) and aberrant inflammatory responses (cytokine storm) are the main targets to inhibit and control COVID-19 invasion. Silver nanomaterials have well-known pharmaceutical properties, including antiviral, antibacterial, and anticancer properties. Here, based on a self-established metal evaporation-condensation-size graded collection system, smaller silver particles reaching the Ångstrom scale (AgÅPs) were fabricated and coated with fructose to obtain a stabilized AgÅP solution (F-AgÅPs). F-AgÅPs potently inactivated SARS-CoV-2 and prevented viral infection. Considering the application of anti-SARS-CoV-2, a sterilized F-AgÅP solution was produced via spray formulation. In our model, the F-AgÅP spray downregulated ACE2 expression and attenuated proinflammatory factors. Moreover, F-AgÅPs were found to be rapidly eliminated to avoid respiratory and systemic toxicity in this study as well as our previous studies. This work presents a safe and potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 agent using an F-AgÅP spray.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Silver/pharmacology
19.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1980979

ABSTRACT

Background Subacute thyroiditis, an inflammatory disease, has been reported caused by vaccines in rare cases. In the context of the coronavirus disease 19 pandemic, various SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have been developed and may be potential triggers for subacute thyroiditis. Case presentation We report a case of subacute thyroiditis 3 days after receiving the second dose of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (BBIBP-CorV). The patient did not report a previous history of thyroid disease, upper respiratory tract infection, or COVID-19. Physical examination, laboratory testing, ultrasonography, and radioactive iodine uptake were consistent with subacute thyroiditis. During follow-up, the patient recovered from symptoms and signs, and imaging changes except for hypothyroidism, requiring an ongoing thyroxine replacement. Conclusions Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine may be a causal trigger leading to subacute thyroiditis. Clinicians should be aware of subacute thyroiditis as a possible thyroid-related side effect of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.

20.
Occup Environ Med ; 79(10): 713-716, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973864

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare the impact of occupational exposures to SARS-CoV-2 positive patients and SARS-CoV-2 positive coworkers, by comparing the frequency of occupational exposure incidents and the rate of healthcare personnel (HCP) who developed a positive PCR test for SARS-COV-2 after occupational exposure to the two different types of infectious individuals. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all confirmed higher risk occupational exposure incidents that occurred in HCP from 20 March 2020 to 31 December 2020 at a large multisite US academic medical centre. Comparisons between groups for source type were performed using unpaired Student's t-test for continuous variables and the χ2 test for categorical variables, regression analysis was conducted to assess the associations between source type and risk of positive COVID-19 test after occupational exposure. RESULTS: In total, 2253 confirmed medium or high-risk occupational exposures occurred during the study period. 57% were exposures from coworker sources. Each source individual exposed a mean of 2.6 (95% CI 2.3 to 2.9) HCP; during postexposure surveillance, 4.5% of exposed HCP tested positive within 14 days. A coworker source on average exposed 2.2 (95% CI 2.01 to 2.4) other HCP and infected 0.14 (95% CI 0.1 to 0.17) HCP, while patient sources exposed a mean of 3.4 (95% CI 2.6 to 4.2) HCP but only infected 0.07 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.11) HCP. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that exposure to a coworker source carried a higher risk of testing positive compared with exposure to a patient source (OR 3.22; 95% CI 1.72 to 6.04). CONCLUSION: Occupational exposures to coworker sources were not only more frequent but also associated with triple the risk of developing COVID-19 infection, compared with exposures to patient sources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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