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1.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 42(3): 104-112, 2022 Mar.
Article in English, French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737529

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Due to the unprecedented impact of COVID-19, there is a need for research assessing pandemic-related challenges and stressors. The current study aimed to assess key concerns and general well-being among members of Canada's Defence Team, including Canadian Armed Forces personnel and members of the Department of National Defence (DND) Public Service. METHODS: The COVID-19 Defence Team Survey was administered electronically to Defence Team staff in April and May of 2020 and was completed by 13 688 Regular Force, 5985 Reserve Force and 7487 civilian DND Public Service personnel. Along with demographic information, the survey included assessments of work arrangement, pandemic-related concerns, general well-being and social and organizational support. Weighted data (to ensure representation) were used in all analyses. RESULTS: The majority of respondents were working from home, with a small minority unable to work due to restrictions. Though many concerns were endorsed by a substantial proportion of respondents, the most prevalent concerns were related to the health and well-being of loved ones. The majority of respondents reported their partner, family, supervisors, friends, colleagues and children provided general support. Half of the civilian defence staff and one-third of military respondents reported a decline in mental health. Women, younger respondents, those with dependents and, in some cases, those who were single without children were at risk of lower well-being. CONCLUSION: The pandemic has negatively impacted a substantial portion of the Defence Team. When responding to future crises, it is recommended that leaders of organizations provide additional supports to higher-risk groups and to supervisors who are ideally positioned to support employees during challenging times.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
iScience ; 25(3): 103934, 2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693365

ABSTRACT

Here, we evaluated the immune properties of the HLA-A2 restricted CD8+ T cell epitopes containing mutations from B.1.1.7, and furthermore performed a comprehensive analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 specific CD8+ T cell responses from COVID-19 convalescent patients and SARS-CoV-2 vaccinees recognizing the ancestral Wuhan strain compared to B.1.1.7. First, most of the predicted CD8+ T cell epitopes showed proper binding with HLA-A2, whereas epitopes from B.1.1.7 had lower binding capability than those from the ancestral strain. In addition, these peptides could effectively induce the activation and cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cells. Our results further showed that at least two site mutations in B.1.1.7 resulted in a decrease in CD8+ T cell activation and a possible immune evasion, namely A1708D mutation in ORF1ab1707-1716 and I2230T mutation in ORF1ab2230-2238. Our current analysis provides information that contributes to the understanding of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cell responses elicited by infection of mutated strains or vaccination.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323797

ABSTRACT

Background: To examine the clinical characteristics and identify independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality of 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia. Methods: : A total of 156 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia at the Central Hospital of Wuhan from January 29, 2020, to March 20, 2020, and 20 healthy individuals were enrolled in this single-centered retrospective study. The epidemiological parameters, clinical presentations, underlying diseases, laboratory test results, and disease outcomes were collected and analyzed. Results: : The median age of all enrolled patients was 66 years. At least one underlying disease was identified in 101 COVID-19 patients, with hypertension being the most common one, followed by cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The most common symptoms identified upon admission were fever, cough, dyspnea, and fatigue. Compared to survival cases, patients who died during hospitalization had higher plasma levels of D-dimer, creatinine, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, lactate, and lower percentage of lymphocytes (LYM [%]), platelet count and albumin levels. Most enrolled patients received antibiotics and anti-viral treatment. In addition, 60 patients received corticosteroids, and 51 received intravenous immunoglobulin infusion. 44 patients received noninvasive ventilation and 19 received invasive ventilation. Respiratory failure was the most frequently observed complication (106 [67.9%]), followed by sepsis (103 [66.0%]), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (67 [42.9%]), and septic shock (50 [32.1%]). Multivariable regression suggested that advanced age (OR [odds ratio]=1.098, 95% CI [confidence interval]: 1.006-1.199, P =0.037), shorter duration from onset to admission (OR= 0.853, 95% CI: 0.750-0.969, P =0.015) and elevated lactate level upon admission (OR= 2.689, 95% CI: 1.044-6.926, P =0.040) were independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality for COVID-19 infection. Meanwhile, increased LYM (%) at admission (OR= 0.787, 95% CI: 0.686-0.903, P =0.001) indicated a better prognosis. Conclusions: : In this study, we discovered that age, duration from onset to admission, LYM (%), and lactate level upon admission were independent factors that affecting the in-hospital mortality rate.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323796

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine the clinical characteristics and identify independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality of 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia. Methods: : A total of 156 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia at the central Hospital of Wuhan from January 29, 2020, to March 20, 2020 were enrolled in this single-centered retrospective study. Their epidemiological parameters, clinical presentations, underlying diseases, laboratory test results and disease outcomes were collected and analyzed. Results: : The median age of enrolled patients was 66. Underlying diseases were identified in 101 patients, with hypertension being the most common one, followed by cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The most common symptoms identified upon admission were fever, cough, dyspnea and fatigue. Compared to survival cases, patients who dead during hospitalization had higher plasma levels of D-dimer, creatinine, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, lactate and lower percentage of lymphocytes (LYM [%]), platelet count and albumin levels. Most enrolled patients received anti-biotics and anti-viral treatment. In addition, 60 patients received corticosteroid and 51 received intravenous immunoglobulin infusion. 44 patients received noninvasive ventilation, 19 received invasive ventilation. Respiratory failure was the most frequently observed complication (106 [67.9%]), followed by sepsis (103 [66.0%]), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (67 [42.9%]) and septic shock (50 [32.1%]). Multivariable regression suggested that advanced age (OR [odds ratio]= 1.059, 95% CI [confidence interval]: 1.011-1.110, P = 0.016) and elevated lactate level upon admission (OR= 2.411, 95% CI: 1.177-4.941, P = 0.016) were independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality for COVID-19 infection. Meanwhile, increased LYM (%) at admission (OR= 0.798, 95% CI: 0.728-0.876, P < 0.001) indicated a better prognosis. Conclusions: : In this study, we discovered that age, LYM (%) and lactate level upon admission were independent factors that could influence in-hospital mortality rate.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315687

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus-infected diseases have posed great threats to human health. In past years, highly infectious coronavirus-induced diseases, including COVID-19, SARS, and MERS, have resulted in world-wide severe infections. Our literature annotations identified 72 chemical drugs and 27 antibodies effective against at least one human coronavirus infection in vitro or in vivo. Many of these drugs inhibit viral entry to cells and viral replication inside cells or modulate host immune responses. Many antimicrobial drugs, including antimalarial (e.g., chloroquine and mefloquine) and antifungal (e.g., terconazole and rapamycin) drugs as well as antibiotics (e.g., teicoplanin and azithromycin) were associated with anti-coronavirus activity. A few drugs, including remdesivir, chloroquine phosphate, favipiravir, and tocilizumab, have already been reported to be effective in treating COVID-19. After mapping our identified drugs to three ontologies ChEBI, NDF-RT, and DrON, many features such as roles and mechanisms of action (MoAs) of these drugs were identified and categorized. For example, out of 35 drugs with MoA annotations in NDF-RT, 34 have MoAs of different types of inhibitors and antagonists. Two clustering analyses, one based on ChEBI-based semantic similarity, the other based on drug chemical similarity, were performed to cluster over 60 drugs to new categories. Moreover, PCA analysis of anti-coronavirus drugs found differences in physicochemical properties between those inhibiting viral entry and viral replication. A total of 137 host genes were identified as the targets of 47 anti-coronavirus drugs, resulting in a network of 370 interactions among these drugs and targets. Chlorpromazine, dasatinib, and anisomycin are the hubs of the drug-target network with the highest number of connected target proteins. Many enriched pathways such as calcium signaling and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathways were identified. These findings may be used to facilitate drug repurposing against COVID-19.

6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 764949, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674330

ABSTRACT

We identified SARS-CoV-2 specific antigen epitopes by HLA-A2 binding affinity analysis and characterized their ability to activate T cells. As the pandemic continues, variations in SARS-CoV-2 virus strains have been found in many countries. In this study, we directly assess the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 epitope variants. We first predicted potential HLA-A*02:01-restricted CD8+ T-cell epitopes of SARS-CoV-2. Using the T2 cell model, HLA-A*02:01-restricted T-cell epitopes were screened for their binding affinity and ability to activate T cells. Subsequently, we examined the identified epitope variations and analyzed their impact on immune response. Here, we identified specific HLA-A2-restricted T-cell epitopes in the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. Seven epitope peptides were confirmed to bind with HLA-A*02:01 and potentially be presented by antigen-presenting cells to induce host immune responses. Tetramers containing these peptides could interact with specific CD8+ T cells from convalescent COVID-19 patients, and one dominant epitope (n-Sp1) was defined. These epitopes could activate and generate epitope-specific T cells in vitro, and those activated T cells showed cytolytic activity toward target cells. Meanwhile, n-Sp1 epitope variant 5L>F significantly decreased the proportion of specific T-cell activation; n-Sp1 epitope 8L>V variant showed significantly reduced binding to HLA-A*02:01 and decreased proportion of n-Sp1-specific CD8+ T cell, which potentially contributes to the immune escape of SARS-CoV-2. Our data indicate that the variation of a dominant epitope will cause the deficiency of HLA-A*02:01 binding and T-cell activation, which subsequently requires the formation of a new CD8+ T-cell immune response in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , HLA-A2 Antigen/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Amino Acid Sequence , Antigen Presentation , Antigenic Variation , COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Female , Humans , Immune Evasion , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
7.
J Leukoc Biol ; 110(6): 1171-1180, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298499

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has now become a pandemic, and the etiologic agent is the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). T cell mediated immune responses play an important role in virus controlling; however, the understanding of the viral protein immunogenicity and the mechanisms of the induced responses are still limited. So, identification of specific epitopes and exploring their immunogenic properties would provide valuable information. In our study, we utilized the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource and NetMHCpan to predict HLA-A2 restricted CD8+ T cell epitopes in structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2, and screened out 23 potential epitopes. Among them, 18 peptides showed strong or moderate binding with HLA-A2 with a T2A2 cell binding model. Next, the mixed peptides induced the increased expression of CD69 and highly expressed levels of IFN-γ and granzyme B in CD8+ T cells, indicating effective activation of specific CD8+ T cells. In addition, the peptide-activated CD8+ T cells showed significantly increased killing to the target cells. Furthermore, tetramer staining revealed that the activated CD8+ T cells mainly recognized seven epitopes. All together, we identified specific CD8+ T cell epitopes in SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins, which could induce the production of specific immune competent CD8+ T cells. Our work contributes to the understanding of specific immune responses and vaccine development for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , HLA-A2 Antigen/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Structural Proteins/immunology , Adult , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Male
8.
Brief Funct Genomics ; 20(4): 235-248, 2021 07 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280068

ABSTRACT

Omics technologies are widely used in biomedical research. Precision medicine focuses on individual-level disease treatment and prevention. Here, we propose the usage of the term 'precision omics' to represent the combinatorial strategy that applies omics to translate large-scale molecular omics data for precision disease understanding and accurate disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Given the complexity of both omics and precision medicine, precision omics requires standardized representation and integration of heterogeneous data types. Ontology has emerged as an important artificial intelligence component to become critical for standard data and metadata representation, standardization and integration. To support precision omics, we propose a precision omics ontology hypothesis, which hypothesizes that the effectiveness of precision omics is positively correlated with the interoperability of ontologies used for data and knowledge integration. Therefore, to make effective precision omics studies, interoperable ontologies are required to standardize and incorporate heterogeneous data and knowledge in a human- and computer-interpretable manner. Methods for efficient development and application of interoperable ontologies are proposed and illustrated. With the interoperable omics data and knowledge, omics tools such as OmicsViz can also be evolved to process, integrate, visualize and analyze various omics data, leading to the identification of new knowledge and hypotheses of molecular mechanisms underlying the outcomes of diseases such as COVID-19. Given extensive COVID-19 omics research, we propose the strategy of precision omics supported by interoperable ontologies, accompanied with ontology-based semantic reasoning and machine learning, leading to systematic disease mechanism understanding and rational design of precision treatment and prevention. SHORT ABSTRACT: Precision medicine focuses on individual-level disease treatment and prevention. Precision omics is a new strategy that applies omics for precision medicine research, which requires standardized representation and integration of individual genetics and phenotypes, experimental conditions, and data analysis settings. Ontology has emerged as an important artificial intelligence component to become critical for standard data and metadata representation, standardization and integration. To support precision omics, interoperable ontologies are required in order to standardize and incorporate heterogeneous data and knowledge in a human- and computer-interpretable manner. With the interoperable omics data and knowledge, omics tools such as OmicsViz can also be evolved to process, integrate, visualize and analyze various omics data, leading to the identification of new knowledge and hypotheses of molecular mechanisms underlying disease outcomes. The precision COVID-19 omics study is provided as the primary use case to illustrate the rationale and implementation of the precision omics strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Genomics , Proteomics , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Precision Medicine , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10763, 2021 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242041

ABSTRACT

Research on drugs against SARS-CoV-2 (cause of COVID-19) has been one of the major world concerns at present. There have been abundant research data and findings in this field. The interference of drugs on gene expression in cell lines, drug-target, protein-virus receptor networks, and immune cell infiltration of the host may provide useful information for anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug research. To simplify the complex bioinformatics analysis and facilitate the evaluation of the latest research data, we developed OmiczViz ( http://medcode.link/omicsviz ), a web tool that has integrated drug-cell line interference data, virus-host protein-protein interactions, and drug-target interactions. To demonstrate the usages of OmiczViz, we analyzed the gene expression data from cell lines treated with chloroquine and ruxolitinib, the drug-target protein networks of 48 anti-coronavirus drugs and drugs bound with ACE2, and the profiles of immune cell infiltration between different COVID-19 patient groups. Our research shows that chloroquine had a regulatory role of the immune response in renal cell line but not in lung cell line. The anti-coronavirus drug-target network analysis suggested that antihistamine of promethaziney and dietary supplement of Zinc might be beneficial when used jointly with antiviral drugs. The immune infiltration analysis indicated that both the COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU and the elderly with infection showed immune exhaustion status, yet with different molecular mechanisms. The interactive graphic interface of OmiczViz also makes it easier to analyze newly discovered and user-uploaded data, leading to an in-depth understanding of existing findings and an expansion of existing knowledge of SARS-CoV-2. Collectively, OmicsViz is web program that promotes the research on medical agents against SARS-CoV-2 and supports the evaluation of the latest research findings.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , User-Computer Interface , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Internet , Nitriles , Protein Binding , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Pyrimidines , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Sci Data ; 8(1): 16, 2021 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065922

ABSTRACT

Our systematic literature collection and annotation identified 106 chemical drugs and 31 antibodies effective against the infection of at least one human coronavirus (including SARS-CoV, SAR-CoV-2, and MERS-CoV) in vitro or in vivo in an experimental or clinical setting. A total of 163 drug protein targets were identified, and 125 biological processes involving the drug targets were significantly enriched based on a Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis. The Coronavirus Infectious Disease Ontology (CIDO) was used as an ontological platform to represent the anti-coronaviral drugs, chemical compounds, drug targets, biological processes, viruses, and the relations among these entities. In addition to new term generation, CIDO also adopted various terms from existing ontologies and developed new relations and axioms to semantically represent our annotated knowledge. The CIDO knowledgebase was systematically analyzed for scientific insights. To support rational drug design, a "Host-coronavirus interaction (HCI) checkpoint cocktail" strategy was proposed to interrupt the important checkpoints in the dynamic HCI network, and ontologies would greatly support the design process with interoperable knowledge representation and reasoning.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Datasets as Topic , Drug Design , Humans , Knowledge Bases , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Int Dent J ; 71(1): 32-39, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052698

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In mid-March 2020, the World Health Organization declared that COVID-19 was to be characterised as a pandemic. The purpose of this article is to recommend emergency management procedures for dental clinics during this public health emergency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have implemented a series of emergency management measures to prevent cross-infection in our dental clinic during the COVID-19 pandemic, including personnel scheduling, division of the clinic into functional areas, limitation or delay of non-emergency patients, staff protection and infection controls, clinical environmental disinfection, and the use of online consultation services, among others. RESULTS: Due to public health policy and dental emergency management, the number of dental visitors to our clinic dropped sharply, and no COVID-19 suspected cases or high-risk patients received treatment. There have been no reports of infection of dental staff or patients during dental treatment in China to date. CONCLUSION: These public health policies and dental emergency management measures were effective in controlling cross-infection of COVID-19 in the dental clinic. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: We share control measures for COVID-19, and hope that they will be helpful for dental professionals worldwide to continue to provide dental care in a safe and orderly manner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergencies , Pandemics , Beijing , China/epidemiology , Dental Clinics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 113, 2021 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045608

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To examine the clinical characteristics and identify independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality of 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia. METHODS: A total of 156 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia at the Central Hospital of Wuhan from January 29, 2020, to March 20, 2020, and 20 healthy individuals were enrolled in this single-centered retrospective study. The epidemiological parameters, clinical presentations, underlying diseases, laboratory test results, and disease outcomes were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: The median age of all enrolled patients was 66 years. At least one underlying disease was identified in 101 COVID-19 patients, with hypertension being the most common one, followed by cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The most common symptoms identified upon admission were fever, cough, dyspnea, and fatigue. Compared to survival cases, patients who died during hospitalization had higher plasma levels of D-dimer, creatinine, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, lactate, and lower percentage of lymphocytes (LYM [%]), platelet count and albumin levels. Most enrolled patients received antibiotics and anti-viral treatment. In addition, 60 patients received corticosteroids, and 51 received intravenous immunoglobulin infusion. Forty-four patients received noninvasive ventilation and 19 received invasive ventilation. Respiratory failure was the most frequently observed complication (106 [67.9%]), followed by sepsis (103 [66.0%]), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (67 [42.9%]), and septic shock (50 [32.1%]). Multivariable regression suggested that advanced age (OR [odds ratio] = 1.098, 95% CI [confidence interval]: 1.006-1.199, P = 0.037), shorter duration from onset to admission (OR = 0.853, 95% CI: 0.750-0.969, P = 0.015) and elevated lactate level upon admission (OR = 2.689, 95% CI: 1.044-6.926, P = 0.040) were independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality for COVID-19 infection. Meanwhile, increased LYM (%) at admission (OR = 0.787, 95% CI: 0.686-0.903, P = 0.001) indicated a better prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we discovered that age, duration from onset to admission, LYM (%), and lactate level upon admission were independent factors that affecting the in-hospital mortality rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Child , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cough , Creatine Kinase/blood , Creatinine/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Fever , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lactic Acid/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/etiology , Serum Albumin/metabolism , Shock, Septic/etiology , Young Adult
13.
China Tropical Medicine ; 20(11):1108-1111, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1016425

ABSTRACT

Both COVID-19 and SARS are two serious infectious diseases caused by coronaviruses. The cause of both is still unknown and there are currently no effective treatments. Therefore, it is important to understand the epidemiological and pathological characteristics of COVID-19 and SARS for its prevention and treatment. This article reviewed the literature, combined with the latest research status at home and abroad, to explore the two diseases of COVID-19 and SARS from the etiology, spatial, time and population distributions and pathology. The results show that the two infectious diseases have many of the same clinical characteristics. There are some differences in the disease process, severity, and imaging. COVID-19 have stronger infectivity than SARS, but its mortality is lower than SARS, and the pathological changes of the two are also different. The article also compared the experiences and lessons learned during the SARS epidemic, sorted out the loopholes and deficiencies in disease prevention and control during the COVID-19 epidemic, and made recommendations for the problems at the current stage, so as to provides the certain scientific basis for preventing and treating the two diseases, and their pathogenesis research.

14.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 150(3): 312-317, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-574780

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical characteristics and laboratory test results in pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A retrospective study to review and compare clinical data including electronic medical records and laboratory tests from pregnant and nonpregnant patients admitted the Central Hospital of Wuhan, China from December 8, 2019 to April 1, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 72 women (30 pregnant and 42 nonpregnant) with COVID-19 were included. No patients developed severe pneumonia during the study. Compared with the nonpregnant group, pregnant patients were admitted to hospital earlier (0.25 vs 11.00 days; P<0.001), presented milder symptoms, had a higher rate of asymptomatic infection (26.7% vs 0%), and shorter length of hospital stay (14.5 vs 17.0 days; P<0.01). Laboratory test results showed that levels of inflammation markers such as white blood cell count, neutrophil count and percentage, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and D-dimer were significantly higher in pregnant women, whereas mean lymphocyte percentage was significantly lower compared with nonpregnant women. CONCLUSION: In some respects, the clinical characteristics and laboratory test results of COVID-19 in pregnant patients seems to be distinctive from their nonpregnant counterparts. Appropriate advice and positive treatment might be critical to the prognosis when dealing with these pregnant patients. Pregnant patients with COVID-19 had their own positive clinical characteristics and special laboratory test results. Responsive medical advice and active treatment for those patients are critical to recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19 Testing/blood , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Pregnant Women , Procalcitonin/blood , Retrospective Studies
15.
Virus Res ; 286: 198043, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-459335

ABSTRACT

An epidemic caused by SARS-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has appeared in Wuhan City in December 2019. The disease has shown a "clustering epidemic" pattern, and family-clustered onset has been the main characteristic. We collected data about 130 cases from 35 cluster-onset families (COFs) and 41 cases from 16 solitary-onset families (SOFs). The incidence of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in COFs was significantly higher than that of SOFs. Our study also showed that patients with exposure to high-risk factors (respiratory droplets and close contact), advanced age, and comorbidities were more likely to develop COVID-19 in the COFs. In addition, advanced age and elevated neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were risk factors for death in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the COFs.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronary Disease/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , China , Cluster Analysis , Comorbidity , Coronary Disease/diagnosis , Coronary Disease/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/mortality , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/pathology , Neutrophils/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
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