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1.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2023 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heterologous boosting is suggested to be of use in populations who have received inactivated COVID-19 vaccines. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of a heterologous vaccination with the mRNA vaccine CS-2034 versus the inactivated BBIBP-CorV as a fourth dose, as well as the efficacy against the SARS-CoV-2 omicron (BA.5) variant. METHODS: This trial contains a randomised, double-blind, parallel-controlled study in healthy participants aged 18 years or older (group A) and an open-label cohort in participants 60 years and older (group B), who had received three doses of inactivated whole-virion vaccines at least 6 months before enrolment. Pregnant women and people with major chronic illnesses or a history of allergies were excluded. Eligible participants in group A were stratified by age (18-59 years and ≥60 years) and then randomised by SAS 9.4 in a ratio of 3:1 to receive a dose of the mRNA vaccine (CS-2034, CanSino, Shanghai, China) or inactivated vaccine (BBIBP-CorV, Sinopharm, Beijing, China). Safety and immunogenicity against omicron variants of the fourth dose were evaluated in group A. Participants 60 years and older were involved in group B for safety observations. The primary outcome was geometric mean titres (GMTs) of the neutralising antibodies against omicron and seroconversion rates against BA.5 variant 28 days after the boosting, and incidence of adverse reactions within 28 days. The intention-to-treat group was involved in the safety analysis, while all patients in group A who had blood samples taken before and after the booster were involved in the immunogenicity analysis. This trial was registered at the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry Centre (ChiCTR2200064575). FINDINGS: Between Oct 13, and Nov 22, 2022, 320 participants were enrolled in group A (240 in the CS-2034 group and 80 in the BBIBP-CorV group) and 113 in group B. Adverse reactions after vaccination were more frequent in CS-2034 recipients (158 [44·8%]) than BBIBP-CorV recipients (17 [21·3%], p<0·0001). However, most adverse reactions were mild or moderate, with grade 3 adverse reactions only reported by eight (2%) of 353 participants receiving CS-2034. Heterologous boosting with CS-2034 elicited 14·4-fold (GMT 229·3, 95% CI 202·7-259·4 vs 15·9, 13·1-19·4) higher concentration of neutralising antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 omicron variant BA.5 than did homologous boosting with BBIBP-CorV. The seroconversion rates of SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralising antibody responses were much higher in the mRNA heterologous booster regimen compared with BBIBP-CorV homologous booster regimen (original strain 47 [100%] of 47 vs three [18·8%] of 16; BA.1 45 [95·8%] of 48 vs two [12·5%] 16; and BA.5 233 [98·3%] of 240 vs 15 [18·8%] of 80 by day 28). INTERPRETATION: Both the administration of mRNA vaccine CS-2034 and inactivated vaccine BBIBP-CorV as a fourth dose were well tolerated. Heterologous boosting with mRNA vaccine CS-2034 induced higher immune responses and protection against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 omicron infections compared with homologous boosting, which could support the emergency use authorisation of CS-2034 in adults. FUNDING: Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai, National Natural Science Foundation of China, Jiangsu Provincial Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars, and Jiangsu Provincial Key Project of Science and Technology Plan. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

2.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2023 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323686

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heterologous booster immunisation with orally administered aerosolised Ad5-nCoV vaccine (AAd5) has been shown to be safe and highly immunogenic in adults. Here, we aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of heterologous booster immunisation with orally administered AAd5 in children and adolescents aged 6-17 years who had received two doses of inactivated vaccine (BBIBP-CorV or CoronaVac). METHODS: We did a randomised, open-label, parallel-controlled, non-inferiority study to assess the safety and immunogenicity of heterologous booster immunisation with AAd5 (0·1 mL) or intramuscular Ad5-nCoV vaccine (IMAd5; 0·3 mL) and homologous booster immunisation with inactivated vaccine (BBIBP-CorV or CoronaVac; 0·5 mL) in children (aged 6-12 years) and adolescents (aged 13-17 years) who had received two doses of inactivated vaccine at least 3 months earlier in Hunan, China. Children and adolescents who were previously immunised with two-dose BBIBP-CorV or CoronaVac were recruited for eligibility screening at least 3 months after the second dose. A stratified block method was used for randomisation, and participants were stratified by age and randomly assigned (3:1:1) to receive AAd5, IMAd5, or inactivated vaccine. The study staff and participants were not masked to treatment allocation. Laboratory and statistical staff were masked during the study. In this interim analysis, adverse events within 14 days and geometric mean titre (GMT) of serum neutralising antibodies on day 28 after the booster vaccination, based on the per-protocol population, were used as the primary outcomes. The analysis of non-inferiority was based on comparison using a one-sided 97·5% CI with a non-inferiority margin of 0·67. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05330871, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between April 17 and May 28, 2022, 436 participants were screened and 360 were enrolled: 220 received AAd5, 70 received IMAd5, and 70 received inactivated vaccine. Within 14 days after booster vaccination, vaccine-related adverse reactions were reported: 35 adverse events (in 13 [12%] of 110 children and 22 [20%] of 110 adolescents) in 220 individuals in the AAd5 group, 35 (in 18 [51%] of 35 children and 17 [49%] of 35 adolescents) in 70 individuals in the IMAd5 group, and 13 (in five [14%] of 35 children and eight [23%] of 35 adolescents) in 70 individuals in the inactivated vaccine group. Solicited adverse reactions were also reported: 34 (13 [12%] of 110 children and 21 [10%] of 110 adolescents) in 220 individuals in the AAd5 group, 34 (17 [49%] of 35 children and 17 [49%] of 35 adolescents) in 70 individuals in the IMAd5 group, and 12 (five [14%] of 35 children and seven [20%] of 35 adolescents) in 70 individuals in the inactivated vaccine group. The GMTs of neutralising antibodies against ancestral SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan-Hu-1 (Pango lineage B) in the AAd5 group were significantly higher than the GMTs in the inactivated vaccine group (adjusted GMT ratio 10·2 [95% CI 8·0-13·1]; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Our study shows that a heterologous booster with AAd5 is safe and highly immunogenic against ancestral SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan-Hu-1 in children and adolescents. FUNDING: National Key R&D Program of China.

3.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1146196, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287498

ABSTRACT

The devastating COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 and multiple variants or subvariants remains an ongoing global challenge. SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses play a critical role in early virus clearance, disease severity control, limiting the viral transmission and underpinning COVID-19 vaccine efficacy. Studies estimated broad and robust T cell responses in each individual recognized at least 30 to 40 SARS-CoV-2 antigen epitopes and associated with COVID-19 clinical outcome. Several key immunodominant viral proteome epitopes, including S protein- and non-S protein-derived epitopes, may primarily induce potent and long-lasting antiviral protective effects. In this review, we summarized the immune response features of immunodominant epitope-specific T cells targeting different SRAS-CoV-2 proteome structures after infection and vaccination, including abundance, magnitude, frequency, phenotypic features and response kinetics. Further, we analyzed the epitopes immunodominance hierarchy in combination with multiple epitope-specific T cell attributes and TCR repertoires characteristics, and discussed the significant implications of cross-reactive T cells toward HCoVs, SRAS-CoV-2 and variants of concern, especially Omicron. This review may be essential for mapping the landscape of T cell responses toward SARS-CoV-2 and optimizing the current vaccine strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Epitopes , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pandemics , Proteome , T-Lymphocytes , Immunodominant Epitopes , Immunity , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell
4.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1107639, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261428

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibody (NtAb) levels are key indicators in the development and evaluation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines. Establishing a unified and reliable WHO International Standard (IS) for NtAb is crucial for the calibration and harmonization of NtAb detection assays. National and other WHO secondary standards are key links in the transfer of IS to working standards but are often overlooked. The Chinese National Standard (NS) and WHO IS were developed by China and WHO in September and December 2020, respectively, the application of which prompted and coordinated sero-detection of vaccine and therapy globally. Currently, a second-generation Chinese NS is urgently required owing to the depletion of stocks and need for calibration to the WHO IS. The Chinese National Institutes for Food and Drug Control (NIFDC) developed two candidate NSs (samples 33 and 66-99) traced to the IS according to the WHO manual for the establishment of national secondary standards through a collaborative study of nine experienced labs. Either NS candidate can reduce the systematic error among different laboratories and the difference between the live virus neutralization (Neut) and pseudovirus neutralization (PsN) methods, ensuring the accuracy and comparability of NtAb test results among multiple labs and methods, especially for samples 66-99. At present, samples 66-99 have been approved as the second-generation NS, which is the first NS calibrated tracing to the IS with 580 (460-740) International Units (IU)/mL and 580 (520-640) IU/mL by Neut and PsN, respectively. The use of standards improves the reliability and comparability of NtAb detection, ensuring the continuity of the use of the IS unitage, which effectively promotes the development and application of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Calibration , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing , China , World Health Organization
5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; : 1-11, 2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232612

ABSTRACT

Over one billion people have received 2-3 dosages of an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine for basic immunization. Whether a booster dose should be delivered to protect against the Omicron variant and its sub-lineages, remains controversial. Here, we tested different vaccine platforms targeting the ancestral or Omicron strain as a secondary booster of the ancestral inactivated vaccine in mice. We found that the Omicron-adapted inactivated viral vaccine promoted a neutralizing antibody response against Omicron in mice. Furthermore, heterologous immunization with COVID-19 vaccines based on different platforms remarkably elevated the levels of cross- neutralizing antibody against Omicron and its sub-lineages. Omicron-adapted vaccines based on heterologous platforms should be prioritized in future vaccination strategies to control COVID-19.

6.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2230862

ABSTRACT

With the continuation of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and the emergence of new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants, the control of the spread of the virus remains urgent. Various animals, including cats, ferrets, hamsters, nonhuman primates, minks, tree shrews, fruit bats, and rabbits, are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection naturally or experimentally. Therefore, to avoid animals from becoming mixing vessels of the virus, vaccination of animals should be considered. In the present study, we report the establishment of an efficient and stable system using Newcastle disease virus (NDV) as a vector to express SARS-CoV-2 spike protein/subunit for the rapid generation of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 in animals. Our data showed that the S and S1 protein was sufficiently expressed in rNDV-S and rNDV-S1-infected cells, respectively. The S protein was incorporated into and displayed on the surface of rNDV-S viral particles. Intramuscular immunization with rNDV-S was found to induce the highest level of binding and neutralizing antibodies, as well as strong S-specific T-cell response in mice. Intranasal immunization with rNDV-S1 provoked a robust T-cell response but barely any detectable antibodies. Overall, the NDV-vectored vaccine candidates were able to induce profound humoral and cellular immunity, which will provide a good system for developing vaccines targeting both T-cell and antibody responses.

7.
Cell Discov ; 8(1): 136, 2022 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185788

ABSTRACT

The effects of different SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations and variant infection histories on imprinting population immunity and their influence on emerging escape mutants remain unclear. We found that Omicron (BA.1) breakthrough infection, regardless of vaccination with two-dose mRNA vaccines (M-M-o) or two-dose inactivated vaccines (I-I-o), led to higher neutralizing antibody levels against different variants and stronger T-cell responses than Delta breakthrough infection after two-dose inactivated vaccine vaccination (I-I-δ). Furthermore, different vaccination-infection patterns imprinted virus-specific T-cell differentiation; M-M-ο showed higher S/M/N/E-specific CD4+ T cells and less portion of virus-specific CD45RA+CD27-CD8+ T cells by ex vivo assay. Breakthrough infection groups showed higher proliferation and multi-function capacity by in vitro assay than three-dose inactivated vaccine inoculated group (I-I-I). Thus, under wide vaccination coverage, the higher immunogenicity with the Omicron variant may have helped to eliminate the population of Delta variant. Overall, our data contribute to our understanding of immune imprinting in different sub-populations and may guide future vaccination programs.

8.
EClinicalMedicine ; 54: 101680, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2158748

ABSTRACT

Background: More effective vaccine candidates against variants of concern as a booster dose are needed in people primed with two-dose inactivated COVID-19 vaccines. Methods: This randomised, double-blinded, investigator-initiated phase 2 trial aims to evaluate immunogenicity, durability, and safety of an mRNA vaccine candidate (RQ3013) and three other platform vaccines (an adenovirus-vectored vaccine candidate [ChAdTS-S], a recombinant protein vaccine candidate [ZR202-CoV], and an inactivated vaccine [CoronaVac]) as a booster. 250 eligible volunteers, who had received a prime two-dose CoronaVac (3 to 5 weeks apart) vaccination 100-270 days before, were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1:1:1 ratio to receive a third dose of RQ3013 (30 µg mRNA per 0.15 mL), ChAdTS-S (5×1010 viral particles per 0.5 mL), ZR202-CoV (25 µg prefusion-stabilized Spike ectodomain trimer per 0.5 mL), CoronaVac (3 µg inactivated CN02 strain of SARS-CoV-2 per 0.5 mL) or placebo (0.5 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride solution) via intramuscular injection into the upper arm at a single clinical site in Kunming, China. Participants, investigators, and immunogenicity laboratory were masked to group assignment. The primary immunogenicity outcomes were geometric mean titres (GMTs) of neutralising antibodies against live SARS-CoV-2 (wild-type, delta and omicron) virus at day 0 (before vaccination), day 7, day 14 and day 28 after vaccination, as analysed in a modified intention-to-treat (mITT) population (all participants who completed their booster doses and had at least one post-dose immunogenicity data). Secondary outcomes include T cell responses against the wild-type and omicron SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein. The primary safety outcome was incidence of adverse events within 14 days after the booster vaccination. This trial is registered with ChiCTR.org.cn, ChiCTR2200057758. Findings: Between January 1, 2022, and February 28, 2022, 235 eligible participants were enrolled and vaccinated, and the primary analysis included 234 participants. At baseline, neutralising antibodies against wild-type virus, the delta, or omicron variants were low or undetectable in all groups. After the booster vaccination, GMTs of neutralising antibodies ranged from 75.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 61.4-92.5) in CoronaVac to 950.1 (95% CI 785.4-1149.3) in RQ3013 against live wild-type SARS-CoV-2, and from 8.1 (95% CI: 6.1-10.7) in CoronaVac to 247.0 (95% CI 194.1-314.3) in RQ3013 against the omicron variant at day 14. Immunogenicities of all heterologous regimens were superior to that of homologous regimen in neutralisation against all tested SARS-CoV-2 strains, with RQ3013 showing the highest geometric mean ratios (GMRs) of 12.6, 14.7, and 31.3 against the wild-type, the delta variant and the omicron variant compared to CoronaVac at day 14 post-vaccination, respectively. Durability analysis at day 90 showed that >90% of participants in RQ3013 and ZR202-CoV were seropositive for the omicron variant while ZR202-CoV with adjuvants containing CpG showed a slightly better durability than RQ3013. T cell responses specific to the omicron variant were similar to that of the wild-type, with RQ3013 showing the highest boosting effect. Any solicited injection site or systemic adverse events reported within 14 days after vaccination were most commonly observed in RQ3013 (47/47, 100%), followed by ZR202-CoV (46/47, 97.9%) and ChAdTS-S (43/48, 89.6%), and then CoronaVac (37/46, 80.4%) and placebo (21/47, 44.7%). More than 90% of the adverse events were grade 1 (mild) or 2 (moderate) with a typical resolution time of 3 days. No grade 4 adverse events or serious adverse events were reported by study vaccines. Interpretation: Although all study vaccines boosted neutralising antibodies with no safety concerns, RQ3013 showed much stronger cross-neutralisation and cellular responses, adding more effective vaccine candidates against the omicron variant. Funding: Yunnan Provincial Science and Technology Department China (202102AA100051 and 202003AC100010), the Double First-class University funding to Yunnan University, National Natural Science Foundation of China (81960116, 82060368 and 82170711), Yunnan Natural Science Foundation (202001AT070085), High-level Health Technical Personnel Project of Yunnan Province (H-2018102) and Spring City Plan: The High-level Talent Promotion and Training Project of Kunming.

9.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 377, 2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119328

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection generally gives rise to asymptomatic to moderate COVID-19 in vaccinated people. The immune cells can be reprogrammed or "imprinted" by vaccination and infections to generate protective immunity against subsequent challenges. Considering the immune imprint in Omicron infection is unclear, here we delineate the innate immune landscape of human Omicron infection via single-cell RNA sequencing, surface proteome profiling, and plasma cytokine quantification. We found that monocyte responses predominated in immune imprints of Omicron convalescents, with IL-1ß-associated and interferon (IFN)-responsive signatures with mild and moderate symptoms, respectively. Low-density neutrophils increased and exhibited IL-1ß-associated and IFN-responsive signatures similarly. Mild convalescents had increased blood IL-1ß, CCL4, IL-9 levels and PI3+ neutrophils, indicating a bias to IL-1ß responsiveness, while moderate convalescents had increased blood CXCL10 and IFN-responsive monocytes, suggesting durative IFN responses. Therefore, IL-1ß- or IFN-responsiveness of myeloid cells may indicate the disease severity of Omicron infection and mediate post-COVID conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Cytokines , Immunity, Innate/genetics
10.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 2689-2697, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051172

ABSTRACT

The rapid widespread Omicron subvariant BA.5 of SARS-CoV-2 has become a potential imminent pandemic threat, but available vaccines lack high efficacy against this subvariant. Thus, it is urgent to find highly protective vaccination strategies within available SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Here, by using a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus neutralization assay, we demonstrated that the aerosol inhalation of adenoviral vector COVID-19 vaccine after two dose of inactivated vaccine (I-I-Ad5) led to higher levels of neutralizing antibodies against D614G strain (2041.00[95% CI, 1243.00-3351.00] vs 249.00[149.10-415.70]), Omicron BA.2 (467.10[231.00-944.40] vs 72.21[39.31-132.70]), BA.2.12.1(348.5[180.3-673.4] vs 53.17[31.29-90.37]), BA.2.13 (410.40[190.70-883.3] vs 48.48[27.87-84.32]), and BA.5 (442.40 vs 56.08[35.14-89.51]) than three inactivated vaccine doses (I-I-I). Additionally, the level of neutralizing antibodies against BA.5 induced by I-I-Ad5 was 2.41-fold higher than those boosted by a third dose of RBD subunit vaccine (I-I-S) (p = 0.1308). The conventional virus neutralizing assay confirmed that I-I-Ad5 induced higher titre of neutralizing antibodies than I-I-I (116.80[84.51-161.5] vs 4.40[4.00-4.83]). In addition, I-I-Ad5 induced higher, but later, anti-RBD IgG and IgA in plasma than I-I-I. Our study verified that mucosal immunization with aerosol inhalation of adenoviral vector COVID-19 vaccine may be an effective strategy to control the probable wave of BA.5 pandemic in addition to two inactivated vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccines, Inactivated , Adenoviridae/genetics
11.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(5): e0226322, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019798

ABSTRACT

We investigated the distribution, virulence, and pathogenic characteristics of mutated SARS-CoV-2 to clarify the association between virulence and the viral spreading ability of current and future circulating strains. Chinese rhesus macaques were infected with ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strain GD108 and Beta variant B.1.351 (B.1.351) and assessed for clinical signs, viral distribution, pathological changes, and pulmonary inflammation. We found that GD108 replicated more efficiently in the upper respiratory tract, whereas B.1.351 replicated more efficiently in the lower respiratory tract and lung tissue, implying a reduced viral shedding and spreading ability of B.1.351 compared with that of GD108. Importantly, B.1.351 caused more severe lung injury and dramatically elevated the level of inflammatory cytokines compared with those observed after infection with GD108. Moreover, both B.1.351 and GD108 induced spike-specific T-cell responses at an early stage of infection, with higher levels of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the B.1.351 group and higher levels of interleukin 17 (IL-17) in the GD108 group, indicating a divergent pattern in the T-cell-mediated inflammatory "cytokine storm." This study provides a basis for exploring the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) and establishes an applicable animal model for evaluating the efficacy and safety of vaccines and drugs. IMPORTANCE One of the priorities of the current SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and drug research strategy is to determine the changes in transmission ability, virulence, and pathogenic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 variants. In addition, nonhuman primates (NHPs) are suitable animal models for the study of the pathogenic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and could contribute to the understanding of pathogenicity and transmission mechanisms. As SARS-CoV-2 variants continually emerge and the viral biological characteristics change frequently, the establishment of NHP infection models for different VOCs is urgently needed. In the study, the virulence and tissue distribution of B.1.351 and GD108 were comprehensively studied in NHPs. We concluded that the B.1.351 strain was more virulent but exhibited less viral shedding than the latter. This study provides a basis for determining the pathogenic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and establishes an applicable animal model for evaluating the efficacy and safety of vaccines and drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Interleukin-17 , Virus Shedding , Virulence , COVID-19 Vaccines , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Macaca mulatta , Interferon-gamma , Disease Models, Animal
12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 814365, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952314

ABSTRACT

To effectively control and prevent the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), suitable vaccines have been researched and developed rapidly. Currently, 31 COVID-19 vaccines have been approved for emergency use or authorized for conditional marketing, with more than 9.3 billion doses of vaccines being administered globally. However, the continuous emergence of variants with high transmissibility and an ability to escape the immune responses elicited by vaccines poses severe challenges to the effectiveness of approved vaccines. Hundreds of new COVID-19 vaccines based on different technology platforms are in need of a quick evaluation for their efficiencies. Selection and enrollment of a suitable sample of population for conducting these clinical trials is often challenging because the pandemic so widespread and also due to large scale vaccination. To overcome these hurdles, methods of evaluation of vaccine efficiency based on establishment of surrogate endpoints could expedite the further research and development of vaccines. In this review, we have summarized the studies on neutralizing antibody responses and effectiveness of the various COVID-19 vaccines. Using this data we have analyzed the feasibility of establishing surrogate endpoints for evaluating the efficacy of vaccines based on neutralizing antibody titers. The considerations discussed here open up new avenues for devising novel approaches and strategies for the research and develop as well as application of COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Biomarkers , COVID-19/prevention & control , Feasibility Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 132, 2022 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805597

ABSTRACT

Understanding the decay and maintenance of long-term SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies in infected or vaccinated people and how vaccines protect against other SARS-CoV-2 variants is critical for assessing public vaccination plans. Here, we measured different plasm antibody levels 2 and 12 months after disease onset, including anti-RBD, anti-N, total neutralizing antibodies, and two neutralizing-antibody clusters. We found that total neutralizing antibodies declined more slowly than total anti-RBD and anti-N IgG, and the two neutralizing-antibody clusters decayed even more slowly than total neutralizing antibodies. Interestingly, the level of neutralizing antibodies at 12 months after disease onset was significantly lower than that at 2 months but more broadly neutralized SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Lambda (C.37). Significant immune escape by the Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) was also observed 2 months post-recovery. Furthermore, we revealed that a high percentage of virus-specific CD4+ T cells and cTfh1 were associated with a slower decline in humoral immunity, accompanied by higher levels of CXCR3 ligands such as CXCL9 and CXCL10, higher frequency of cTfh1, and lower levels of cTfh2 and cTfh17. Our data highlight the importance of coordinating T-cell and humoral immunity to achieve long-term protective immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Humans , T-Lymphocytes
15.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 829-840, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713526

ABSTRACT

Waned vaccine-induced immunity and emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 variants with potential for immune escape pose a major threat to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Here, we showed that humoral immunity components, including anti-S + N, anti-RBD IgG, and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), gradually waned and decreased the neutralizing capacity against emerging Omicron variants at 3 and 6 months after two inactivated COVID-19 vaccinations. We evaluated two boosting strategies with either a third dose of inactivated vaccine (homologous, I-I-I) or a recombinant subunit vaccine (heterologous, I-I-S). Both strategies induced the production of high levels of NAbs with a broad neutralizing capacity and longer retention. Interestingly, I-I-S induced 3.5-fold to 6.8-fold higher NAb titres than I-I-I, with a broader neutralizing capacity against six variants of concern, including Omicron. Further immunological analysis revealed that the two immunization strategies differ considerably, not only in the magnitude of total NAbs produced, but also in the composite pattern of NAbs and the population of virus-specific CD4+ T cells produced. Additionally, in some cases, heterologous boosted immunity induced the production of more effective epitopes than natural infection. The level of I-I-S-induced NAbs decreased to 48% and 18% at 1 and 3 months after booster vaccination, respectively. Overall, our data provide important evidence for vaccination strategies based on available vaccines and may help guide future global vaccination plans.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 , T-Lymphocytes , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Subunit
16.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 21(4): 471-481, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1647981

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Major emergent infectious diseases (MEID) pose the most serious threat to human health. The research proposes targeted response strategies for the prevention and control of potential MEID. AREAS COVERED: Based on the analysis of infectious diseases, this research analyzes pandemics that have a high probability of occurrence and aims to synthesize the past experience and lessons learned of controlling infectious diseases such as coronavirus, influenza, Ebola, etc. In addition, by integrating major infectious disease response guidelines developed by WHO, the European Union, the United States, and the United Kingdom, we intend to bring forward national vaccine R&D development strategies for emergency use. EXPERT OPINION: We advise to establish and improve existing laws, regulations, and also prevention and control systems for the emergent R&D and application of vaccines in response to potential infectious diseases. The strategies would not only help increase the various abilities in response to the research, development, evaluation, production, and supervision of emergency vaccines, but also establish surrogate endpoint of immunogenicity protection in early clinical studies to enable a rapid evaluation of the efficacy of emergency vaccines.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 771638, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551556

ABSTRACT

Background: Public health measures (such as wearing masks, physical distancing, and isolation) have significantly reduced the spread of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), but the impact of public health measures on other respiratory infectious diseases is unclear. Objective: To assess the correlation between public health measures and the incidence of respiratory infectious diseases in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: We collected the data from the National Health and Construction Commission in China on the number of patients with six respiratory infectious diseases (measles, tuberculosis, pertussis, scarlet fever, influenza, and mumps) from 2017 to 2020 and assessed the correlation between public health measures and the incidence of respiratory infectious diseases. Finally, we used the data of the six respiratory infectious diseases in 2021 to verify our results. Results: We found public health measures significantly reduced the incidence of measles (p = 0.002), tuberculosis (p = 0.002), pertussis (p = 0.004), scarlet fever (p = 0.002), influenza (p = 0.034), and mumps (p = 0.002) in 2020, and prevented seasonal peaks. Moreover, the effects of public health measures were most marked during the peak seasons for these infections. Of the six respiratory infectious diseases considered, tuberculosis was least affected by public health measures. Conclusion: Public health measures were very effective in reducing the incidence of respiratory infectious diseases, especially when the respiratory infectious diseases would normally have been at their peak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
18.
ERJ Open Res ; 7(2)2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172825

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 patient airways plugged by MUC5AC-containing mucus exhibit hyperplasia of goblet cells, and hypoplasia of multiciliated cells and club cells, as well as significantly reduced CC16 and MUC5B levels, and increased IL-13 levels https://bit.ly/2M2NcdO.

19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1724, 2021 03 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142439

ABSTRACT

T-cell immunity is important for recovery from COVID-19 and provides heightened immunity for re-infection. However, little is known about the SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell immunity in virus-exposed individuals. Here we report virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell memory in recovered COVID-19 patients and close contacts. We also demonstrate the size and quality of the memory T-cell pool of COVID-19 patients are larger and better than those of close contacts. However, the proliferation capacity, size and quality of T-cell responses in close contacts are readily distinguishable from healthy donors, suggesting close contacts are able to gain T-cell immunity against SARS-CoV-2 despite lacking a detectable infection. Additionally, asymptomatic and symptomatic COVID-19 patients contain similar levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell memory. Overall, this study demonstrates the versatility and potential of memory T cells from COVID-19 patients and close contacts, which may be important for host protection.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/blood , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Interferon-gamma/biosynthesis , Interferon-gamma/immunology
20.
J. virol ; 94(15), 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-762192

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe acute respiratory disease in humans. MERS-CoV strains from early epidemic clade A and contemporary epidemic clade B have not been phenotypically characterized to compare their abilities to infect cells and mice. We isolated the clade B MERS-CoV ChinaGD01 strain from a patient infected during the South Korean MERS outbreak in 2015 and compared the phylogenetics and pathogenicity of MERS-CoV EMC/2012 (clade A) and ChinaGD01 (clade B) in vitro and in vivo Genome alignment analysis showed that most clade-specific mutations occurred in the orf1ab gene, including mutations that were predicted to be potential glycosylation sites. Minor differences in viral growth but no significant differences in plaque size or sensitivity to beta interferon (IFN-ß) were detected between these two viruses in vitro ChinaGD01 virus infection induced more weight loss and inflammatory cytokine production in human DPP4-transduced mice. Viral titers were higher in the lungs of ChinaGD01-infected mice than with EMC/2012 infection. Decreased virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell numbers were detected in the lungs of ChinaGD01-infected mice. In conclusion, MERS-CoV evolution induced changes to reshape its pathogenicity and virulence in vitro and in vivo and to evade adaptive immune response to hinder viral clearance.IMPORTANCE MERS-CoV is an important emerging pathogen and causes severe respiratory infection in humans. MERS-CoV strains from early epidemic clade A and contemporary epidemic clade B have not been phenotypically characterized to compare their abilities to infect cells and mice. In this study, we showed that a clade B virus ChinaGD01 strain caused more severe disease in mice, with delayed viral clearance, increased inflammatory cytokines, and decreased antiviral T cell responses, than the early clade A virus EMC/2012. Given the differences in pathogenicity of different clades of MERS-CoV, periodic assessment of currently circulating MERS-CoV is needed to monitor potential severity of zoonotic disease.

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