Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 5 de 5
Filter
1.
mBio ; : e0378821, 2022 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673352

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the global outbreak of COVID-19. Evidence suggests that the virus is evolving to allow efficient spread through the human population, including vaccinated individuals. Here, we report a study of viral variants from surveillance of the Delaware Valley, including the city of Philadelphia, and variants infecting vaccinated subjects. We sequenced and analyzed complete viral genomes from 2621 surveillance samples from March 2020 to September 2021 and compared them to genome sequences from 159 vaccine breakthroughs. In the early spring of 2020, all detected variants were of the B.1 and closely related lineages. A mixture of lineages followed, notably including B.1.243 followed by B.1.1.7 (alpha), with other lineages present at lower levels. Later isolations were dominated by B.1.617.2 (delta) and other delta lineages; delta was the exclusive variant present by the last time sampled. To investigate whether any variants appeared preferentially in vaccine breakthroughs, we devised a model based on Bayesian autoregressive moving average logistic multinomial regression to allow rigorous comparison. This revealed that B.1.617.2 (delta) showed 3-fold enrichment in vaccine breakthrough cases (odds ratio of 3; 95% credible interval 0.89-11). Viral point substitutions could also be associated with vaccine breakthroughs, notably the N501Y substitution found in the alpha, beta and gamma variants (odds ratio 2.04; 95% credible interval of1.25-3.18). This study thus overviews viral evolution and vaccine breakthroughs in the Delaware Valley and introduces a rigorous statistical approach to interrogating enrichment of breakthrough variants against a changing background. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is highly effective at reducing viral infection, hospitalization and death. However, vaccine breakthrough infections have been widely observed, raising the question of whether particular viral variants or viral mutations are associated with breakthrough. Here, we report analysis of 2621 surveillance isolates from people diagnosed with COVID-19 in the Delaware Valley in southeastern Pennsylvania, allowing rigorous comparison to 159 vaccine breakthrough case specimens. Our best estimate is a 3-fold enrichment for some lineages of delta among breakthroughs, and enrichment of a notable spike substitution, N501Y. We introduce statistical methods that should be widely useful for evaluating vaccine breakthroughs and other viral phenotypes.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e3027-e3032, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500994

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), can be detected in respiratory samples by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or other molecular methods. Accessibility of diagnostic testing for COVID-19 has been limited by intermittent shortages of supplies required for testing, including flocked nasopharyngeal (FLNP) swabs. METHODS: We developed a 3-dimensional printed nasopharyngeal (3DP) swab as a replacement of the FLNP swab. The performance of 3DP and FLNP swabs were compared in a clinical trial of symptomatic patients at 3 clinical sites (n = 291) using 3 SARS-CoV-2 emergency use authorization tests: a modified version of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) RT-PCR Diagnostic Panel and 2 commercial automated formats, Roche Cobas and NeuMoDx. RESULTS: The cycle threshold-C(t)-values from the gene targets and the RNase P gene control in the CDC assay showed no significant differences between swabs for both gene targets (P = .152 and P = .092), with the RNase P target performing significantly better in the 3DP swabs (P < .001). The C(t) values showed no significant differences between swabs for both viral gene targets in the Roche cobas assay (P = .05 and P = .05) as well as the NeuMoDx assay (P = .401 and P = .484). The overall clinical correlation of COVID-19 diagnosis between all methods was 95.88% (Kappa 0.901). CONCLUSIONS: The 3DP swabs were equivalent to standard FLNP in 3 testing platforms for SARS-CoV-2. Given the need for widespread testing, 3DP swabs printed onsite are an alternate to FLNP that can rapidly scale in response to acute needs when supply chain disruptions affect availability of collection kits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Humans , Nasopharynx , Printing, Three-Dimensional , SARS-CoV-2 , Specimen Handling
3.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(2)2021 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042274

ABSTRACT

Highly accurate testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) at the point of care (POC) is an unmet diagnostic need in emergency care and time-sensitive outpatient care settings. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) technology is the gold standard for SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics. We performed a multisite U.S. study comparing the clinical performance of the first U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-authorized POC RT-PCR for detection of SARS-CoV-2 in 20 min, the cobas Liat SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A/B nucleic acid test, to the most widely used RT-PCR laboratory test, the cobas 68/8800 SARS-CoV-2 test. Clinical nasopharyngeal swab specimens from 444 patients with 357 evaluable specimens at five U.S. clinical laboratories were enrolled from 21 September 2020 to 23 October 2020. The overall agreement between the Liat and 68/8800 systems for SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics was 98.6% (352/357). Using Liat, positive percent agreement for SARS-CoV-2 was 100% (162/162) and the negative percent agreement was 97.4% (190/195). The Liat is an RT-PCR POC test that provides highly accurate SARS-CoV-2 results in 20 min with performance equivalent to that of high-throughput laboratory molecular testing. Rapid RT-PCR testing at the POC can enable more timely infection control and individual care decisions for coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Systems , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/instrumentation , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Time Factors , United States
4.
Biopsychosoc Med ; 14: 22, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-781492

ABSTRACT

Due to the high pathogenicity and mortality, the COVID-19 disaster caused global panic and anxiety. At present, diagnosis and treatment are of great concern. As time progresses, however, the sequelae caused by many other organ system complications and treatments will become increasingly obvious, and psychosomatic symptoms are one of these changes with great potential impact. Studies have shown that symptoms like poor sleep quality, anxiety and even delirium are not uncommon in patients during isolation. By summarizing the follow-up study on mental and psychological health of SARS in the past 10 years, and combining the characteristics of the existing cases of COVID-19, we will provide suggestions for the prevention and treatment of psychological diseases in clinical practice.

5.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 91(8): 846-848, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-154812

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emergence of the novel corona virus (severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2) in December 2019 has led to the COVID-19 pandemic. The extent of COVID-19 involvement in the central nervous system is not well established, and the presence or the absence of SARS-CoV-2 particles in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a topic of debate. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present two patients with COVID-19 and concurrent neurological symptoms. Our first patient is a 31-year-old man who had flu-like symptoms due to COVID-19 and later developed an acute-onset severe headache and loss of consciousness and was diagnosed with a Hunt and Hess grade 3 subarachnoid haemorrhage from a ruptured aneurysm. Our second patient is a 62-year-old woman who had an ischaemic stroke with massive haemorrhagic conversion requiring a decompressive hemicraniectomy. Both patients' CSF was repeatedly negative on real-time PCR analysis despite concurrent neurological disease. CONCLUSION: Our report shows that patients' CSF may be devoid of viral particles even when they test positive for COVID-19 on a nasal swab. Whether SARS-CoV-2 is present in CSF may depend on the systemic disease severity and the degree of the virus' nervous tissue tropism and should be examined in future studies.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/cerebrospinal fluid , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/cerebrospinal fluid , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Stroke/complications , Stroke/virology , Adult , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/cerebrospinal fluid
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL