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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 819: 153043, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1619721

ABSTRACT

Wet markets sell fresh food and are a global phenomenon. They are important for food security in many regions worldwide but have come under scrutiny due to their potential role in the emergence of infectious diseases. The sale of live wildlife has been highlighted as a particular risk, and the World Health Organisation has called for the banning of live, wild-caught mammalian species in markets unless risk assessment and effective regulations are in place. Following PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a global scoping review of peer-reviewed information about the sale of live, terrestrial wildlife in markets that are likely to sell fresh food, and collated data about the characteristics of such markets, activities involving live wildlife, the species sold, their purpose, and animal, human, and environmental health risks that were identified. Of the 56 peer-reviewed records within scope, only 25% (n = 14) focussed on disease risks; the rest focused on the impact of wildlife sale on conservation. Although there were some global patterns (for example, the types of markets and purpose of sale of wildlife), there was wide diversity and huge epistemic uncertainty in all aspects associated with live, terrestrial wildlife sale in markets such that the feasibility of accurate assessment of the risk of emerging infectious disease associated with live wildlife trade in markets is currently limited. Given the value of both wet markets and wildlife trade and the need to support food affordability and accessibility, conservation, public health, and the social and economic aspects of livelihoods of often vulnerable people, there are major information gaps that need to be addressed to develop evidence-based policy in this environment. This review identifies these gaps and provides a foundation from which information for risk assessments can be collected.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild , Communicable Diseases , Animals , Commerce , Public Health , Zoonoses
2.
Aust Vet J ; 100(6): 243-253, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sickness presenteeism in the veterinary profession potentially jeopardises the wellbeing of veterinary team members and endangers quality of patient care. In veterinary team members with influenza-like illness (ILI), sickness presenteeism poses a risk to the health and wellbeing of colleagues and clients, particularly in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to evaluate factors associated with sickness presenteeism in NSW registered veterinarians suffering from ILI, both before and since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Veterinarians registered in NSW were invited to complete an anonymous online mixed-methods survey between 31 March 2021 and 31 June 2021, regarding sickness presenteeism and absenteeism associated with ILI. The questionnaire was distributed through online and print newsletters of the Australian Veterinary Association NSW Branch and the NSW Veterinary Practitioners Board. RESULTS: From a total of 122 participants, 81 veterinarians (66.4%) reported that they would attend work despite displaying symptoms of ILI. Most veterinarians would stay at home with a fever alone (n = 108, 88.5%), however, many would still attend work with a sore throat (n = 121, 99.2%) or a dry cough (n = 91, 74.6%). Sickness presenteeism was significantly associated with lack of staff to cover workers. Although sickness presenteeism remained common, participants reported that they were less likely to attend work with symptoms of ILI since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. DISCUSSION: The data are discussed in relation to sickness presenteeism in healthcare workers. These findings underscore an urgent need for relief staff to decrease sickness presenteeism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Veterinarians , Animals , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , New South Wales/epidemiology , Pandemics , Presenteeism , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Aust Vet J ; 100(1-2): 79-81, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467540

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictions have caused major changes in veterinary practice. Utilising a subset of qualitative data from a global survey of 540 veterinarians, veterinary nurses and animal health technicians, we highlight the impact of these changes on communication in veterinary clinical practice. Communication challenges experienced by veterinary team members included lack of face-to-face contact with clients; increased difficulty in communicating in general; inability to demonstrate physical examination, diagnostic findings or treatment information to clients; difficulty in communicating while wearing personal protective equipment; increased 'miscommunication' and challenges in convincing clients of the importance of pandemic-associated protocols. These findings suggest a need for veterinary teams to modify and adapt their communication strategies to facilitate effective communication where social distancing and noncontact consultations are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Veterinarians , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Communication , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Prev Vet Med ; 174: 104817, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-826992

ABSTRACT

Canine Parvovirus (CPV) causes severe morbidity and mortality in dogs, particularly puppies, worldwide. Although vaccination is highly efficacious in preventing disease, cases continue to occur and vaccination failures are well documented. Maternally derived antibody interference is the leading cause of vaccination failure and age at vaccine administration is a significant risk factor for failure. However, no studies have been performed on practicing veterinarians' usage of and compliance with published vaccination guidelines and label recommendations. Likewise, there are no published studies of veterinarian perceptions on CPV occurrence and mortality and its influence on case outcome. We report a study in which all Australian small companion animal (canine and feline) veterinary hospitals were surveyed, yielding a response rate of 23.5% (534 unique veterinary hospitals). Respondents overall perceived national CPV occurrence ten-times lower (median 2000 cases) than the estimated national caseload (20,000 cases). Respondents from hospitals that did not diagnose CPV perceived national occurrence twenty-times lower (median 1000 cases) than the estimated rate (p < 0.0001). Perceived disease mortality (50%) was 2.74 times higher than that reported (18.2%). In addition, 26.7% of veterinarians reported using serological titer testing to some degree, which some practitioners use in lieu of vaccination if a titer is perceived to reflect sufficient immunity. Based on this study veterinarians appear to be aware of the disease risk in their region but unaware of the burden of CPV disease nationally, and perceive mortality risk higher than it actually is. This might lead to an overestimation of cost to treat, and over-recommendation of euthanasia. Nearly half (48.7%) of respondents recommended final puppy vaccination earlier than guidelines recommend, while 2.8% of respondents recommended a puppy re-vaccination interval longer than supported by vaccine labels and guidelines. Both of these practices may put puppies at risk of CPV infection.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control , Dog Diseases/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Parvoviridae Infections/veterinary , Parvovirus, Canine , Veterinarians/psychology , Animals , Australia/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Dogs , Mortality , Parvoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Parvoviridae Infections/prevention & control , Parvoviridae Infections/psychology , Prevalence
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