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Diabetes Care ; 44(7): 1540-1546, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1229141


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes without evidence of autoimmunity and the respective frequencies of ketoacidosis in children, adolescents, and young adults during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Germany compared with the previous decade. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Based on data from the German Diabetes Prospective Follow-up Registry (DPV), we compared data from 715 children, adolescents, and young adults, newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany between 1 March and 30 June 2020, with data from 5,428 children, adolescents, and young adults of the same periods from 2011 to 2019. Adjusted differences and relative risks (RRs) of negative ß-cell autoantibody test results and diabetic ketoacidosis were estimated using multivariable log-binomial regression analysis. An upper noninferiority test (margin 1%) was applied to evaluate whether the autoantibody-negativity rate in 2020 was not higher than that in 2011 to 2019. RESULTS: The estimated frequencies of autoantibody negativity in 2020 and 2011-2019 were 6.6% (95% CI 5.1-8.4) and 7.2% (95% CI 6.5-8.0), respectively, with an absolute difference of -0.68% (90% CI -2.07 to 0.71; P upper noninferiority = 0.023). The increase of the estimated frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis during the COVID-19 pandemic was similar between autoantibody-negative and -positive type 1 diabetes (adjusted RRs 1.28 [95% CI 0.80-2.05] and 1.57 [1.41-1.75], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study found no evidence that the COVID-19 pandemic leads to a significantly increased number of new cases with autoantibody-negative type 1 diabetes in children, adolescents, and young adults. In addition, autoantibody-negative type 1 diabetes showed no particular susceptibility to ketoacidosis, neither before nor during the pandemic.

COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Adolescent , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
Monatsschr Kinderheilkd ; 169(5): 451-460, 2021.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1047207


BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening emergency in children and adolescents with manifestation of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) and often associated with delayed diagnosis or previous diagnostic errors. During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown period in Germany, less patients presented at emergency departments and private practices. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the DKA risk in children and adolescents with DM1 manifestation during the COVID-19 lockdown and associated risk factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The frequency of DKA at DM1 onset in patients <18 years between 13 March and 13 May 2020 in pediatric diabetes centers was analyzed. The centers also documented their assessment, if the presentation was delayed or the diagnosis was not made on the first medical consultation. In order to analyze the influence of the risk factors on the frequency of DKA, the data from 2020 were compared with the same periods in 2018 and 2019 using multivariable linear and logistic regression. RESULTS: The data of 532 patients from 216 diabetes centers showed that the risk for DKA increased by 84.7% and the risk for severe DKA increased by 45.3% compared to the years 2018/2019. Children <6 years had the highest risk with an 141.6% increase for DKA and 97.0% for severe DKA compared to the previous years. Migration background was a risk factor independent of COVID-19. Of the patients 31% had either a delayed presentation or a missed diagnosis. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 lockdown the frequency of DKA and severe DKA at DM1 onset was significantly increased for children and adolescents in Germany. Age <6 years, migration background and delayed diagnosis were the main risk factors.