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1.
Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings ; : 1-4, 2022.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-2106914
2.
Journal of Affective Disorders ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2082583

ABSTRACT

Background The prevalence of depression symptoms among U.S. adults increased dramatically during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. We sought to understand the impact of the pandemic on people with a history of depression. Methods In June 2020, a national sample of 5023 U.S. adults, including 760 reporting past/current diagnoses of depression, completed survey measures related to the COVID experience, coping, anxiety, depression, and PTSD. Results After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, a history of depression increased the odds of negative effects of pandemic on multiple aspects of life: routines, access to mental health treatment, alcohol use, prescription painkiller use, and other drug use. Those with a history of depression also scored significantly higher on the PHQ-8, GAD-7, and PDS-5 (all ps < 0.0001). Greater use of adaptive coping strategies was significantly associated with lower scores, and greater use of maladaptive strategies with higher scores. Individuals reporting a history of depression reported greater use of both adaptive and maladaptive strategies. Conclusions Adaptive coping strategies appear to be protective and help regulate symptomatology, suggesting that particular focus during the clinical encounter on developing tools to promote well-being, alleviate stress, and decrease perceptions of helplessness could mitigate the effects.

3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1936, 2022 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079408

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little research is available regarding vaccination attitudes among those recently diagnosed with COVID-19. This is important to investigate, particularly among those experiencing mild-to-moderate illness, given the ongoing need to improve uptake of both initial vaccine series and booster doses, and the divergent ways such an experience could impact attitudes. METHODS: From September 3 - November 12, 2021, all patients enrolled in Baylor Scott & White's "COVID-19 Digital Care Journey for Home Monitoring" were invited to participate in an online survey that included questions about vaccination status and attitudes/opinions regarding COVID-19 and the COVID-19 vaccines. Following an item asking about accordance of COVID-19 vaccination with religious/personal beliefs, participants were asked to describe those beliefs and how they relate to taking/not taking the vaccine. RESULTS: Of 8,075 patients age ≥ 18 years diagnosed with COVID-19 and invited to join the survey during the study period, 3242 (40.2%) were fully vaccinated. In contrast, among the 149 who completed the questionnaire, 95(63.8%) reported full vaccination. Responses differed significantly between vaccination groups. The vaccinated group strongly agreed that COVID-19 is a major public health problem, the vaccines are safe and effective, and their decision to vaccinate included considering community benefit. The unvaccinated group responded neutrally to most questions addressing safety and public health aspects of the vaccine, while strongly disagreeing with statements regarding vaccine effectiveness and other preventative public health measures. The vaccinated group strongly agreed that taking the vaccine accorded with their religious/personal beliefs, while the unvaccinated group was neutral. In qualitative analysis of the free text responses "risk perception/calculation" and "no impact" of religious/personal beliefs on vaccination decisions were frequent themes/subthemes in both groups, but beliefs related to the "greater good" were a strong driver among the vaccinated, while statements emphasizing "individual choice" were a third frequent theme for the unvaccinated. CONCLUSION: Our results show that two of the three factors that drive vaccine hesitancy (complacency, and lack of confidence in the vaccines) are present among unvaccinated adults recently diagnosed with COVID-19. They also show that beliefs emphasizing the importance of the greater good promote public health participation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
4.
Substance abuse : research and treatment ; 16, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2046634

ABSTRACT

Background: Mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic are well recognized, but little is known about the pandemic experience among people experiencing mental health symptoms. Methods: In June 2020, a national sample of 5023 U.S. adults, including 785 scoring ⩾10 on the PHQ-8 for symptoms of depression, completed survey measures related to their pandemic experience. Results: After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic experience for which participants scoring PHQ-8 ⩾ 10 had the greatest increase in odds of reporting moderate/severe negative impacts included: mental health treatment access (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.81, 6.70-11.57), family stress/discord (OR, 95% CI = 5.21, 4.24-6.42), food access (OR, 95% CI = 3.76, 2.97-4.77), and income/employment (OR, 95% CI = 3.19, 2.66-3.83). They were also significantly more likely to report increased use of prescription painkillers (OR, 95% CI = 8.46, 4.50-15.92) and other drugs (OR, 95% CI = 4.43, 2.85-6.89), and less trust in healthcare authorities/providers, family/friends, and employers, and more trust in websites/blogs/social media, for COVID-19 information (P-values < .05). Conclusions: The interplay among depressive symptoms, substance use, lack of trust in healthcare authorities, and negative impact of the pandemic on family, finances, and access to mental health treatment and food indicate the need for robust social and behavioral health safety nets to buffer communities from the shadow epidemics of depression, family violence, and overdose deaths during public health disasters.

5.
Health Psychol ; 2022 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016588

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Information regarding vaccination and the association with individuals' characteristics, experiences, and information sources is important for crafting public health campaigns to maximize uptake. Our objective was to investigate factors associated with intentions for COVID-19 vaccination among a sample of U.S. adults using a population-based cross-sectional survey. METHOD: Data were collected via an online questionnaire administered nationwide from January 4, to January 7, 2021 following the emergency use authorization for two SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-based vaccines. RESULTS: Of 936 U.S. adult respondents, 66% stated an intention to be vaccinated once a COVID-19 vaccine was available to them; 14.7% responded "maybe" and 19.6% "no." Unadjusted and multivariate associations revealed "no/maybe" vaccination intentions were associated with younger age, female, Black race, lower income, history of not receiving the influenza vaccine, lower fear of COVID-19, suffering moderate to severe reduction in access to food/nutrition, and lower trust in health care authorities, personal health care providers, and/or traditional news media as sources of COVID-19 information. Of respondents "maybe" intending to be vaccinated, 65% reported "a lot" of trust in personal health care providers as sources of COVID-19 information. Respondents stating "no" intention to be vaccinated were skeptical of all COVID-19 information sources considered. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm observations predating COVID-19 vaccine availability regarding sociodemographic characteristics associated with vaccine hesitancy in the United States. We further identify personal health care providers as the most trusted information source among people who "maybe" intend to get vaccinated and demonstrate the challenge in reaching people not intending to be vaccinated. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).

6.
Popul Health Manag ; 25(3): 384-391, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890830

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused disproportionate suffering among vulnerable and socioeconomically disadvantaged portions of the population. Low-income and minority populations are likely to experience disparate disease and mental health burdens. Currently, there is little evidence regarding how the experience of the early months of the US COVID-19 outbreak differed by income level, and how that related to mental health symptoms. The present study used data from a national sample of US adults (n = 5023) who completed measures related to the COVID experience, the COVID-19 Fear Scale, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), and the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8). Multivariable regression was performed to determine whether income level (low: <$45,000 vs high: ≥$75,000) was significantly associated with COVID experience measures, PHQ-8, GAD-7, and COVID fear scores. Among the low-income group, COVID-19 had a significantly greater negative impact on: family income/employment, access to food, access to mental health treatment, and stress and discord in the family. Participants in the low-income group also had greater odds of a PHQ-8 score ≥10 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08, 1.77) and a GAD-7 score ≥10 (OR = 1.65, 95% CI 1.27, 2.14) compared to those in the high-income group. Study findings suggest substantial differences in how COVID-19 impacted daily life and mental health between adults living in low-income households compared to high-earning households during the early months of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Anxiety , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/diagnosis , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(12)2022 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884199

ABSTRACT

Most studies of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among health care workers (HCWs) have been descriptive, few have tested models to predict hesitancy, and none have examined the possible relationship between HCWs' distress and vaccine hesitancy. This study examined predictors of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, including HCWs' distress after taking into account HCW sex, doctoral-level status, race, age, and exposure to COVID-19. Further, it examined specific reasons HCWs endorsed for their hesitancy. 266 HCWs in the United States (U.S.). completed an online survey administered in January 2021, following the availability of the vaccine for HCWs in the U.S. The survey assessed demographics, depression, anxiety, COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, and reasons for hesitancy. A comprehensive linear regression model explained 72.2% of the variance in COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. HCWs were more hesitant if they did not know someone personally who had tested positive. Distress had no effect. The reasons most predicting vaccine hesitancy included safety, potential side effects, believing the risks from COVID-19 were lower than from the vaccine, not feeling at risk for getting COVID-19, and current pregnancy. Rather than rely on providing information about the COVID-19 vaccines to HCWs, strategies that address their concerns are required to promote vaccine acceptance. Contemporary issues of political polarization, misinformation and mistrust are likely to contribute to the concerns HCWs have about the COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Vaccination , Vaccination Hesitancy
8.
Rehabil Psychol ; 67(2): 226-230, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773933

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Illness stigma has been observed across previous outbreaks including Ebola, SARS, HIV/AIDS, and now COVID-19. Although both the stigma of having COVID-19 as well as mental health impacts of COVID-19 have been studied, limited research exists regarding the relationship of stigma and mental health in this population. Thus, the primary purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between stigma and mental health in adults with COVID-19. METHOD: Adult respondents with a diagnosis of COVID-19 (N = 632) completed an online questionnaire distributed between April 17, 2020, and April 18, 2021. The study measures included the Patient Health Questionnaire 8 (PHQ-8), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7), and the 8-Item Stigma Scale for Chronic Illness (SSCI-8) tailored to measure perceived stigmatization from a COVID-19 diagnosis. RESULTS: Participants (mean age = 51) were mostly female (71%), White (73%), married (70%), obese (56%), and had a chronic health condition (56%). Female sex, education status, working from home or not working owing to COVID-19, previous mental health diagnosis, history of chronic illness, and being a current/former smoker were associated with higher stigma scores, whereas older age and Black race were associated with lower stigma scores. CONCLUSIONS: Greater stigma and psychological distress was observed in females with a previously diagnosed psychiatric illness and/or chronic health condition. Our findings suggest a disproportionate burden of mental health/psychiatric symptoms/sequelae, including stigma and PTSD, among COVID-19 survivors with a history of mental illness. Further studies are needed to fully characterize COVID-19 related stigma and subsequent mental health experiences. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Social Stigma
9.
Qual Life Res ; 31(9): 2819-2836, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772980

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Psychometric validity/reliability of 10-item and 2-item abbreviations of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10; CD-RISC-2) was investigated via item response theory and classic approaches. METHODS: We sampled 5023 adult American participants in a June/July 2020 survey on the COVID-19 pandemic's psychological effects. Our questionnaire incorporated the CD-RISC-10 with other validated measures. CD-RISC-10 items were ranked on item-to-scale correlations, loadings on a one-factor confirmatory factor analysis model, and item slope/threshold parameters plus information curves from a unidimensional graded response model. Concurrent validity of the highest ranked item pair was evaluated vis-à-vis the CD-RISC-10 and CD-RISC-2. Internal consistency, based on average variance extracted (AVE) and multiple reliability coefficients, was also compared. Convergent/divergent validity was tested by correlating anxiety, depression, fear of COVID-19, anxiety sensitivity, coping, and personality measures with both scales and the highest ranked item pair. Binary agreement/classification indexes assessed inter-rater reliability. RESULTS: Items 2 and 9 from CD-RISC-10 ranked the highest. Reliability coefficients were > 0.93, > 0.72, and > 0.82 for the CD-RISC-10, CD-RISC-2, vs summation of items 2 and 9. AVEs were 0.66, 0.67, and 0.77. CD-RISC abbreviations and the summation of items 2 and 9 correlated negatively with anxiety (> - 0.43), depression (> - 0.42), and fear of COVID-19 (> - 0.34); positively with emotional stability (> 0.53) and conscientiousness (> 0.40). Compared to the CD-RISC-2, summative scores of items 2 and 9 more efficiently classified/discriminated high resilience on the CD-RISC-10. CONCLUSION: We confirmed construct validity/reliability of copyrighted CD-RISC abbreviations. The CD-RISC-10's items 2 and 9 were psychometrically more salient than the CD-RISC-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Resilience, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Humans , Pandemics , Psychometrics , Quality of Life/psychology , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
11.
Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) ; 35(3): 309-314, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1679844

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted many usual processes for recruiting and enrolling research participants. We present our experience with electronic recruitment in a survey study investigating the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health. Adults (≥18 years) in communities served by Baylor Scott and White Health (BSWH) were recruited via patient portal messages sent to BSWH patients with confirmed/suspected COVID-19 as part of the "COVID-19 Digital Care Journey"; BSWH social media posts; other media; referral from other BSWH COVID-19 studies; and internal BSWH communications. Of 1279 enrolled participants, 996 (77.87%) were recruited via the Digital Care Journey and 124 (9.7%) via internal communications. The remaining strategies contributed <5% each. Social media and internal communications recruited larger proportions of those aged 18 to 34 and those with advanced degrees; other media, more racially diverse participants; and the Digital Care Journey and referral from other studies, predominantly participants positive for COVID-19. In terms of volume, the COVID-19 Digital Care Journey was the most successful strategy, particularly for individuals who had COVID-19. However, its dominance contributed to the overrepresentation of white, educated, and female participants. Thus, supplemental strategies to reach individuals not enrolled/engaging with the portal are necessary to achieve representativeness.

12.
J Ment Health ; : 1-8, 2022 Jan 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Substantial evidence is emerging regarding the broad societal and psychological impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, but little is known about whether infected individuals are differently affected. AIM: We evaluated psychological differences between individuals who do vs. do not report testing positive for COVID-19. METHODS: An online survey was offered to adults (≥18 years) who were diagnosed with COVID-19 by a provider within a large integrated-delivery healthcare system, enrolled in COVID-19-related clinical trials at the healthcare system, or responded to targeted local distribution. Measures assessed included the 8-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale, Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item Scale, and Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale for DSM-5. RESULTS: Of 487 respondents, 43% reported testing positive for COVID-19, including 11% requiring hospitalization. Overall rates of general anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress were 34% and 16%, respectively, with no significant differences between groups. Prevalence of depression was higher among respondents reporting a positive COVID-19 test (52% vs. 31%). This difference persisted after controlling for respondent characteristics (odds ratio = 3.7, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: People who report testing positive for COVID-19, even those not requiring hospitalization, have increased risk for depression. Mental health care screening and services should be offered to individuals testing positive, facilitating early intervention.

13.
Critical Care Medicine ; 50:42-42, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1592644

ABSTRACT

Work status accounts for significant variance in psychological outcomes across health care workers, essential workers and the general population, with health care workers reporting the least amount of psychological distress. B Conclusions: b This observational study of 5,023 individuals during the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic found health care workers did not experience higher rates of psychological distress compared to essential workers and the general public. When adjusted for work status, individuals who were unemployed due to COVID-19 had higher rates of anxiety, depression, PTSD and COVID-19 fear compared to those working (normal location or remotely). [Extracted from the article] Copyright of Critical Care Medicine is the property of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

14.
Psychiatry Res Commun ; 1(2): 100005, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487927

ABSTRACT

The primary purpose of this study was to determine variations in psychological experiences of the COVID-19 pandemic among US healthcare workers, non-healthcare essential workers, and the general population. A cross-sectional survey was conducted online from June 22, 2020 to July 5, 2020, with 5,023 participants aged 18 years and older. The prevalence of fear of COVID-19 and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder were evaluated, using the Fear of COVID-19 Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-8, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, and Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to explore sociodemographic and COVID-19-related risk factors. Using models unadjusted for working status, it was found healthcare workers endorsed less fear of COVID-19, depression, and PTSD symptoms, than the general public. After adjusting for working status, no further significant differences were found between occupational groups. Across all psychological distress outcomes, those who were not working or were unemployed due to COVID-19 reported more symptoms than did individuals who continued to work from their normal location or remotely. A similar trend was found for nurses and physicians, with members of both groups reporting symptoms of depression, anxiety, and PTSD less when working from their normal location than when unemployed due to COVID-19.

15.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 489, 2021 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455947

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has a detrimental effect on the health and well-being of health care workers (HCWs). The extent to which HCWs may differ in their experience of depression and anxiety is unclear, and longitudinal studies are lacking. The present study examined theorized differences in distress between resilient and non-resilient HCWs over time, as reported in a national online survey. We also examined possible differences in distress as a function of sex and doctoral-level status. METHODS: A national sample responded to an online survey data that included the study measures. Of the HCWs who responded, 666 had useable data at the two time points. A longitudinal structural equation model tested an a priori model that specified the relationship of a resilient personality prototype to self-reported resilience, coping, depression and anxiety at both measurement occasions. Additional invariance models examined possible differences by sex and doctoral-level status. RESULTS: The final model explained 46.4% of the variance in psychological distress at Time 1 and 69.1% at Time 2. A non-resilient personality prototype predicted greater depression and anxiety. A resilient personality prototype was predictive of and operated through self-reported resilience and less disengaged coping to effect lower distress. No effects were found for active coping, however. The final model was generally invariant by sex and HCWs status. Additional analyses revealed that non-doctoral level HCWs had significantly higher depression and anxiety than doctoral-level HCWs on both occasions. CONCLUSIONS: HCWs differ in their susceptibility to distress imposed by COVID-19. Those who are particularly vulnerable may have characteristics that contribute to a lower sense of confidence and efficacy in stressful situations, and more likely to rely on ineffective, disengaged coping behaviors that can exacerbate stress levels. Individual interventions and institutional policies may be implemented to support HCWs at risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adaptation, Psychological , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
16.
Cogn Behav Ther ; 50(3): 204-216, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087621

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in unprecedented consequences. Transdiagnostic factors, such as anxiety sensitivity, could be an important component to understand how individuals experience COVID-19 specific fear, depression and anxiety. A US representative sample (5,023) completed measures including the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3, the Fear of COVID-19 Scale, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 and the Patient Health Questionnaire-8. Analyses controlled for age, sex, race, marital status, education level, working status, household income, and COVID-19 exposure. Results were consistent with prediction. First, higher ASI-3 Total scores were associated with above average COVID-19 fear (ß = 0.19). Second, the ASI-3 physical concerns subscale was the strongest predictor of COVID-19 fear; one SD increase on the ASI-3 physical concerns subscale was associated with almost a twofold risk of reaching above average levels of COVID-19 (OR = 1.93). Third, higher ASI-3 Total scores were associated with higher anxiety (ß = 0.22) and depression (ß = 0.20). Finally, COVID-19 fear mediated the relationship between ASI-3 Total scores and anxiety (17% of effect mediated) as well as ASI-3 Total scores and depression (16% of effect mediated). These data support the role of anxiety sensitivity in predicting fear of COVID-19 and resulting mental health.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Fear/psychology , Mental Health , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , United States , Young Adult
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