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1.
Energies ; 15(21):7867, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2082303

ABSTRACT

This study comprehensively examines the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on energy consumption in the United States. The purpose of the study is to quantify the effects of lockdowns and pandemic disruptions on energy consumption trends in order to inform policymakers and utilities on how to prepare for such events in the future. The study focuses on 2020 data collected by the Federal government. The effects are quantified using descriptive statistics. State-wise and sector-wise data have been presented using plots and heat maps. Related metrics like COVID case data, GDP, emissions, and expenditures were also presented. The total energy consumption fell by 7.5% in 2020. Besides Alaska, every state saw a decrease in energy, with some as high as 26%. The residential sector had the most states that saw an increase in energy, stemming from lockdowns and working from home. Similarly, petroleum consumption saw a decrease of 11.4% as a result of a decrease in travel. Biomass-related renewable energy generation fell by 23% due to decreased demand, while all other sources increased by 7.3%. Carbon dioxide emissions fell by 10.4%, methane by 2.8%, and nitric oxide by 6.7%. The overall per capita energy expenditure for the country dropped by 18.5%. There was a stronger correlation between GDP and energy consumption than between GDP and COVID case counts. The pandemic did not affect each state or sector evenly. The statistics and correlations presented here can be used in the ongoing effort to study the global impact of the pandemic and prepare for future challenges.

2.
Rheumatology (United Kingdom) ; 61(SUPPL 1):i87-i88, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1868401

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a rapid change to the use of virtual consultations in both primary and secondary care. Since April 2020, our osteoporosis clinic appointments have predominantly been undertaken by telephone. We wanted to assess our patients' experience of telephone consultations. Methods A patient feedback questionnaire was developed by the osteoporosis team which was validated by the Patient Advice and Liaison Service team (PALS) at the Royal United Hospital Bath. A questionnaire consisting of 15 questions was sent to patients following their telephone consultation. Patient consent to receive the questionnaire was requested by the consulting clinician for each participant. The patients were provided with a stamped addressed envelope to return the completed anonymous questionnaire. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes in the qualitative data. Results A total of 39 questionnaires were completed. More than 86% of patients reported that their telephone consultation definitely met their needs. Over 89% answered 'yes definitely' to questions regarding understanding of the reason for their appointment, opportunities for questions, clear understandable answers, feeling listened to, and treatment plans. 59% of patients responded 'yes definitely' that they were given information prior to the appointment about what would happen in the consultation, 10% reported they hadn't, with 31% responding they had but to some extent only. 72% of respondents reported that it was clear who they should contact if they had any further questions following the consultation. Regarding preference for future appointments, 47% of patients indicated that they would prefer a mixture of telephone, face to face and video consultations;24% preferred telephone, 16% preferred hospital face to face, and 3% preferred video. 11% reported that they had no preference. Thematic analysis of individual comments identified positive themes such as flexibility, good communication with clinicians and convenience. Areas for development are around communication with regard to physical barriers such as hearing and telephone signal problems. There are also limitations around both physical examination and the transmission of implicit information (non-verbal communication). Conclusion Virtual consultations provide an opportunity to safely assess patients whilst meeting social distancing requirements and minimising patient flow through the hospital. Questionnaire analysis indicates an overall positive experience of telephone consultations. However, most patients would prefer a mixture of face to face, video and telephone consultations in future. There are a number of areas for improvement including: a review of the information provided to patients prior to the consultation, review of contact information for patients following the consultation, and mechanisms for identifying patients with physical/ sensory limitations. The information gained through this small review will help us improve the overall telephone consultation experience for our patients.

3.
International Journal for Crime Justice and Social Democracy ; 10(4):204-222, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1576375

ABSTRACT

Prior to the COVID-19 global pandemic, domestic and family violence (DFV) had been recognised globally as an epidemic in its own right. Further, research has established that during times of crisis and/or after disasters, rates of DFV can escalate. The COVID-19 pandemic has been no exception, with emerging research from around the world confirming that the public health measures and social effects associated with COVID-19 have increased the frequency and severity of DFV in various countries. In contributing to this evolving body of literature, this paper reports on the findings of a national research project that examined the impact of the COVID-19 global pandemic on DFV in Australia. This nationwide survey of service providers indicates the public health responses to COVID-19 such as lockdowns and travel restrictions, while necessary to stem the pandemic, have had profound effects on increasing women's risk and vulnerability to domestic violence, while at the same time making it more difficult for women to leave violent relationships and access support. However, this vulnerability is not evenly distributed. The pandemic pushed marginalised voices further underground, with many unable to seek help, locked down with their abuser. Our survey sought to amplify the experiences of culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities;Indigenous communities;lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, queer, + (LGBTIQ+) communities;women locked down with school-age children;those already in violent relationships;and those whose first experience of domestic violence coincided with the onset of the pandemic. For logistical and ethical reasons, we could only access their voices through the responses from the domestic violence sector.

4.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-296897

ABSTRACT

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus has infected over 115 million people and caused over 2.5 million deaths worldwide. Yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical manifestations of COVID-19, as well as what distinguishes them from common seasonal influenza virus and other lung injury states such as Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), remains poorly understood. To address these challenges, we combined transcriptional profiling of 646 clinical nasopharyngeal swabs and 39 patient autopsy tissues, matched with spatial protein and expression profiling (GeoMx) across 357 tissue sections. These results define both body-wide and tissue-specific (heart, liver, lung, kidney, and lymph nodes) damage wrought by the SARS-CoV-2 infection, evident as a function of varying viral load (high vs. low) during the course of infection and specific, transcriptional dysregulation in splicing isoforms, T cell receptor expression, and cellular expression states. In particular, cardiac and lung tissues revealed the largest degree of splicing isoform switching and cell expression state loss. Overall, these findings reveal a systemic disruption of cellular and transcriptional pathways from COVID-19 across all tissues, which can inform subsequent studies to combat the mortality of COVID-19, as well to better understand the molecular dynamics of lethal SARS-CoV-2 infection and other viruses.

6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3201, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387343

ABSTRACT

Fragment-based drug design has introduced a bottom-up process for drug development, with improved sampling of chemical space and increased effectiveness in early drug discovery. Here, we combine the use of pharmacophores, the most general concept of representing drug-target interactions with the theory of protein hotspots, to develop a design protocol for fragment libraries. The SpotXplorer approach compiles small fragment libraries that maximize the coverage of experimentally confirmed binding pharmacophores at the most preferred hotspots. The efficiency of this approach is demonstrated with a pilot library of 96 fragment-sized compounds (SpotXplorer0) that is validated on popular target classes and emerging drug targets. Biochemical screening against a set of GPCRs and proteases retrieves compounds containing an average of 70% of known pharmacophores for these targets. More importantly, SpotXplorer0 screening identifies confirmed hits against recently established challenging targets such as the histone methyltransferase SETD2, the main protease (3CLPro) and the NSP3 macrodomain of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Drug Development/methods , Drug Discovery/methods , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase/chemistry , Animals , Cell Survival , Chlorocebus aethiops , Computational Chemistry , Crystallography, X-Ray , Databases, Protein , Drug Design , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Ligands , Protein Binding , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Small Molecule Libraries , Vero Cells
7.
Companion Animal ; 26(Suppl. 3):S1-S16, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1264692

ABSTRACT

Otitis externa is a common problem in both primary care and referral practice. A wide range of factors contribute to the successful management of disease. A logical approach and investigation are important and should always include an appreciation of underlying primary causes, predisposing and perpetuating factors, and secondary infection. Cytology is essential to help choose appropriate therapy and represents an opportunity to use the expertise of the nurses within the veterinary team. COVID-19 has forced many veterinary professionals to use remote consultation techniques to provide care for patients and it may be that some of the lessons we have learned during lockdown can be applied to our working practices to improve the level of veterinary care in the future. The selection of appropriate topical anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory drugs is, of course, important but without good levels of owner compliance even the best therapy is ineffective. This article presents the outcome of a workshop in which a group of experts discussed many of these topics.

9.
Sci Adv ; 6(36)2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760209

ABSTRACT

Mandates for mask use in public during the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, worsened by global shortage of commercial supplies, have led to widespread use of homemade masks and mask alternatives. It is assumed that wearing such masks reduces the likelihood for an infected person to spread the disease, but many of these mask designs have not been tested in practice. We have demonstrated a simple optical measurement method to evaluate the efficacy of masks to reduce the transmission of respiratory droplets during regular speech. In proof-of-principle studies, we compared a variety of commonly available mask types and observed that some mask types approach the performance of standard surgical masks, while some mask alternatives, such as neck gaiters or bandanas, offer very little protection. Our measurement setup is inexpensive and can be built and operated by nonexperts, allowing for rapid evaluation of mask performance during speech, sneezing, or coughing.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Filtration/statistics & numerical data , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Optical Imaging , Respiration , SARS-CoV-2 , Speech
10.
J Am Podiatr Med Assoc ; 2020 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-15971

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is driving significant change in the healthcare system and disrupting the best practices for diabetic limb preservation, leaving large numbers of patients without care. Patients with diabetes and foot ulcers are at increased risk for infections, hospitalization, amputations, and death. Podiatric care is associated with fewer diabetes-related amputations, ER visits, hospitalizations, length-of-stay, and costs. But podiatrists must mobilize and adopt the new paradigm of shifts away from hospital care to community-based care. Implementing the proposed Pandemic Diabetic Foot Triage System, in-home visits, higher acuity office visits, telemedicine, and remote patient monitoring can help podiatrists manage patients while reducing the COVID-19 risk. The goal of podiatrists during the pandemic is to reduce the burden on the healthcare system by keeping diabetic foot and wound patients safe, functional, and at home.

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