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1.
Am J Crit Care ; : e1-e9, 2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994279

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tracheostomies are highly aerosolizing procedures yet are often indicated in patients with COVID-19 who require prolonged intubation. Robust investigations of the safety of tracheostomy protocols and provider adherence and evaluations are limited. OBJECTIVES: To determine the rate of COVID-19 infection of health care personnel involved in COVID-19 tracheostomies under a multidisciplinary safety protocol and to investigate health care personnel's attitudes and suggested areas for improvement concerning the protocol. METHODS: All health care personnel involved in tracheostomies in COVID-19-positive patients from April 9 through July 11, 2020, were sent a 22-item electronic survey. RESULTS: Among 107 health care personnel (80.5%) who responded to the survey, 5 reported a positive COVID-19 test result (n = 2) or symptoms of COVID-19 (n = 3) within 21 days of the tracheostomy. Respondents reported 100% adherence to use of adequate personal protective equipment. Most (91%) were familiar with the tracheostomy protocol and felt safe (92%) while performing tracheostomy. Suggested improvements included creating dedicated tracheostomy teams and increasing provider choices surrounding personal protective equipment. CONCLUSIONS: Multidisciplinary engagement in the development and implementation of a COVID-19 tracheostomy protocol is associated with acceptable safety for all members of the care team.

3.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-10, 2021 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764088

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We sought to determine the incidence of community-onset and hospital-acquired coinfection in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to evaluate associated predictors and outcomes. METHODS: In this multicenter retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 from March 2020 to August 2020 across 38 Michigan hospitals, we assessed prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of community-onset and hospital-acquired coinfections. In-hospital and 60-day mortality, readmission, discharge to long-term care facility (LTCF), and mechanical ventilation duration were assessed for patients with versus without coinfection. RESULTS: Of 2,205 patients with COVID-19, 141 (6.4%) had a coinfection: 3.0% community onset and 3.4% hospital acquired. Of patients without coinfection, 64.9% received antibiotics. Community-onset coinfection predictors included admission from an LTCF (OR, 3.98; 95% CI, 2.34-6.76; P < .001) and admission to intensive care (OR, 4.34; 95% CI, 2.87-6.55; P < .001). Hospital-acquired coinfection predictors included fever (OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.15-5.27; P = .02) and advanced respiratory support (OR, 40.72; 95% CI, 13.49-122.93; P < .001). Patients with (vs without) community-onset coinfection had longer mechanical ventilation (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.67-6.56; P = .001) and higher in-hospital mortality (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.06-3.40; P = .03) and 60-day mortality (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.05-3.29; P = .03). Patients with (vs without) hospital-acquired coinfection had higher discharge to LTCF (OR, 8.48; 95% CI, 3.30-21.76; P < .001), in-hospital mortality (OR, 4.17; 95% CI, 2.37-7.33; P ≤ .001), and 60-day mortality (OR, 3.66; 95% CI, 2.11-6.33; P ≤ .001). CONCLUSION: Despite community-onset and hospital-acquired coinfection being uncommon, most patients hospitalized with COVID-19 received antibiotics. Admission from LTCF and to ICU were associated with increased risk of community-onset coinfection. Future studies should prospectively validate predictors of COVID-19 coinfection to facilitate the reduction of antibiotic use.

4.
J Thorac Dis ; 13(7): 4137-4145, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whereas data from the pre-pandemic era have demonstrated that tracheostomy can accelerate liberation from the ventilator, reduce need for sedation, and facilitate rehabilitation, concerns for healthcare worker safety have led to disagreement on tracheostomy placement in COVID-19 patients. Data on COVID-19 patients undergoing tracheostomy may inform best practices. Thus, we report a retrospective institutional cohort experience with tracheostomy in ventilated patients with COVID-19, examining associations between time to tracheostomy and duration of mechanical ventilation in relation to patient characteristics, clinical course, and survival. METHODS: Clinical data were extracted for all COVID-19 tracheostomies performed at a quaternary referral center from April-July 2020. Outcomes studied included mortality, adverse events, duration of mechanical ventilation, and time to decannulation. RESULTS: Among 64 COVID-19 tracheostomies (13% of COVID-19 hospitalizations), patients were 64% male and 42% African American, with a median age of 54 (range, 20-89). Median time to tracheostomy was 22 (range, 7-60) days and median duration of mechanical ventilation was 39.4 (range, 20-113) days. Earlier tracheostomy was associated with shortened mechanical ventilation (R2=0.4, P<0.01). Median decannulation time was 35.3 (range, 7-79) days. There was 19% mortality and adverse events in 45%, mostly from bleeding in therapeutically anticoagulated patients. CONCLUSIONS: Tracheostomy was associated with swifter liberation from the ventilator and acceptable safety for physicians in this series of critically ill COVID-19 patients. Patient mortality was not increased relative to historical data on acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Future studies are required to establish conclusions of causality regarding tracheostomy timing with mechanical ventilation, complications, or mortality in COVID-19 patients.

6.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(11): 1343-1349, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213007

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nursing home (NH) populations have borne the brunt of morbidity and mortality of COVID-19. We surveyed Michigan NHs to evaluate preparedness, staffing, testing, and adaptations to these challenges. METHODS: Interpandemic survey responses were collected May 1-12, 2020. We used Pearson's Chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test, and logistic regression to evaluate relationships. RESULTS: Of 452 Michigan NHs contacted via e-mail, 145 (32.1%) opened the survey and of these, 143 (98.6%) responded. Sixty-eight percent of respondents indicated their response plan addressed most issues. NHs reported receiving rapidly changing guidance from many sources. Two-thirds reported shortages of personal protective equipment and other supplies. Half (50%) lacked sufficient testing resources with only 36% able to test residents and staff with suspected COVID-19. A majority (55%) experienced staffing shortages. Sixty-three percent experienced resignations, with front-line clinical staff more likely to resign, particularly in facilities caring for COVID-19 patients (P < .001). Facilities adapted quickly, creating COVID-19 units (78%) to care for patients on site. To reduce isolation, NHs facilitated communication via phone calls (98%), videoconferencing (96%), and window visits (81%). A majority continued to provide requisite therapies (90%). CONCLUSIONS: NHs experienced shortages of resources, testing supplies, and staffing challenges. COVID-19 in the facility was a key predictor of staff resignations. Facilities relied on rapidly changing, often conflicting advice from multiple sources, suggesting high-yield areas of improvement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Michigan , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(6): 694-700, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1095799

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With a unique influenza season occurring in the midst of a pandemic, there is interest in assessing the role of the influenza vaccine in COVID-19 susceptibility and severity. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, patients receiving a laboratory test for COVID-19 were identified. The primary outcome was comparison of positive COVID-19 testing in those who received the influenza vaccine versus those who did not. Secondary end points in patients testing positive for COVID-19 included mortality, need for hospitalization, length of stay, need for intensive care, and mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: A total of 27,201 patients received laboratory testing for COVID-19. The odds of testing positive for COVID-19 was reduced in patients who received an influenza vaccine compared to those who did not (odds ratio 0.76, 95% CI 0.68-0.86; P < .001). Vaccinated patients testing positive for COVID-19 were less likely to require hospitalization (odds ratio, 0.58, 95% CI 0.46-0.73; P < .001), or mechanical ventilation (odds ratio, 0.45, 95% CI 0.27-0.78; P = .004) and had a shorter hospital length of stay (risk ratio, 0.76, 95% CI 0.65-0.89; P < .001). CONCLUSION: Influenza vaccination is associated with decreased positive COVID-19 testing and improved clinical outcomes and should be promoted to reduce the burden of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , COVID-19 Testing , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Infect Dis ; 223(1): 23-27, 2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066344

ABSTRACT

We describe a case of chronic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a patient with lymphoma and associated B-cell immunodeficiency. Viral cultures and sequence analysis demonstrate ongoing replication of infectious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) for at least 119 days. The patient had 3 admissions related to COVID-19 over a 4-month period and was treated twice with remdesivir and convalescent plasma with resolution of symptoms. The patient's lack of seroconversion and prolonged course illustrate the importance of humoral immunity in resolving SARS-CoV-2 infection. This case highlights challenges in managing immunocompromised hosts, who may act as persistent shedders and sources of transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunocompromised Host , Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/complications , Seroconversion
9.
J Infect Dis ; 223(1): 23-27, 2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889568

ABSTRACT

We describe a case of chronic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a patient with lymphoma and associated B-cell immunodeficiency. Viral cultures and sequence analysis demonstrate ongoing replication of infectious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) for at least 119 days. The patient had 3 admissions related to COVID-19 over a 4-month period and was treated twice with remdesivir and convalescent plasma with resolution of symptoms. The patient's lack of seroconversion and prolonged course illustrate the importance of humoral immunity in resolving SARS-CoV-2 infection. This case highlights challenges in managing immunocompromised hosts, who may act as persistent shedders and sources of transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunocompromised Host , Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/complications , Seroconversion
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