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1.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300585

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic was unique in the history of outbreaks because of the massive scaling up of resources related to diagnostics, treatment modalities, and vaccines. To understand the impact of the pandemic among laboratory professionals, we aimed to conduct a survey to assess the improvement in the lab capacity post-covid in terms of infrastructure and accreditation status across various levels of hospitals and to determine the changes in the practice of infection control precautions during the pandemic. METHODS: This was an anonymous, online-based survey (using 58 item questionnaire) conducted between July 09, 2021, and August 07, 2021. The survey targeted all EQAS registered diagnostic laboratories located in India. RESULTS: The survey reached out to 1182 participants, out of which 721 (61%) laboratories completed the questionnaire. During pre-COVID times, only 39% (282/721) of the laboratories had an RT-PCR facility. Among these 721 labs, 514 used open system RT-PCR assay, 217 labs used Truenat assay, 188 labs used GeneXpert assay, 31 used Abbott ID Now and 350 labs performed rapid antigen tests. During the pandemic, 55.3% got NABL accreditation and 7.4% were in the process of applying for COVID-19 molecular testing. In this, 80.7% of the laboratories participated in the ICMR - COVID quality control assessment. It was estimated that 41.4% of the laboratory professionals were re-using N95 masks. Overall, the infection prevention and control practices varied across each laboratory and hospital. CONCLUSION: These survey findings helped us to understand the strength and efficiency of laboratories in India in setting up new assays during a crisis time. Based on our findings, we propose to connect this network in a sustained manner to efficiently utilize the existing platforms to adapt to future pandemics.

2.
Nature ; 599(7883): 114-119, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114880

ABSTRACT

The B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first identified in the state of Maharashtra in late 2020 and spread throughout India, outcompeting pre-existing lineages including B.1.617.1 (Kappa) and B.1.1.7 (Alpha)1. In vitro, B.1.617.2 is sixfold less sensitive to serum neutralizing antibodies from recovered individuals, and eightfold less sensitive to vaccine-elicited antibodies, compared with wild-type Wuhan-1 bearing D614G. Serum neutralizing titres against B.1.617.2 were lower in ChAdOx1 vaccinees than in BNT162b2 vaccinees. B.1.617.2 spike pseudotyped viruses exhibited compromised sensitivity to monoclonal antibodies to the receptor-binding domain and the amino-terminal domain. B.1.617.2 demonstrated higher replication efficiency than B.1.1.7 in both airway organoid and human airway epithelial systems, associated with B.1.617.2 spike being in a predominantly cleaved state compared with B.1.1.7 spike. The B.1.617.2 spike protein was able to mediate highly efficient syncytium formation that was less sensitive to inhibition by neutralizing antibody, compared with that of wild-type spike. We also observed that B.1.617.2 had higher replication and spike-mediated entry than B.1.617.1, potentially explaining the B.1.617.2 dominance. In an analysis of more than 130 SARS-CoV-2-infected health care workers across three centres in India during a period of mixed lineage circulation, we observed reduced ChAdOx1 vaccine effectiveness against B.1.617.2 relative to non-B.1.617.2, with the caveat of possible residual confounding. Compromised vaccine efficacy against the highly fit and immune-evasive B.1.617.2 Delta variant warrants continued infection control measures in the post-vaccination era.


Subject(s)
Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virus Replication/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cell Fusion , Cell Line , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , India , Kinetics , Male , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vaccination
3.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 39(4): 528-533, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525815

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The present study estimates the seroprevalence of SARS-COV-2 among asymptomatic HCWs and assess the impact of various categories of PPE. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of asymptomatic HCW using different levels of PPE as per their risk profile was undertaken between 18th and 24th September 2020. Participant demographics and other relevant details including the levels of PPE used were recorded using a customized questionnaire. IgG antibodies against SARS-COV-2 were detected by chemiluminescence method & used as a surrogate marker for incomplete protection. RESULTS: Out of 1033 HCWs tested, overall SARS-COV-2 sero-prevalence was 25.8%. Univariate and multivariate analysis both demonstrated that ancillary workers including security staff (OR 5.589, P â€‹< â€‹0.001) and sanitary workers (OR 3.946, P â€‹< â€‹0.001) were at significantly higher risk of seropositivity irrespective of the PPE used as per guidelines, whereas doctors were at significantly lower risk of seropositivity (OR 0.307, P â€‹= â€‹0.005). Staff working in office areas was associated with reduced risk of seropositivity (OR 0.21, P â€‹= â€‹0.045). CONCLUSIONS: We document high seroprevalence of SARS-COV-2 antibodies in asymptomatic HCWs. Doctors who are at the highest risk had the lowest seropositivity and seroprevalence among office staff having a risk level comparable to the general community was lower than that reported in general population, supporting the efficacy of PPE practices as per guidelines in these groups. In contrast, much higher rates of seropositivity were seen among ancillary workers despite the availability of adequate PPE. Active screening, proper PPE use as per guidelines, and regular infection control trainings including Covid appropriate behaviour are therefore essential to contain COVID-19 spread among HCW & preventing them to transfer infection to the patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , India/epidemiology , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
4.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 39(4): 429-433, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433355

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To find out the prevalence of respiratory viruses causing Acute Respiratory Infection in pediatric in-patients during Pre-COVID times. METHODS: Nasal swabs were collected from children in the age group of 1 month-16 years who were admitted at our hospital with Acute Respiratory Infection. Samples were subjected to nucleic acid extraction and Real time polymerase chain reaction to detect 16 RNA viruses and 2 DNA viruses. The results were interpreted in context of most prevalent viruses detected, their seasonal distribution, co-infecting viruses, co-morbidities in patients with effect thereof and use and effect of antibiotics in those positive for viral etiology. RESULTS: Of the 250 children recruited in the study, viral pathogen was detected in 74% cases. RSV was the most common virus detected with 36.2% positivity (92/254) followed by rhino/entero (19.2%, 49/254), PIV 1,2,3,4 (9.4%, 24/254), Influenza A,B,C (8.2%, 21/254), adenovirus & HBoV (6.2%, 16/254), coronavirus HKU1, NL63, OC43, 229E (4.3%, 11/254), H1N1 (4.7%, 12/254) and hMPV (0.7%, 2/254). Co-infection with 2 or more viruses was seen in 34% cases. Among the cases on whom antibiotics were started, they were withdrawn following test results in 42.3% of the cases. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of viral etiology is high amongst children especially ≤2 years. RSV, rhino/enterovirus, PIV 1,2,3,4 and Influenza virus were more prevalent than others. Rapid, early detection of virus with multiplex PCR will help in early cohorting of the patients thus reducing nosocomial spread of these viruses and prevent injudicious use of antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Adolescent , Anti-Bacterial Agents , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Viruses/genetics
5.
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 1893-1903, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256162

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients need hospitalization which increases their risk of acquiring secondary bacterial and fungal infections. The practice of empiric antimicrobial prescription, due to limited diagnostic capabilities of many hospitals, has the potential to escalate an already worrisome antimicrobial resistance (AMR) situation in India. This study reports the prevalence and profiles of secondary infections (SIs) and clinical outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients in India. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of secondary infections in patients admitted in intensive care units (ICUs) and wards of ten hospitals of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) AMR surveillance network, between June and August 2020, was undertaken. The demographic data, time of infection after admission, microbiological and antimicrobial resistance data of secondary infections, and clinical outcome data of the admitted COVID-19 patients were collated. RESULTS: Out of 17,534 admitted patients, 3.6% of patients developed secondary bacterial or fungal infections. The mortality among patients who developed secondary infections was 56.7% against an overall mortality of 10.6% in total admitted COVID-19 patients. Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from 78% of patients. Klebsiella pneumoniae (29%) was the predominant pathogen, followed by Acinetobacter baumannii (21%). Thirty-five percent of patients reported polymicrobial infections, including fungal infections. High levels of carbapenem resistance was seen in A. baumannii (92.6%) followed by K. pneumoniae (72.8%). CONCLUSION: Predominance of Gram-negative pathogens in COVID-19 patients coupled with high rates of resistance to higher generation antimicrobials is an alarming finding. A high rate of mortality in patients with secondary infections warrants extra caution to improve the infection control practices and practice of antimicrobial stewardship interventions not only to save patient lives but also prevent selection of drug-resistant infections, to which the current situation is very conducive.

7.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 24(Suppl 5): S225-S230, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-976435

ABSTRACT

The management of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is witnessing a change as we learn more about the pathophysiology and the severity of the disease. Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analysis have been published over the last few months. Several interventions and therapies which showed promise in the initial days of the pandemic have subsequently failed to show benefit in well-designed trials. Understanding of the methods of oxygen delivery and ventilation have also evolved over the past few months. The Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine (ISCCM) has reviewed the evidence that has emerged since the publication of its position statement in May and has put together an addendum of updated evidence. How to cite this article: Mehta Y, Chaudhry D, Abraham OC, Chacko J, Divatia J, Jagiasi B, et al. Critical Care for COVID-19 Affected Patients: Position Statement of the Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020;24(Suppl 5):S225-S230.

9.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 24(4): 222-241, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611654

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic involving severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-COV-2) has stretched the limits of science. Ever since it emerged from the Wuhan province in China, it has spread across the world and has been fatal to about 4% of the victims. This position statement of the Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine represents the collective opinion of the experts chosen by the society. HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Mehta Y, Chaudhry D, Abraham OC, Chacko J, Divatia J, Jagiasi B, et al. Critical Care for COVID-19 Affected Patients: Position Statement of the Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020;24(4):222-241.

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