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1.
J Clin Med ; 11(10)2022 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855681

ABSTRACT

We conducted a prospective single-center observational study to determine lung ultrasound reliability in assessing global lung aeration in 38 hospitalized patients with non-critical COVID-19. On admission, fixed chest CT scans using visual (CTv) and software-based (CTs) analyses along with lung ultrasound imaging protocols and scoring systems were applied. The primary endpoint was the correlation between global chest CTs score and global lung ultrasound score. The secondary endpoint was the association between radiographic features and clinical disease classification or laboratory indices of inflammation. Bland-Altman analysis between chest CT scores obtained visually (CTv) or using software (CTs) indicated that only 1 of the 38 paired measures was outside the 95% limits of agreement (-4 to +4 score). Global lung ultrasound score was highly and positively correlated with global software-based CTs score (r = 0.74, CI = 0.55-0.86; p < 0.0001). Significantly higher median CTs score (p = 0.01) and lung ultrasound score (p = 0.02) were found in severe compared to moderate COVID-19. Furthermore, we identified significantly lower (p < 0.05) lung ultrasound and CTs scores in those patients with a more severe clinical condition manifested by SpO2 < 92% and C-reactive protein > 58 mg/L. We concluded that lung ultrasound is a reliable bedside clinical tool to assess global lung aeration in hospitalized non-critical care patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.

2.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 6(3): e12683, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772842

ABSTRACT

Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) frequently occurs in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The optimal dose of anticoagulation for thromboprophylaxis in COVID-19 is unknown. Aims: To report VTE incidence and bleeding before and after implementing a hospital-wide intensified thromboprophylactic protocol in patients with COVID-19. Methods: On March 31, 2020, we implemented an intensified thromboprophylactic protocol consisting of 50 IU anti-Xa low molecular weight heparin (LMWH)/kg once daily at the ward, twice daily at the intensive care unit (ICU). We included all patients hospitalized in a tertiary care hospital with symptomatic COVID-19 between March 7 and July 1, 2020. The primary outcome was the incidence of symptomatic or subclinical VTE and major bleeding during admission. Routine ultrasound screening for VTE was performed whenever logistically possible. Results: We included 412 patients, of which 116 were admitted to the ICU. Of 219 patients with standard a prophylactic dose of LMWH, 16 (7.3%) had VTE, 10 of which were symptomatic (4.6%). Of 193 patients with intensified thromboprophylaxis, there were no symptomatic VTE cases, three incidental deep venous thrombosis cases (1.6%), and one incidental pulmonary embolism (0.5%). The major bleeding rate was 1.2% in patients with intensified thromboprophylaxis and 7.7% when therapeutic anticoagulation was needed. Conclusion: In hospitalized patients with COVID-19, there were no additional symptomatic VTEs and a reduction in incidental deep vein thrombosis after implementing systematic thromboprophylaxis with weight-adjusted prophylactic (ward) to intermediate (ICU), but not therapeutic dosed anticoagulation. This intensified thromboprophylaxis was associated with a lower risk of major bleeding compared with therapeutic dosed anticoagulation.

3.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(4): e0229821, 2022 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759280

ABSTRACT

Critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may develop COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), which impacts their chances of survival. Whether positive bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) mycological tests can be used as a survival proxy remains unknown. We conducted a post hoc analysis of a previous multicenter, multinational observational study with the aim of assessing the differential prognostic impact of BALF mycological tests, namely, positive (optical density index of ≥1.0) BALF galactomannan (GM) and positive BALF Aspergillus culture alone or in combination for critically ill patients with COVID-19. Of the 592 critically ill patients with COVID-19 enrolled in the main study, 218 were included in this post hoc analysis, as they had both test results available. CAPA was diagnosed in 56/218 patients (26%). Most cases were probable CAPA (51/56 [91%]) and fewer were proven CAPA (5/56 [9%]). In the final multivariable model adjusted for between-center heterogeneity, an independent association with 90-day mortality was observed for the combination of positive BALF GM and positive BALF Aspergillus culture in comparison with both tests negative (hazard ratio, 2.53; 95% CI confidence interval [CI], 1.28 to 5.02; P = 0.008). The other independent predictors of 90-day mortality were increasing age and active malignant disease. In conclusion, the combination of positive BALF GM and positive BALF Aspergillus culture was associated with increased 90-day mortality in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Additional study is needed to explore the possible prognostic value of other BALF markers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Mannans , Mycology , Prognosis , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 10(4): e603, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739167

ABSTRACT

Point-of-care tests may play a valuable role in reducing the risk of donor-derived SARS-CoV-2 transmission in lung transplantation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Lung , Thorax
6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315433

ABSTRACT

Background: Drug repurposing is an attractive strategy to rapidly develop affordable therapy against COVID-19. The antifungal drug itraconazole exerts in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2 comparable to that of hydroxychloroquine. Preclinical and clinical studies are required to investigate if itraconazole is effective for the treatment and/or prevention of COVID-19. Methods: Due to the initial absence of preclinical models the effect of itraconazole was explored in a clinical, proof-of-concept, open-label, single-center study, in which hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were randomly assigned to receive standard of care with or without itraconazole. The primary outcome was the cumulative score of the clinical status until day 15 based on the 7-point ordinal scale of the World Health Organization. Other outcomes included time to sustained clinical improvement, duration of supplemental oxygen and evolution of nasopharyngeal viral load. In parallel, itraconazole was evaluated in a newly established hamster model of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission, as soon as the model was validated. Findings: In the hamster acute infection model, itraconazole did not reduce viral load in lungs, stools or ileum, despite adequate plasma and lung drug concentrations. In the transmission model, itraconazole failed to prevent viral transmission. The clinical trial was prematurely discontinued after evaluation of the preclinical studies and interim analysis that showed no trends for a more favorable outcome with itraconazole: mean cumulative score of the clinical status 49 vs 47, ratio of geometric means 1.01 (95% CI 0.85 to 1.19), median time to clinical improvement 10 vs 9 days, hazard ratio 0.94 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.60) for itraconazole vs standard of care. Interpretation: Despite in vitro activity, itraconazole was not effective in a preclinical COVID-19 hamster model. A proof-of-concept clinical study was ended prematurely because of futility. Trial Registration: (EudraCT 2020-001243-15)Funding: Covid-19-Fund KU Leuven, Research Foundation - Flanders (FWO), Horizon 2020, Bill and Melinda Gates FoundationDeclaration of Interests: Initial dug screening and discovery of the antiviral effect of itraconazole was done in collaboration with Johnson & Johnson and described in a separate manuscript. Scientists from Johnson & Johnson also performed drug measurements on hamster samples and provided guidance on the dosing regimens for the preclinical studies. The company had no role in the design, execution, analysis, publication or funding of the clinical trial.Author Conflict of Interests: None to declare.Ethics Approval Statement: The institutional Ethical Committee approved all animal experiments (license P065-2020).The study was conducted in accordance with the International Conference on Harmonization Guidelines for Good Clinical Practice and the Declaration of Helsinki. The protocol was approved by the institutional Ethics Committee and by the Belgian Federal Agency for Medicines and Health Products (EudraCT 2020-001243-15). The trial was part of the DAWn clinical studies.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323197

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological and clinical reports have indicated that the host immune response to SARS-CoV-2, more so than viral factors, determines COVID-19 disease severity. To elucidate the immunopathology underlying COVID-19 severity, cytokine and multiplex immune profiling was performed in mild-moderate and critically-ill COVID-19 patients. Hypercytokinemia in COVID-19 differed from the IFN-γ-driven cytokine storm in macrophage activation syndrome, and was more pronounced in critical versus mild-moderate COVID-19. Systems modelling of cytokine levels followed by deep-immune profiling showed that classical monocytes drive this hyper-inflammatory phenotype and that a reduction in T-lymphocytes correlates with disease severity, with CD8+ cells being disproportionately affected. Expression of antigen presenting machinery was reduced in critical disease, while also neutrophils contributed to disease severity and local tissue damage by amplifying hypercytokinemia and neutrophil extracellular trap formation. We suggest a myeloid-driven immunopathology, in which hyperactivated neutrophils and an ineffective adaptive immune system act as mediators of COVID-19 disease severity.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323191

ABSTRACT

Background: The peak of the global COVID-19 pandemic has not yet been reached and many countries face the prospect of a second wave of infections before effective vaccinations will be available. After an initial phase of viral replication, some patients develop a second illness phase in which the host thrombotic and inflammatory responses seems to drive complications. Severe COVID-19 disease is linked to high mortality, hyperinflammation, and a remarkably high incidence of thrombotic events. We hypothesize a crucial pathophysiological role for the contact pathway of coagulation and the kallikrein-bradykinin pathway. Therefore, drugs that modulate this excessive thromboinflammatory response should be investigated in severe COVID-19. Methods: In this adaptive, open-label multicenter randomized clinical trial we compare low molecular weight heparins at 50 IU anti-Xa/kg twice daily - or 75 IU anti-Xa twice daily for intensive care (ICU) patients - in combination with aprotinin to standard thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. In the case of hyperinflammation, the interleukin-1-receptor antagonist anakinra will be added on top of the drugs in the interventional arm. In a pilot phase, the effect of the intervention on thrombotic markers (D-dimer) will be assessed. In the full trial, the primary outcome is defined as the effect of the interventional drugs on clinical status as defined by the WHO ordinal scale for clinical improvement. Discussion: In this trial we target the thromboinflammatory response at multiple levels. We intensify the dose of low molecular weight heparins to reduce thrombotic complications. Aprotinin is a potent kallikrein pathway inhibitor that reduces fibrinolysis, activation of the contact pathway of coagulation, and local inflammatory response. Additionally, aprotinin has shown in vitro inhibitory effects on SARS-CoV-2 cellular entry. Because the excessive thromboinflammatory response is one of the most adverse prognostic factors in COVID-19, we will add anakinra, a recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, to the regimen in case of severely increased inflammatory parameters. This way, we hope to modulate the systemic response to SARS-CoV-2 and avoid disease progressions with a potentially fatal outcome. Trial registration This trial is registered in the EU Clinical Trials Register. Registration number: 2020-001739-28. Registered on 2020-04-10.

9.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(1)2021 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637486

ABSTRACT

Influenza-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (IAPA) is a global recognized superinfection in critically ill influenza patients. Baloxavir marboxil, a cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitor, is a newly approved anti-influenza therapeutic. Although the benefits as a treatment for influenza are clear, its efficacy against an influenza-A. fumigatus co-infection has yet to be determined. We investigated the therapeutic effect of baloxavir marboxil in a murine model for IAPA. Immunocompetent mice received intranasal instillation of influenza A followed by orotracheal inoculation with Aspergillus fumigatus 4 days later. Administration of baloxavir marboxil or sham was started at day 0, day 2 or day 4. Mice were monitored daily for overall health status, lung pathology with micro-computed tomography (µCT) and fungal burden with bioluminescence imaging (BLI). In vivo imaging was supplemented with virological, mycological and biochemical endpoint investigations. We observed an improved body weight, survival and viral clearance in baloxavir marboxil treated mice. µCT showed less pulmonary lesions and bronchial dilation after influenza and after Aspergillus co-infection in a treatment-dependent pattern. Furthermore, baloxavir marboxil was associated with effective inhibition of fungal invasion. Hence, our results provide evidence that baloxavir marboxil mitigates severe influenza thereby decreasing the susceptibility to a lethal invasive Aspergillus superinfection.

10.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 7(12)2021 Dec 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572540

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19)-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) is a severe fungal infection complicating critically ill COVID-19 patients. Numerous retrospective and prospective studies have been performed to get a better grasp on this lethal co-infection. We performed a qualitative review and summarized data from 48 studies in which 7047 patients had been included, of whom 820 had CAPA. The pooled incidence of proven, probable or putative CAPA was 15.1% among 2953 ICU-admitted COVID-19 patients included in 18 prospective studies. Incidences showed great variability due to multiple factors such as discrepancies in the rate and depth of the fungal work-up. The pathophysiology and risk factors for CAPA are ill-defined, but therapy with corticosteroids and anti-interleukin-6 therapy potentially confer the biggest risk. Sampling for mycological work-up using bronchoscopy is the cornerstone for diagnosis, as imaging is often aspecific. CAPA is associated with an increased mortality, but we do not have conclusive data whether therapy contributes to an increased survival in these patients. We conclude our review with a comparison between influenza-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (IAPA) and CAPA.

11.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295467

ABSTRACT

Although the subject of intensive preclinical and clinical research, controversy on the protective vs. deleterious effect of interferon (IFN) in COVID-19 remains. Some apparently conflicting results are likely due to the intricacy of IFN subtypes (type I: IFN-alpha/beta, type III: IFN-lambda), timing and mode of administration (nebulized/subcutaneous) and clinical groups targeted (asymptomatic/mild, moderate, severe/critical COVID-19). Within the COntAGIouS (COvid-19 Advanced Genetic and Immunologic Sampling) clinical trial, we investigated endogenous type I and type III IFNs in nasal mucosa as possible predictors of clinical outcome in critical patients, as well as their correlation to SARS-CoV-2 viral load, using nCounter technology. We found that endogenous IFN-beta expression in the nasal mucosa predicts clinical outcome, independent of viral replication or Apache II score, and should be considered as a prognostic tool in a precision medicine approach of IFN therapy in COVID-19 clinical management.

12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(11): 2892-2898, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551452

ABSTRACT

We performed an observational study to investigate intensive care unit incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of coronavirus disease-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). We found 10%-15% CAPA incidence among 823 patients in 2 cohorts. Several factors were independently associated with CAPA in 1 cohort and mortality rates were 43%-52%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Cohort Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Cell ; 184(24): 5932-5949.e15, 2021 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549679

ABSTRACT

Anosmia, the loss of smell, is a common and often the sole symptom of COVID-19. The onset of the sequence of pathobiological events leading to olfactory dysfunction remains obscure. Here, we have developed a postmortem bedside surgical procedure to harvest endoscopically samples of respiratory and olfactory mucosae and whole olfactory bulbs. Our cohort of 85 cases included COVID-19 patients who died a few days after infection with SARS-CoV-2, enabling us to catch the virus while it was still replicating. We found that sustentacular cells are the major target cell type in the olfactory mucosa. We failed to find evidence for infection of olfactory sensory neurons, and the parenchyma of the olfactory bulb is spared as well. Thus, SARS-CoV-2 does not appear to be a neurotropic virus. We postulate that transient insufficient support from sustentacular cells triggers transient olfactory dysfunction in COVID-19. Olfactory sensory neurons would become affected without getting infected.


Subject(s)
Autopsy/methods , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Olfactory Bulb/virology , Olfactory Mucosa/virology , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , Aged , Anosmia , COVID-19/physiopathology , Endoscopy/methods , Female , Glucuronosyltransferase/biosynthesis , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization , Male , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders , Olfactory Receptor Neurons/metabolism , Respiratory System , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell
14.
JCI Insight ; 7(1)2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523122

ABSTRACT

Neutrophils are recognized as important circulating effector cells in the pathophysiology of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, their role within the inflamed lungs is incompletely understood. Here, we collected bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids and parallel blood samples of critically ill COVID-19 patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation and compared BAL fluid parameters with those of mechanically ventilated patients with influenza, as a non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia cohort. Compared with those of patients with influenza, BAL fluids of patients with COVID-19 contained increased numbers of hyperactivated degranulating neutrophils and elevated concentrations of the cytokines IL-1ß, IL-1RA, IL-17A, TNF-α, and G-CSF; the chemokines CCL7, CXCL1, CXCL8, CXCL11, and CXCL12α; and the protease inhibitors elafin, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1. In contrast, α-1 antitrypsin levels and net proteolytic activity were comparable in COVID-19 and influenza BAL fluids. During antibiotic treatment for bacterial coinfections, increased BAL fluid levels of several activating and chemotactic factors for monocytes, lymphocytes, and NK cells were detected in patients with COVID-19 whereas concentrations tended to decrease in patients with influenza, highlighting the persistent immunological response to coinfections in COVID-19. Finally, the high proteolytic activity in COVID-19 lungs suggests considering protease inhibitors as a treatment option.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Influenza, Human , Adult , Aged , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/immunology , Bacterial Infections/metabolism , Bacterial Infections/pathology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Coinfection/immunology , Coinfection/metabolism , Coinfection/pathology , Cytokines/analysis , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/pathology , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged
15.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(12): e0122921, 2021 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522903

ABSTRACT

The literature regarding COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) has shown conflicting observations, including survival of CAPA patients not receiving antifungal therapy and discrepancy between CAPA diagnosis and autopsy findings. To gain insight into the pathophysiology of CAPA, we performed a case-control study in which we compared Aspergillus test profiles in CAPA patients and controls in relation to intensive care unit (ICU) mortality. This was a multinational case-control study in which Aspergillus test results, use of antifungal therapy, and mortality were collected from critically ill COVID-19 patients. Patients were classified using the 2020 European Confederation for Medical Mycology and the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ECMM/ISHAM) consensus case definitions. We analyzed 219 critically ill COVID-19 cases, including 1 proven, 38 probable, 19 possible CAPA cases, 21 Aspergillus-colonized patients, 7 patients only positive for serum (1,3)-ß-d-glucan (BDG), and 133 cases with no evidence of CAPA. Mortality was 53.8% in CAPA patients compared to 24.1% in patients without CAPA (P = 0.001). Positive serum galactomannan (GM) and BDG were associated with increased mortality compared to serum biomarker-negative CAPA patients (87.5% versus 41.7%, P = 0.046; 90.0% versus 42.1%, P = 0.029, respectively). For each point increase in GM or 10-point BDG serum concentration, the odds of death increased (GM, odds ratio [OR] 10.208, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.621 to 64.291, P = 0.013; BDG, OR, 1.247, 95% CI, 1.029 to 1.511, P = 0.024). CAPA is a complex disease, probably involving a continuum of respiratory colonization, tissue invasion, and angioinvasion. Serum biomarkers are useful for staging CAPA disease progression and, if positive, indicate angioinvasion and a high probability of mortality. There is need for a biomarker that distinguishes between respiratory tract colonization and tissue-invasive CAPA disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Animals , Aspergillus , Case-Control Studies , Critical Illness , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Mannans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 10(4): e1271, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525427

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Emerging evidence of dysregulation of the myeloid cell compartment urges investigations on neutrophil characteristics in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We isolated neutrophils from the blood of COVID-19 patients receiving general ward care and from patients hospitalised at intensive care units (ICUs) to explore the kinetics of circulating neutrophils and factors important for neutrophil migration and activation. METHODS: Multicolour flow cytometry was exploited for the analysis of neutrophil differentiation and activation markers. Multiplex and ELISA technologies were used for the quantification of protease, protease inhibitor, chemokine and cytokine concentrations in plasma. Neutrophil polarisation responses were evaluated microscopically. Gelatinolytic and metalloproteinase activity in plasma was determined using a fluorogenic substrate. Co-culturing healthy donor neutrophils with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) allowed us to investigate viral replication in neutrophils. RESULTS: Upon ICU admission, patients displayed high plasma concentrations of granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and the chemokine CXCL8, accompanied by emergency myelopoiesis as illustrated by high levels of circulating CD10-, immature neutrophils with reduced CXCR2 and C5aR expression. Neutrophil elastase and non-metalloproteinase-derived gelatinolytic activity were increased in plasma from ICU patients. Significantly higher levels of circulating tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) in patients at ICU admission yielded decreased total MMP proteolytic activity in blood. COVID-19 neutrophils were hyper-responsive to CXCL8 and CXCL12 in shape change assays. Finally, SARS-CoV-2 failed to replicate inside human neutrophils. CONCLUSION: Our study provides detailed insights into the kinetics of neutrophil phenotype and function in severe COVID-19 patients, and supports the concept of an increased neutrophil activation state in the circulation.

17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6243, 2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493101

ABSTRACT

Understanding the pathology of COVID-19 is a global research priority. Early evidence suggests that the respiratory microbiome may be playing a role in disease progression, yet current studies report contradictory results. Here, we examine potential confounders in COVID-19 respiratory microbiome studies by analyzing the upper (n = 58) and lower (n = 35) respiratory tract microbiome in well-phenotyped COVID-19 patients and controls combining microbiome sequencing, viral load determination, and immunoprofiling. We find that time in the intensive care unit and type of oxygen support, as well as associated treatments such as antibiotic usage, explain the most variation within the upper respiratory tract microbiome, while SARS-CoV-2 viral load has a reduced impact. Specifically, mechanical ventilation is linked to altered community structure and significant shifts in oral taxa previously associated with COVID-19. Single-cell transcriptomics of the lower respiratory tract of COVID-19 patients identifies specific oral bacteria in physical association with proinflammatory immune cells, which show higher levels of inflammatory markers. Overall, our findings suggest confounders are driving contradictory results in current COVID-19 microbiome studies and careful attention needs to be paid to ICU stay and type of oxygen support, as bacteria favored in these conditions may contribute to the inflammatory phenotypes observed in severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Humans , Microbiota/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Transcriptome/genetics
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(11): 2892-2898, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406813

ABSTRACT

We performed an observational study to investigate intensive care unit incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of coronavirus disease-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). We found 10%-15% CAPA incidence among 823 patients in 2 cohorts. Several factors were independently associated with CAPA in 1 cohort and mortality rates were 43%-52%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Cohort Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(4): 580-587, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375916

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) -associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) has emerged as a complication in critically ill COVID-19 patients. The objectives of this multinational study were to determine the prevalence of CAPA in patients with COVID-19 in intensive care units (ICU) and to investigate risk factors for CAPA as well as outcome. METHODS: The European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) conducted a multinational study including 20 centres from nine countries to assess epidemiology, risk factors and outcome of CAPA. CAPA was defined according to the 2020 ECMM/ISHAM consensus definitions. RESULTS: A total of 592 patients were included in this study, including 11 (1.9%) patients with histologically proven CAPA, 80 (13.5%) with probable CAPA, 18 (3%) with possible CAPA and 483 (81.6%) without CAPA. CAPA was diagnosed a median of 8 days (range 0-31 days) after ICU admission predominantly in older patients (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.04 per year; 95% CI 1.02-1.06) with any form of invasive respiratory support (HR 3.4; 95% CI 1.84-6.25) and receiving tocilizumab (HR 2.45; 95% CI 1.41-4.25). Median prevalence of CAPA per centre was 10.7% (range 1.7%-26.8%). CAPA was associated with significantly lower 90-day ICU survival rate (29% in patients with CAPA versus 57% in patients without CAPA; Mantel-Byar p < 0.001) and remained an independent negative prognostic variable after adjusting for other predictors of survival (HR 2.14; 95% CI 1.59-2.87, p ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSION: Prevalence of CAPA varied between centres. CAPA was significantly more prevalent among older patients, patients receiving invasive ventilation and patients receiving tocilizumab, and was an independent strong predictor of ICU mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Mycology , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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