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Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1327: 169-189, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316247


With the largest viral loads in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) present in the oral and nasal cavities, agents that act on these two areas have the potential for large therapeutic and prophylactic benefit. A literature review was conducted to elucidate the possible agents useful in treatment of SARS-CoV-2. These agents were evaluated for their current applications, adverse reactions, their current state of study, and any future considerations in their management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019). Our review has found that, while there are many promising agents with proven efficacy in their in-vitro efficacy against SARS-CoV-2, more clinical trials and in-vivo studies, as well as safety trials, must be conducted before these agents can be effectively implemented.

COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 163(4): 682-694, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999410


OBJECTIVE: To provide a state of the art review of intranasal antiviral drug delivery and to discuss current applications, adverse reactions, and future considerations in the management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, and Clinicaltrials.gov search engines. REVIEW METHODS: A structured search of the current literature was performed of dates up to and including April 2020. Search terms were queried as related to topics of antiviral agents and intranasal applications. A series of video conferences was convened among experts in otolaryngology, infectious diseases, public health, pharmacology, and virology to review the literature and discuss relevant findings. CONCLUSIONS: Intranasal drug delivery for antiviral agents has been studied for many years. Several agents have broad-spectrum antiviral activity, but they still require human safety and efficacy trials prior to implementation. Intranasal drug delivery has potential relevance for future clinical trials in the settings of disease spread prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 and other viral diseases. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Intranasal drug delivery represents an important area of research for COVID-19 and other viral diseases. The consideration of any potential adverse reactions is paramount.

Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Administration, Intranasal/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2