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Reviews and Research in Medical Microbiology ; 33(4):221-228, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2310722
J Neurol Sci ; 449: 120646, 2023 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304531


INTRODUCTION: Uniform case definitions are required to ensure harmonised reporting of neurological syndromes associated with SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, it is unclear how clinicians perceive the relative importance of SARS-CoV-2 in neurological syndromes, which risks under- or over-reporting. METHODS: We invited clinicians through global networks, including the World Federation of Neurology, to assess ten anonymised vignettes of SARS-CoV-2 neurological syndromes. Using standardised case definitions, clinicians assigned a diagnosis and ranked association with SARS-CoV-2. We compared diagnostic accuracy and assigned association ranks between different settings and specialties and calculated inter-rater agreement for case definitions as "poor" (κ ≤ 0.4), "moderate" or "good" (κ > 0.6). RESULTS: 1265 diagnoses were assigned by 146 participants from 45 countries on six continents. The highest correct proportion were cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST, 95.8%), Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS, 92.4%) and headache (91.6%) and the lowest encephalitis (72.8%), psychosis (53.8%) and encephalopathy (43.2%). Diagnostic accuracy was similar between neurologists and non-neurologists (median score 8 vs. 7/10, p = 0.1). Good inter-rater agreement was observed for five diagnoses: cranial neuropathy, headache, myelitis, CVST, and GBS and poor agreement for encephalopathy. In 13% of vignettes, clinicians incorrectly assigned lowest association ranks, regardless of setting and specialty. CONCLUSION: The case definitions can help with reporting of neurological complications of SARS-CoV-2, also in settings with few neurologists. However, encephalopathy, encephalitis, and psychosis were often misdiagnosed, and clinicians underestimated the association with SARS-CoV-2. Future work should refine the case definitions and provide training if global reporting of neurological syndromes associated with SARS-CoV-2 is to be robust.

COVID-19 , Encephalitis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Observer Variation , Uncertainty , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/complications , Encephalitis/complications , Headache/diagnosis , Headache/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , COVID-19 Testing
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety ; 31:128-129, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2083753
Mathematics in Applied Sciences and Engineering ; 2(4):290-309, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1847557
Journal of Biological Systems ; 28(3), 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-825024
J Theor Biol ; 509: 110501, 2021 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-798337


We model the COVID-19 coronavirus epidemics in China, South Korea, Italy, France, Germany and the United Kingdom. We identify the early phase of the epidemics, when the number of cases grows exponentially, before government implementation of major control measures. We identify the next phase of the epidemics, when these social measures result in a time-dependent exponentially decreasing number of cases. We use reported case data, both asymptomatic and symptomatic, to model the transmission dynamics. We also incorporate into the transmission dynamics unreported cases. We construct our models with comprehensive consideration of the identification of model parameters. A key feature of our model is the evaluation of the timing and magnitude of implementation of major public policies restricting social movement. We project forward in time the development of the epidemics in these countries based on our model analysis.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Epidemics , Forecasting/methods , Models, Statistical , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , France/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Health Plan Implementation/standards , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Public Policy , Quarantine , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Social Isolation , United Kingdom/epidemiology
Infect Dis Model ; 5: 323-337, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-125218


At the beginning of a COVID-19 infection, there is a period of time known as the exposed or latency period, before an infected person is capable of transmitting the infection to another person. We develop two differential equations models to account for this period. The first is a model that incorporates infected persons in the exposed class, before transmission is possible. The second is a model that incorporates a time delay in infected persons, before transmission is possible. We apply both models to the COVID-19 epidemic in China. We estimate the epidemiological parameters in the models, such as the transmission rate and the basic reproductive number, using data of reported cases. We thus evaluate the role of the exposed or latency period in the dynamics of a COVID-19 epidemic.