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2.
Chest ; 159(3): 933-948, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064923

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cytokine storm is a marker of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) illness severity and increased mortality. Immunomodulatory treatments have been repurposed to improve mortality outcomes. RESEARCH QUESTION: Do immunomodulatory therapies improve survival in patients with COVID-19 cytokine storm (CCS)? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of electronic health records across the Northwell Health system. COVID-19 patients hospitalized between March 1, 2020, and April 24, 2020, were included. CCS was defined by inflammatory markers: ferritin, > 700 ng/mL; C-reactive protein (CRP), > 30 mg/dL; or lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), > 300 U/L. Patients were subdivided into six groups: no immunomodulatory treatment (standard of care) and five groups that received either corticosteroids, anti-IL-6 antibody (tocilizumab), or anti-IL-1 therapy (anakinra) alone or in combination with corticosteroids. The primary outcome was hospital mortality. RESULTS: Five thousand seven hundred seventy-six patients met the inclusion criteria. The most common comorbidities were hypertension (44%-59%), diabetes (32%-46%), and cardiovascular disease (5%-14%). Patients most frequently met criteria with high LDH (76.2%) alone or in combination, followed by ferritin (63.2%) and CRP (8.4%). More than 80% of patients showed an elevated D-dimer. Patients treated with corticosteroids and tocilizumab combination showed lower mortality compared with patients receiving standard-of-care (SoC) treatment (hazard ratio [HR], 0.44; 95% CI, 0.35-0.55; P < .0001) and with patients treated with corticosteroids alone (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.53-0.83; P = .004) or in combination with anakinra (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.50-0.81; P = .003). Corticosteroids when administered alone (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.57-0.76; P < .0001) or in combination with tocilizumab (HR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.35-0.55; P < .0001) or anakinra (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.57-0.81; P < .0001) improved hospital survival compared with SoC treatment. INTERPRETATION: The combination of corticosteroids with tocilizumab showed superior survival outcome when compared with SoC treatment as well as treatment with corticosteroids alone or in combination with anakinra. Furthermore, corticosteroid use either alone or in combination with tocilizumab or anakinra was associated with reduced hospital mortality for patients with CCS compared with patients receiving SoC treatment.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Immunomodulation , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Drug Repositioning , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Medication Therapy Management/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , United States/epidemiology
3.
JCI Insight ; 5(11)2020 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-980226

ABSTRACT

In severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), viral pneumonia progresses to respiratory failure. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are extracellular webs of chromatin, microbicidal proteins, and oxidant enzymes that are released by neutrophils to contain infections. However, when not properly regulated, NETs have the potential to propagate inflammation and microvascular thrombosis - including in the lungs of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. We now report that sera from patients with COVID-19 have elevated levels of cell-free DNA, myeloperoxidase-DNA (MPO-DNA), and citrullinated histone H3 (Cit-H3); the latter 2 are specific markers of NETs. Highlighting the potential clinical relevance of these findings, cell-free DNA strongly correlated with acute-phase reactants, including C-reactive protein, D-dimer, and lactate dehydrogenase, as well as absolute neutrophil count. MPO-DNA associated with both cell-free DNA and absolute neutrophil count, while Cit-H3 correlated with platelet levels. Importantly, both cell-free DNA and MPO-DNA were higher in hospitalized patients receiving mechanical ventilation as compared with hospitalized patients breathing room air. Finally, sera from individuals with COVID-19 triggered NET release from control neutrophils in vitro. Future studies should investigate the predictive power of circulating NETs in longitudinal cohorts and determine the extent to which NETs may be novel therapeutic targets in severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Histones/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Peroxidase/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Citrullination , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Platelet Count , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Severity of Illness Index
4.
medRxiv ; 2020 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-806475

ABSTRACT

Background Mechanically ventilated patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have a mortality of 24-53%, in part due to distal mucopurulent secretions interfering with ventilation. Dornase alfa is recombinant human DNase 1 and digests DNA in mucoid sputum. Nebulized dornase alfa is FDA-approved for cystic fibrosis treatment. DNA from neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contributes to the viscosity of mucopurulent secretions. NETs are found in the serum of patients with severe COVID-19, and targeting NETs reduces mortality in animal models of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Thus, dornase alfa may be beneficial to patients with severe COVID-19, acting as a mucolytic and targeting NETs. However, delivery of nebulized drugs can aerosolize SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19, increasing the infection risk for staff. Here, we report a single center case series where dornase alfa was administered through an in-line nebulizer system to minimize risk of virus aerosolization. Methods Demographic, clinical data, and outcomes were collected from the electronic medical records of five mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19, including three requiring veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO), treated with nebulized in-line endotracheal dornase alfa co-administered with albuterol (used to increase delivery to the alveoli), between March 31 and April 24, 2020. Data on tolerability and responses, including longitudinal values capturing respiratory function and inflammatory status, were analyzed. Results Following nebulized in-line administration of dornase alfa with albuterol, the fraction of inspired oxygen requirements was reduced for all five patients. All patients remain alive and two patients have been discharged from the intensive care unit. No drug associated toxicities were identified. Conclusions The results presented in this case series suggest that dornase alfa will be well-tolerated by critically ill patients with COVID-19. Clinical trials are required to formally test the dosing, safety, and efficacy of dornase alfa in COVID-19, and two have recently been registered ( NCT04359654 and NCT04355364 ). With this case series, we hope to contribute to the development of management approaches for critically ill patients with COVID-19.

6.
Mol Med ; 26(1): 91, 2020 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-803281

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 have a mortality of 24-53%, in part due to distal mucopurulent secretions interfering with ventilation. DNA from neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contribute to the viscosity of mucopurulent secretions and NETs are found in the serum of COVID-19 patients. Dornase alfa is recombinant human DNase 1 and is used to digest DNA in mucoid sputum. Here, we report a single-center case series where dornase alfa was co-administered with albuterol through an in-line nebulizer system. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data were collected from the electronic medical records of five mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19-including three requiring veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-treated with nebulized in-line endotracheal dornase alfa and albuterol, between March 31 and April 24, 2020. Data on tolerability and response were analyzed. RESULTS: The fraction of inspired oxygen requirements was reduced for all five patients after initiating dornase alfa administration. All patients were successfully extubated, discharged from hospital and remain alive. No drug-associated toxicities were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that dornase alfa will be well-tolerated by patients with severe COVID-19. Clinical trials are required to formally test the dosing, safety, and efficacy of dornase alfa in COVID-19, and several have been recently registered.


Subject(s)
Albuterol/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Deoxyribonuclease I/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Adult , Aged , Albuterol/therapeutic use , Bronchodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Bronchodilator Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Deoxyribonuclease I/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Male , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use
7.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 73(1): 23-35, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-757767

ABSTRACT

The clinical progression of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), to critical illness is associated with an exaggerated immune response, leading to magnified inflammation termed the "cytokine storm." This response is thought to contribute to the pathogenicity of severe COVID-19. There is an initial weak interferon response and macrophage activation that results in delayed neutrophil recruitment leading to impeded viral clearance. This causes prolonged immune stimulation and the release of proinflammatory cytokines. Elevated inflammatory markers in COVID-19 (e.g., d-dimer, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, ferritin, and interleukin-6) are reminiscent of the cytokine storm seen in severe hyperinflammatory macrophage disorders. The dysfunctional immune response in COVID-19 also includes lymphopenia, reduced T cells, reduced natural killer cell maturation, and unmitigated plasmablast proliferation causing aberrant IgG levels. The progression to severe disease is accompanied by endotheliopathy, immunothrombosis, and hypercoagulability. Thus, both parts of the immune system-innate and adaptive-play a significant role in the cytokine storm, multiorgan dysfunction, and coagulopathy. This review highlights the importance of understanding the immunologic mechanisms of COVID-19 as they inform the clinical presentation and advise potential therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Antibody Formation , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Complement Inactivating Agents/therapeutic use , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokines/immunology , Endothelium, Vascular/immunology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunologic Memory , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Interferons/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lymphopenia/immunology , Macrophage Activation/immunology , Neutrophil Infiltration/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/immunology , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/immunology
8.
J Exp Med ; 217(6)2020 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72158

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel, viral-induced respiratory disease that in ∼10-15% of patients progresses to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) triggered by a cytokine storm. In this Perspective, autopsy results and literature are presented supporting the hypothesis that a little known yet powerful function of neutrophils-the ability to form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)-may contribute to organ damage and mortality in COVID-19. We show lung infiltration of neutrophils in an autopsy specimen from a patient who succumbed to COVID-19. We discuss prior reports linking aberrant NET formation to pulmonary diseases, thrombosis, mucous secretions in the airways, and cytokine production. If our hypothesis is correct, targeting NETs directly and/or indirectly with existing drugs may reduce the clinical severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Extracellular Traps , Lung Diseases , Neutrophils/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Lung Diseases/etiology , Lung Diseases/metabolism , Lung Diseases/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2
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